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Pennsylvania Anyle* 

Published Monthly by the 


Albert M. Day 
Executive Director 

Dr. Albert S. Hazzard 
Asst. Director 

Warren W. Singer 
Assistant to Executive Director 

Paul F. O'Brien 
Administrative Officer 

Paul J. Sauer 



Aquatic Biology 

Gordon Trembley Chief 

Fish Culture 

Howard L. Fox . Superintendent 

Real Estate and Engineering 

Gyril G. Regan Chief 

Edward Miller ..... ....... Asst. Chief 

Law Enforcement 

William W. Britton .... . Chief 

Conservation Education-Public Relations 
Russell S. Orr _... Chief 



S. Carlyle Sheldon Warden Supervisor 

1212 E. Main St., Conneautville, Pa., 

Phone: 3033 


Minteh C. Jones Warden Supervisor 

R. D. 2, Somerset, Pa. Phone: 6913 


H. Claib Fleeger Warden Supervisor 

Box 64, Honesdale, Pa. Phone: 253-3724 

Terry Rader Fishery Manager 

R. D. 3, Honesdale, Pa. Phone: 253-2033 


John S. Ogden Warden Supervisor 

1130 Ruxton Rd., York, Pa. Phone: 2-3474 

Robert Bielo Fishery Manager 

Holtwood, Pa., 

Phone: Rawlinsville Butler 4-4128 


John I. Buck Warden Supervisor 

P. O. Box 5, Lock Haven, Pa., 

Phone: 748-7162 

Dan Heyl Fishery Manager 

R. D. 1, Spring Mills, Pa., 

Phone: Center Hall Empire 4-1065 


Harold Corbin Warden Supervisor 

521 13th St., Huntingdon, Pa., 

Phone: Mitchell 3-0355 

Curtis Simes . .... Fishery Manager 

Echo Glen, Huntingdon, Pa., 

Phone: Mitchell 3-3651 


David L. Lawrence, Governor 



Maynard Bogart, President Danville 

Joseph M. CriTcitfield, Vice President ... Confluence 

Gerard J. Adams Hawley Albert R. Hinkle, Jr. Clearfield 

Wallace C. Dean Meadville R. Stanley Smith Waynesburg 

John W. Grenoble Carlisle Raymond M. Williams . East Bangor 

JANUARY, 1963 

VOL. 32, NO. 1 


JOHNNY NICKLAS, Photographer 


2 ICE FISHING IN PENNSYLVANIA — Russell S. Orr. Chief. Conservation- 
Education Division, Pennsylvania Fish Commission 






16 ELIMINATE REEL TROUBLE— Gordon L. Strobeck 




21 FLIES AND FLY-TYING— Albert G. Shimmel 

23 BIOLOGY BRIEFS — THE HYBRID PIKE — Keen Buss, Fishery Biologist, 
Pennsylvania Fish Commfssion 

Cover — Ice Fishing at Hankins Pond 

Back Cover — Winter on Spring Creek, Centre County 
Photos by Johnny Nicklas — Photographer, Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

Cover 2 — Ice Fishing Is Great for Y'outh 
Photo by Don Shiner 

Cover 3 — Art by Bill O’Malley 

POSTMASTER : All 3579 forms to be returned to Times and News Publishing Co., 
Gettysburg, Pa. 

The PENNSYLVANIA ANGLER is published monthly by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, 
South Office Building, Harrisburg, Pa. Subscription: One year— $2.00; three years— $5.00; 25 cents 
per single copy. Send check or money order payable to Pennsylvania Fish Commission. DO NOT 
SEND STAMPS. Individuals sending cash do so at their own risk. Change of address should reach 
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Neither Publisher nor Editor will assume responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts or illustrations 
while in their possession or in transit. Permission to reprint will be given provided we receive 
marked copies and credit is given material or illustrations. Communications pertaining to manuscripts, 
material or illustrations should be addressed to the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, Harrisburg, Pa. 
NOTICE: Subscriptions received and processed after the 10th of each month will begin with the 
second month following. 

W tl*. 

7f» ««r , . 

in Pennsylvania 


Division Conservation Education 

ICE fishing, particularly in the northern tier counties 
of the Commonwealth, is becoming an increasingly 
popular sport. Thousands of anglers have learned that 
they can enjoy many additional fishing trips each year 
if they go ice fishing. When the temperature drops low 
enough to cover the fishing waters with four inches or 
more of ice, a new breed of outdoorsmen takes over 
the fishing scene. Despite the threat of chilled feet and 
a chillier seat, an enthusiastic fisherman just can’t stay 
inside when he realizes that somewhere under all that 
ice lurks the big one that got away last summer. 

Generally speaking, the best ice fishing conditions 
exist during January and February. Exceptions, of 
course, are to be found on those waters which are 
safely frozen over during the last part of December, 
and those which remain frozen through some or all 
of the month of March. 

With spud, tip-ups, jigging rods, minnows, worms, 
grubs, or anything else that will induce the fish to 
bite, the ice fisherman takes to the lakes and ponds 
of Pennsylvania. Generally it’s a cold business — but 
it’s always fun. 

All types of warm clothing are in evidence. Sora 
anglers bulge out with thick thermal underwear. Other 
get their protection from layer upon layer of shirt: 
jackets, coats and even rainwear. Those who prefe 
even more elaborate gear include electrically heate 
boots and flying suits in their equipment. 

The ice fisherman of today, like his ancestors, wi 
find ways of developing at least some of the comfort 
of home. Some anglers pile snow in the typical Eskim 
igloo fashion for their protection. Others stretch a piec 
of canvas over poles. Still others bring along prc 
fabricated windbreakers ranging from the elaborat 
canvas or plastic-covered wood or metal-framed shelter: 
to ordinary packing boxes or heavy cardboard carton: 
The ice shanties, which for many years were the ac 
cepted and nearly universal method of protection fror 
the elements, have become quite rare. The difficulty c 
dragging them to and from the fishing spots, the nee 
for a special permit and the regulations requiring re 
moval of the shanties before break-up of the ice, a 
have contributed to the passing of this kind of facility 
Today’s fisherman is more apt to favor the easily port 



ible shelters made of either wood or metal frames 
:overed with plastic. 

Ice fishing tackle can he as simple or as elaborate 
is the fisherman cares to make it. There are the hand- 
.vhittled fishing jigs, the commercially produced tip- 
ips, or the do-it-yourself rigs made of a stick of wood, 
i dime store rod and reel with a bottle cork for a float. 
Some anglers prefer to use their regular fishing tackle. 
Then, of course, the absolute minimum in fishing gear 
s just a hand line and hook. 

The complete angler thinks nothing of using the 
oossessions of other members of his family when he 
issembles his ice fishing gear. Junior’s sled, the wife’s 
dtchen utensils and other items which might be used 
ire put to work. The kitchen strainer is a must to keep 
ce and slush from closing the fishing hole. 

Nothing quite equals Junior’s sled as a means of 
hauling the fishing gear. The sled, in addition to pro- 

CHAIN SAW makes ice fly. Cuts out ice hole 
in a jiffy through thick ice. 

jviding an easy means of transporting the paraphernalia, 
e is an excellent place to park the seat of your pants. An 
■old wooden box, a folding stool, or just a piece of board 
ethat fits across the bait bucket will do the trick, but 
.don’t forget it. 

If the angler can move in on a spot where the fishing- 
holes already are cut, he is lucky. Otherwise, some 
naction with the steel spud bar is in order. Even an 
ifaxe usually used to cut wood can be the means of 
dchopping through the ice. The modern ice fisherman, 
:-of course, has found an even easier and quicker way to 
1 gain access to the fishing waters. A chain saw plows 
its way through the thickest ice with little effort on the 
part of the fisherman. 

A round hole of five or six inches in diameter is 
suitable. Chopping of larger holes is discouraged as a 
safety factor because they may not entirely freeze or 
may be covered by a light layer of snow by the time 
another angler (or an occasional ice skater) chances 
along. Ice fishing is cold enough without inviting the 
opportunity to get a soaking. 

Unquestionably the best safety rule for all ice fisher- 
men to follow is that of making sure the ice is sufficiently 
strong before going out on it. A minimum of four inches 
of good ice is necessary. Often the thickness varies from 
place to place, so that extreme care should be used in 
checking the thickness at regular intervals. Extreme 
caution should always be used when venturing onto ice 
which has been snow covered for a long period of time. 
Such ice is apt to become “spongy” and also underwater 
currents frequently wear the ice thin in spots. 

Don’t forget the “inner man” when you're out on 
the ice. He’ll be hungrier than usual. Hot coffee, tea 
or cocoa in a thermos is always welcome. Chocolate 
bars and other foods quick in energy are appreciated 
as snacks. Plenty of butter on the sandwiches is an 
excellent means of providing the fat and oils needed to 
keep a person warm in freezing weather. 

Many anglers take along a small stove. It can be 
used at mealtime for warming a can of beans, a stew 
or hot soups. Of course, if you can talk the gal who 
does the cooking at home into leaving her kitchen and 
joining the ice fishing party, most of the cooking de- 
tails can thus be handled. 

Stoves and other heating devices are sure to make 
an ice fishing trip more pleasant. On the other hand, 
the utmost care should be exercised with any heater 
regardless of the type of fuel if the shanty or wind- 
breaker is made sufficiently airtight either to keep out 
light or hold in heat. Proper ventilation will avoid the 
danger of making a death-trap out of a tight shanty. 

There is another important part of every ice fisher- 
man’s equipment. If overlooked or forgotten on the 

AUGER METHOD is also good way to bore 
hole through heavy ice. 

H JANUARY— 1963 


TIP-UP is favored by many Pennsylvania ice anglers. 

first trip, it is not likely that the ice creepers ever 
again will be left behind. In addition to providing 
practically the only means for making any headway in 
walking when a strong wind is blowing, the creepers 
are the best and cheapest possible insurance against 
bad falls. 

Finding the right spot to fish on a lake or pond can 
be a big problem for beginners. It can keep the experts 
guessing sometimes, too. Usually if there already are 
a number of anglers congregated in one spot it will 
pay the newcomer to try his luck there too. Trial and 
error still has its place. Knowing fish and fish hangouts 
can save a lot of time and effort. Bluegills, crappies, 
northerns and bass frequent the edge of weed beds 
and drop offs. Normally, these fish are caught in no 
more than fifteen feet of water. Perch and walleye will 
follow the same patterns, but in reservoirs and other 
places where deeper waters exist, they often are found 
in twenty to forty feet of water. 

In 1963, for the first time, it will be legal to take 
trout through the ice, of lakes of ten acres or more in 
size. The creel limit has been set at three trout per 
day (combined species) and the season ends January 31. 

Your 1962 Pennsylvania fishing license is valid 
through February 28, 1963. You are allowed not more 
than five tip-ups, or any combination of five devices 
that include tip-ups and not more than two rods and 
lines, and one hand line while fishing through holes 
in the ice. 

On pan fish, including sunfish (all species), yellow 
perch, crappies, rock bass, catfish and suckers the daily 
limit is 50 of each or 50 of the combined species, and 
there is no minimum size limit. 

On game fish, minimum sizes and daily limits are : 
largemouth or smallmouth bass, minimum size — 9 
inches, daily limit — 6; pickerel, minimum size — 15 
inches, daily limit — 6; walleye, minimum size — 15 
inches, daily limit — 2 only through the ice ; muskellunge, : 
minimum size — 30 inches, daily limit — 2 ; northern pike, ' 
minimum size — 20 inches, daily limit — 6. 

Lakes, ponds and reservoirs, particularly in the i 
northern tier counties of the Commonwealth, all are < 
potentially good ice fishing zvaters. As a rule the smaller j 
bodies of water freeze over sooner than the larger ones, j 

In general, bait, tackle , food and overnight accom- j 
modations may be found within a ■ fezv miles of the ice | 
fishing waters of the Commonwealth. When going into ji 
an area for the first time, it very likely would be wise j 
to take along a good supply of bait, tackle and food. 1 
Overnight accommodations also should be secured in j 
advance. Chambers of commerce, automobile clubs and 
tourist associations will provide listings of such facilities, i 

Here are some of the better known ice fishing waters j 
in the state and the species found in them. Some are 1 
private so permission is needed. ir 


Fish Warden Supervisor, H. Clair Fleeger, P. O. 1 
Box 64, Honesdale, telephone 253-3724, reports that 
good ice fishing is to be found on hundreds of lakes, ® 
reservoirs and ponds in the region. 

Lake Wallenpaupack, with 5,670 acres, is located 1 
near Flawley. Bass, walleye, pickerel, trout, pan fish and 
smelt provide sport there. Due to its large size, this 
lake normally is one of the last to freeze over. Other 
Pike County lakes are White Deer Lake, Rt. 402 near i; 
Rt. 6, bass, pickerel and pan fish ; Fairview Lake, Rt. 1 
390 at Tafton, bass, pickerel, walleye, smelt, trout and | 
pan fish ; Greeley Lake, Rt. 37 at Greeley, pickerel and 
pan fish ; Pecks Pond, Rt. 402, bass, pickerel and pan 
fish ; Promised Land Lake, Rt. 390 at Promised Land, 
bass, pickerel and pan fish ; Lower Reservoir, Rt. 390 
at Promised Land Lake, bass, pickerel, muskies, pan ■ 
fish ; Egypt Meadows Lake, Rt. 390 near Promised - 
Land, pickerel and pan fish; Lake Minisink, LR 51031L 
near Porters Lake on Rt. 402, pickerel, bass and pan - : 
fish; Little Mud Pond, LR 51006 from Dingmans 
Ferry to Rt. 402, bass, pickerel and pan fish; Deckei 
Marsh, Rt. 6 near Hawley, pickerel and pan fish ; Dela- ■' 
ware River from Narrowsburg to Bushkill, bass'® 
pickerel, walleye and pan fish. The best baits are shiner: : 
and jigs. Lodging is available within five miles o 
any spot. 

Lackawanna County ice fishing areas include Chap ® 
man Lake, near Montdale on Rt. 247, Newton Lake or ; L 
Rt. 247, Crystal Lake near Dundaff on Rt. 247, Lak< 
Sheridan on Rt. 107 near Fleetville, Heart Lake at tin : 
intersection of Rts. 247 and 107, and Handsome Lake 



S Rt. 107 near Fleetville. Bass, pickerel and pan fish 
■e present in most of these waters. Live bait is most 
idely used, with golden and mousee grubs highly pre- 
rred. Jigging with a perch eye is also popular. Nu- 
lerous live bait dealers are located throughout the area. 
Most Susquehanna County ice fishing areas will pro- 
ace bass, pickerel and pan fish. Waters located in the 
)unty include Acre Lake on Rt. 106 near Lenox and 
lingsley ; Fiddle Lake on Rt. 270 near Herrick Center ; 
teams Lake off Rt. 92 near Gelatt ; Round Pond off 
t. 106 near Lenox and West Clifford; Lowe Lake on 
t. 371 near Herrick Center; Quaker Lake off Rt. 29 
tar Montrose ; Laurel Lake off Rt. 29 near Montrose ; 
orest Lake and Lake Montrose both off of Rt. 106 
;ar Montrose ; Stump Pond and East Lake, off Rt. 
D2 near New Milford; Tingley Lake, LR 57028 near 
ew Milford ; LTpper, Middle and Lower Lakes, off 
R 57028. 

In Columbia County, Arbutus Dam, off Rt. 42 near 
loomsburg, and Jonestown Dam, off of Rt. 339 near 
orks, are rated highly. Bass, pickerel and pan fish are 
he most common species present. Live bait with tip- 
ps is the preferred method of fishing. 

In Montour County, Lawrence Ice Dam, off Rt. 54 
ear Danville, is good for bass and pan fish. Live bait 
ith tip-ups or jigging rods with perch eyes are 

Ice fishing lakes in Monroe County include Bradys 
.ake, off Rt. 940 between Mt. Pocono and Blakeslee 
'orners, and Tobyhanna Lake No. 2, located in Toby- 
anna State Park, three miles off Rt. 611. Bass, pickerel 
nd pan fish are the most common species present and 
finnows are the best bait. Numerous bait and equip- 
lent dealers are located in the vicinity of both lakes, 
maple lodging and restaurant facilities also may be 
)und nearby. 

Ice fishing pressure normally has been rather light 
i Carbon County. Lake Harmony, located off of Rt. 
03 has been one of the most popular spots. Bass, 
ickerel and pan fish predominate. Tippetts Swamp, off 
f Rt. 45 near Nesquehoning, produces bass, pickerel, 
-odging and live bait are difficult to obtain near this 

Lakes which provide ice fishing in Bradford County 
re Lake Ondawa near Big Pond on LR 08064; 
Irenchley Pond on LR 08067, off of Rt. 187 ; Spring 
-ake, Rt. 187 near Durrell; Ackley Pond on Rt. 187 ; 
unfish Pond on Rt. 414, and Lake Wesauking on 
It. 6. Bass, pickerel and pan fish are found in many 
f these waters. The coves of the North Branch of the 
usquehanna River provide good walleye fishing. Bait 
ealers are scarce, so fishermen are advised to secure 
leir bait before going into the area. Minnows are given 
bp priority on most of these waters. 

Lake Jean and Lake Rose, located in Ricketts Glen 
Tate Park, on Rt. 487 near Red Rock in Sullivan and 
mzerne Counties, provide excellent fishing for most 
/arm water species. Live minnows are the most pro- 
ductive bait. 

In Sullivan County, Hunters Lake, located on Rt. 

ANUARY— 1963 

42 near Muncy Valley and Bear Swamp Pond, near 
Hillsgrove on Rt. 87, provide good fishing for bass and 
pan fish. There are no bait dealers in the area. Lodging, 
however, is available at numerous places. 

The 658-acre Harveys Lake in Luzerne County is 
one of the most popular ice fishing spots in North- 
eastern Pennsylvania. With trout fishing being per- 
mitted during the month of January, 1963, increased 
fishing activity is anticipated. Live minnows are most 
productive, although jigging with artificial (metal) 
minnows is very popular. In addition to trout, most 
warm water species are present in the lake. 

Other Luzerne County ice fishing waters are Silk- 
worth Lake, located directly on Rt. 29, north of West 
Nanticoke, trout and warm-water species. Minnows 
and jigs produce the best results; Bryants Pond, Rt. 
29 or Rt. 118 near Meeker or Loyalville, pickerel ar.d 
pan fish ; Sylvan Lake, eight miles northeast of Shick- 
shinny, bass, pickerel, walleye and pan fish; Nuangola 
Lake, near Wilkes-Barre, off Rt. 309, bass, pickerel, 
walleye and pan fish; and North Lake, off Rt. 118 
west of Dallas, trout, bass, pickerel and pan fish. Bait 
and equipment are available near most of these lakes. 
Minnows and jigs are most effective, however grubs 
are a popular bait for perch. 

In Susquehanna County the major ice fishing waters 
are Lake Winola, located off Rt. 307, pickerel, rainbow 
and lake trout and pan fish ; Lake Carey, off of Rt. 29 
north of Tunkhannock, rainbow trout, pickerel, wall- 
eye and pan fish ; Stevens Lake, one mile above Lake 
Carey on Rt. 29, pickerel, bluegills ; Nigger and 
Chamberlain Ponds, Rt. 187 near Mehoopany, pickerel, 
bass and pan fish. Live bait can be obtained near most 
of these areas. Live bait or jigging spoons are best for 
trout, large shiners and tip-ups for pickerel, small 
shiners and small jigging lures for perch and small 
spoons with wheat or wax worms or water worms for 

Wayne County has many ponds and lakes which 
provide outstanding ice fishing. Included are : White 
Oak Pond, Rts. 296 or 170, perch and pickerel; Miller 
Pond, Rt. 247, perch, largemouth bass and pickerel ; 
Long Pond, Rt. 670, perch, bass and pickerel ; Lower 


Woods Pond, Rt. 371, perch, bass, walleye and pickerel; 
Duck Harbor Pond, Rt. 191, perch, bass, walleye and 
pickerel; Union Lake, Rt. 191, perch and pickerel; 
Keene Pond, Rt. 6, perch, bass, pickerel and pan fish ; 
Cadjaw Pond, Lg. Rt. 63044, perch, bass and pickerel; 
Reinings Pond, LR 63044, perch, bass and pickerel ; 
Beach Lake, Rt. 106, pickerel, bass and pan fish; 
Wrighters Lake, LR 63067, walleye, bass, pickerel and 
perch ; Spruce Lake, Rt. 370 1 , perch, pickerel and pan 
fish; Fork Mountain Lake, LR 63041, perch and 
pickerel ; Lake Lorraine, Rt. 370, trout, perch and 
pickerel; Long (Furies) Lake, Rt. 247, trout, perch 
and pickerel; Gouldsboro Lake, Rt. 611, pickerel, 
muskies, perch, walleye, bass ; Belmont Lake, Rt. 670, 
walleye, pickerel, bass and perch (special regulations! 
for size and creel limits posted at lake). 


Fish Warden Supervisor S. Carlyle Sheldon, of 1212 
E. Main Street, Conneautville, telephone 3033, lists! 
Presque Isle Bay in Erie County as one of the most! 
popular and heaviest fished areas during the Common- 
wealth’s ice fishing season. Perch and smelt, with ar 
occasional northern pike or largemouth bass, are the 
main attractions during the early part of the season 
Towards spring, bluegills and black crappies are pre- 
dominate in the catches. Emerald shiners and mouses 
grubs are the preferred baits for all species. Bait stands ' 
which are open all winter, are located at the public 
dock and the entrance to the peninsula. 

Other Erie County lakes which furnish good ict 
fishing include Eaton Reservoir, near Northeast; Lake 
Pleasant, near Union City; Lake LeBoeuf, near Water 
ford, and Edinboro Lake, near Edinboro. Bass and par 
fish are the main species to be caught in these waters 

Next to Erie County in ice fishing popularity i: 
Crawford County and the vast Pymatuning Lake 
Crappies and bluegills are the most common, although 
bass and walleye are sometimes evident in the ice fisher 
man’s catch. 

Conneaut Lake, near Meadville; Sugar Lake, L 
miles east of Meadville ; Canadohta Lake, north o 
Titusville; Crystal Lake, near Hartstown, and Clea 
Lake, near Spartansburg, are all popular Crawforc 
County ice fishing spots for crappies, perch, bluegill 
and an occasional northern pike at Conneaut and Can 
adohta Lakes. Bait is usually extremely difficult to pur 
chase during the winter months in the vicinity of thes' 

Other ice fishing areas in the Northwest region in! 
elude Chapman Dam in Warren County, near Claren 
don on Rt. 6; Sandy Lake in Mercer County, nea 
Stoneboro on Rt. 78; Raccoon Park Lake in Beave 
County, at Raccoon State Park, and Glade Run Lake 
off Rt. 8 in Butler County. 

When prolonged low temperatures have caused th, 
ice to cover eddies in the Allegheny River in Warreij 
Forest and Venango Counties, some ice fishing is don< 
This ice, however, is extremely dangerous and cautio ; 
should be used when fishing there. 




Fish Warden Supervisor John Buck, P. O. Box 5, 
Lock Haven, telephone 748-7162, predicts an ice fish- 
ing season for his region beginning in mid-December 
and continuing through February. 

In Cameron County, Stevenson Dam (First Fork 
Dam), located in the State Park, is rated highly for 
pickerel fishing. The park is located north of Sinne- 
mahoning on Rt. 872. 

Black Moshannon Lake, in Centre County, offers 
pickerel and yellow perch fishing. The lake is located 
in Black Moshannon State Park on Rt. 504, north of 

In Lycoming County, Beaver Lake, which is leased 
by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, also provides 
pickerel and yellow perch fishing. The lake is located 
east of Beech Glen on Rt. 42. Little Pine Dam, east 
of Waterville, is good for pickerel fishing. 

Middle Creek Dam (Mussers Dam), in Snyder 
County, is popular for largemouth bass, crappies and 
pickerel. The Fish Commission-owned lake is located 
on Rt. 35, southwest of Selinsgrove. 

Hills Creek Dam in Tioga County can be reached by 
turning east off Rt. 84 above Crooked Creek. Large- 
mouth bass is the predominate species. 

Good live bait is needed to fish these areas. How- 
ever, bait dealers are extremely rare in these counties, 
according to Buck. 


Fish Warden Supervisor Minter C. Jones, R. D. 2, 
Somerset, telephone 6913, cautions that ice fishing in 
the region exists only when prolonged periods of freez- 
ing temperatures produce ice of sufficient thickness. In 
some years there is no ice fishing in the area. 

The Youghiogheny River Dam in Somerset and 
Fayette Counties, which is crossed by U. S. Rt. 40, 
near Addison, is popular. Largemouth bass, pike and 
pan fish are to be found there. Fishing equipment and 
lodging may be secured at Confluence, Addison and 

Lake Somerset, owned by the Fish Commission, and 
located near Somerset, has produced excellent pan fish- 
ing during recent years. Bass, walleye, northern pike 
and muskellunge, as well as pan fish, are present in 
Lake Somerset. 

Virgin Run Lake in Fayette County, located between 
Perryopolis and Connellsville, off Rt. 711, has trout, 
bass and pan fish. Fishing equipment, overnight ac- 
commodations and other services may be obtained at 
nearby towns. 

e In Washington County, Dutch Fork Lake, located 
:• off Rt. 40 near Claysburg, offers angling for most warm 
water species. Canonsburg Lake, also in Washington 
h County, may be reached from Rt. 19. Most warm water 
a species are present in the lake. 

» The Allegheny River in Allegheny, Westmoreland 
o and Armstrong Counties also provides limited ice fish- 
ing during extremely cold periods. Lodging and supplies 

may be found in numerous towns along the river. 

Generally speaking, minnows and nightcrawlers are 
the preferred live baits. 


Fish Warden Supervisor Harold Corbin, 521 Thir- 
teenth Street, Huntingdon, telephone Mitchell 3-0355, 
lists Shawnee Lake in Bedford County, off Rt. 30 at 
Schellsburg, as a good spot for perch, pickerel, blue- 
gills and largemouth bass. Minnows, grubs and jig 
spoons are the preferred baits. 

Fannettsburg Lake, off Rt. 75 in Franklin County, 
provides largemouth bass, perch and bluegill fishing. 
Largemouth bass and pickerel are the main attractions 
at Letterkenny Reservoir off Rt. 433 at Roxbury. 
Minnows are the best bait at both of these Franklin 
County fishing spots. 

Sinoquipe Lake, located off Rt. 522 at Fort Little- 
ton in Fulton County, is a good bet for pickerel and 
largemouth bass. Minnows are the preferred bait. 

Raystown Dam, off Rt. 22 at Huntingdon in Hunt- 
ingdon County, provides good largemouth bass, crappie, 
perch and bluegill fishing. Minnows and grubs are the 
best baits. Pickerel is the species which provides most 
of the ice fishing sport at Whipple Dam, off Rt. 545 
near McAlveys Fort, also in Huntingdon County. 

Bait is extremely difficult to purchase throughout 
the region, and anglers are advised to secure both bait 
and equipment before journeying to any of these spots. 


Fish Warden Supervisor John S. Ogden, 1130 Rux- 
ton Road, York, telephone 2-3474, advises anglers to 
check carefully before attempting to ice fish in the 
region. Lender normal conditions, low temperatures do 
not continue long enough to provide sufficient ice for 
safe fishing. During recent years, Lake Ontelaunee, 
located near Leesport on Rt. 122 in Berks County, 
and East Bangor Dam, located at East Bangor on Rt. 
172 in Northampton County, have been the most de- 
pendable areas for ice fishing. Ontelaunee provides out- 
standing crappie fishing, as well as good catches of bass 
and pan fish. East Bangor Dam produces good catches 
of bass, pickerel and pan fish. Minnows and worms are 
the best baits. 

NOT VERY BIG but they pull hard. 

! JANUARY— 1963 


THIS HOT SEAT for ice fishing is a mighty 
handy item. 

EASY ASSEMBLY, canvas cover is un- 
folded, placed over dowels, shelter is com- 
plete in seconds flat. 

SOUTHERN COMFORT you can't beat I 
an ice angler. 

Hot Seat 

Ice fishing box contains tip-ups, lines, baits, hooks, lunch, 
coffee, several containers of canned heat, portable radio, a sturdy 
canvas canopy that assembles into a wind-breaking shelter. 
Keeps an ice angler warm as toast. 

Plans show how the hot seat and wind breaker is assembled. 
Materials include canvas, one-quarter inch plywood, 1 x 2-inch 
framing, galvanized sheet metal, wood dowels and copper tubing 
ferrules. Cost runs about $5. 

Jig Rod 

This unique rod is simply a hard wood stick, measuring 
about 24 inches in length, with an enlarged block midway 
above the handle for storing excess line. The handle is drilled 
with a half-inch hole, to a depth of three or four inches, 
for storing extra hooks, split shot, ice flies and spoon lures. 
The storage compartment is fitted with a cork stopper. The 
opposite end has a single eye-screw, of moderate size, which 
serves as a line guide. These fanciful fixtures are all functional 
in design. Ten minutes with a power jig saw is sufficient to pro- 
duce a custom built model. 

How is this winter rod used? For the benefit of newcomers 
to this winter sport, the jig rod assists in the manipulation 
of a line through a jagged hole punched through the frozen 
plate-glass window. A sufficient length of line (usually cast-: 
ing rod line) to reach down to the pond bottom is unwrapped 
from the block. The stick is then “jigged” in an up and 
downward rhythm, which in turn keeps the bait, trout wet 
fly or spoon in motion, attacts passing pansters. When blue- 
gills, perch and smelt arrive on location, a jig rod aids the) 
angler in heaving fish top side. 

JIG ROD, dimensions — design. 





New Ice Fishing Baits 



In the past, finding suitable baits was a problem for many 
in ice fisherman. Unless unusual measures were taken during 
the early fall months to collect and winterize a trapful of 
minnows, or a box of worms or crickets stored in the basement, 
the winter season found the ice-men lacking necessary baits for 
catching perch and pickerel. A time-consuming search then got 
underway to locate worm-filled galls on the stems of golden- 
rod, mill worms beneath sacks of wheat and flour, and 
foreign larvae in bee hives. The choice was these tiny baits, 
small spoons or trout flies for the winter jig-fishing activities. 

A new breakthrough in the field of plastics now brings new 
baits to fishermen in the form of soft, scented lures. These 
new artificial baits look, feel and actually smell and taste like 
real fish snacks! With a jig rod, ice chopper and a pocketful 
of these new unusual baits, the angler is equipped for action 
on the ice-covered pond or lake. 

These ice baits are molded into a variety of shapes, and 
colors. Minnows, corn borer worms, tadpoles, tiny frogs, worms 
and even raspberries are among the assortment. Not only do 
these extremely soft baits feel and look like natural baits, they 
are heavily scented with licorice that penetrates far into the 
water to tantalize nearby schools of fish. The scent is imbedded 
into the resilient plastic, enabling the flavorable odor to con- 
tinually rise to the surface and become self-renewing. The new 
jbaits are now widely available in sports shops. 

The plastic is unique in that the baits remain pliable even 
junder zero weather conditions. The soft, flexible material, while 
iretaining its molded form, can be stretched, pulled or com- 
ipressed, yet will return instantly to its original form. The 
jrainbow assortments of pigments are impregnated within the 
material, giving the lures’a translucent effect. Bright pink, gold, 
olive, yellow, green, blue, black and clear are a few of the 
numerous shades. When the baits are exposed in a tackle box, 
the licorice scent floods the interior, giving the impression that 
candy is stored in the various compartments. 

I was first introduced to these baits through a news flier for- 

I warded by a prominent manufacturer. After glancing over the 
blurb, I immediately sensed the value of these plastic lures as 
potential ice fishing baits. Later I visited a local tackle shop, 
picked an assortment of the scented baits, and drove to a 
nearby lake. Snow had covered the foot-thick ice on the pond. 
I set about chopping an ice hole while my oldest son shoveled 
1 snow to form an open area for skating. 

After the water finally bubbled through the ice hole, I rigged 
a jig stick and baited the hook with an olive colored corn 
borer. The first 15 minutes was devoid of action. Then, quick 
as a flash, I felt a solid pull on the line. Through the ice came 
the first of many fat yellow perch, more colorful than a winter 
sunset ! Action came fast as the school swarmed beneath the 
ice hole. The soft plastic lures proved darn good ice baits. 

There is little need to search far and wide for suitable winter 
baits. A visit to a sports shop will find them. 

NEW PLASTIC BAITS especially designed for the ice fisher- 
man. The baits are soft, look, feel, smell and taste like real 
fish snacks! They are heavily scented with licorice. Included 
in this assortment are: raspberry bobs, corn borers, minnows, 
mice and tadpoles. 

ICE FISHING is rapidly gaining favor with Pennsylvania 
anglers, a sport that is expanding fishing over a longer 
stretch of the year. 

PROVEN RESULTS via this nice catch of plump, colorful 
yellow perch. 

[JANUARY— 1963 


Cooperative Nursery a Sue 

FIRST SERIES OF RACEWAYS, five in number, with a com- 
bined length of 2S0 feet. At the bridge in the foreground the 
main spring flows into the raceways. It has a flow rate of ISO 
gallons per minute in normal weather. Last year during the 
dry season flow rate exceeded 100 gallons per minute. Also 
these raceways contain three lesser springs. Raceways have 
flagstone spillways, drains under each header and electric 
lights. Overflow box in upper raceway, which can be regu- 
lated, controls flow of water over entire project. Main drain 
pipes are also located in upper raceway. Entire operation may 
be drained for cleaning. All banks are seeded and planted 
with shrubs. Note basket willow along banks. All walks are 
graveled with limestone. Entire project has all flagstone walks. 
This area contains brook trout. About <0 per cent are legal al 
this time. Over 3,000 people visited this nursery this pasl 
spring, summer and fall. Many people believed it to be a state 
project until notified otherwise. Many donations have been 
received to support the project. Membership at the presenl 
time is 850 with members from all sections of the state. Area 
is leased from Clinton Delzell from New Brighton, Pa. 



titter County Angler’s Club 

In the initial project of the Potter County Angler’s 
Hub, the group reared 22,900 brook and brown trout— 
4,500 brook and 8,400 brown. Last spring the club 
tocked 12,500 brook and 6,400 brown trout with 4,000 
rown and brook trout held over for future stocking, 
n early summer the club stocked Lyman Lake with 
,500 combined brook and brown trout with 2,500 held 
ver for stocking this coming spring. The club also has 
00 brook trout 4 years old which average 20 inches in 
;ngth and three pounds in weight. 

The club is currently rearing 25,000 brook trout, 
0,000 brown trout, 2,000 rainbow trout and 1,000 
amloop trout. The club was also expecting 5,000 brook 
rout from the Federal Wildlife Sendee, a total of 
2,000 to be reared at the nursery project. 

During the past summer an additional two raceways 

and two holding ponds have been completed. The 
nursery now has nine raceways with a combination 
length of 650 feet. The four holding ponds have a com- 
bined length of 500 feet and an average width of 40 
feet. Merrill Lillie, Superintendent of the Pennsyl- 
vania Fish Commission’s Union City and Corry hatch- 
eries, inspected the nursery and estimated the club 
could rear 50,000 trout. 

The club with a membership of 800 is steadily grow- 
ing. During the past year about 1,200 man hours of 
work have been contributed to the nursery project. Jim 
Kennedy, who passed away in January, 1962, and who 
faithfully cared for the trout has been succeeded by 
16-year-old John Allen, who during the school year, 
gets up at 5 :30 a.m. and cares for the trout before 
going to classes. 

TWO NEW RACEWAYS that were built this past spring. They have a combined length of 140 feet. Brown 
trout are being reared in these raceways. In the rear portion of the picture, in line with the right hand 
rail of the bridge, may be seen the new holding pond. This holding pond is 80 feet long with a width of 30 
feet and depth of 2 feet. Directly to the rear of the bridge is the original holding pond. This pond was built 
with the first series of raceways. It is 80 feet long, 40 feet wide and has a depth of 3V2 feet. Note water 
being aerated in a series of falls at outlet of holding pond. Aeration is also accomplished by fountain in center 
of this pond. Water is piped from a reservoir that was buiit 100 feet above nursery. The same reservoir sup- 
plies water to the building located at the nursery. Banks to left of picture are all seeded and planted with 
basket willow, donated by the Pennsylvania Game Commission. All walks are graveled. 

JANUARY— 1963 


Conneaut Lake, Crawford County. 







m ■ 


*lss-r *■ ■.. * l!k r . 

Black AA 

Lake Lorain, Wayne County. 

in < LpEnmu Luania 

—Photography by 
Johnny Nicklas, 

Pennsylvania Fish Commission 


Reprinted from 

“What’s New” by permission of Abbott Laboratories 

As fishermen and physicians know, removing fish- 
hooks that have become embedded in fingers is a tricky 
and painful job because of the barb. A common method 
is to force the point forward until it emerges from the 
skin, then to squeeze down the barb or break it off with 
pliers. The curved part of the hook is then drawn back 
through the curved path of entry. This causes less pain 
and trauma than cutting or breaking the eye of the hook 
and drawing the straight shank on through the curved 

Theo Cooke, in the Medical Journal of Australia 
(June 3, 1961, p. 815), says that by the time he has 
anesthetized the area, remembered where he had left 
his pliers and struggled to force the point of the hook 
out again (which can be difficult, especially when it is 
small and deeply embedded) the procedure becomes 

Cooke describes a much quicker method used by 
fishermen of his area near Port Vincent on St. Vin- 
cent’s Gulf, South Australia. These men can have a 
hook flicked out, dip the finger in the sea, and be 
fishing again within a minute. Cooke writes, “Those of 
my medical colleagues whom I have asked have not 
heard of this method, and most of them have expressed 
disbelief in its practice.” 

How It’s Done Quickly and Painlessly 

The person who is to remove the hook makes a loop 
of ordinary string and winds the ends securely around 
his right index finger. The loop, about 18 inches long, 
is slipped over the shank of the hook. The finger which 
the hook has entered is placed on a firm surface with 

the eye of the hook pointing to the left of the manipu- 
lator who then takes the eye and shank between the 
thumb and index finger of his left hand, which rests on 
the patient’s hand. Holding the shank rigidly, he de- 
presses it, painlessly disengaging the barb unless the 
hook is moved sideways. He slowly straightens the 
loop of string horizontally in the plane of the long axis 
of the shank. This is a test maneuver to make sure the 
loop will not become tangled on coat buttons and to 
bring the center of the loop gently against the curve 
of the hook. 

The tip of the operator’s left third finger then holds 
the center of the loop against the finger at the point 
where the hook enters. The operator brings his right 
hand back to the hook and suddenly jerks it away again 
in the same direction as in the test maneuver, with full 
follow-through. The hook is spun back out of the finger 
without enlarging the track or the hole of entry. For 
hooks larger than a size 1 whiting hook, a double loop 
24 to 30 inches long is used, and Cooke states that full- 
sized snapper hooks present a quite different mechanical 

Most of the fishermen in his area remove hooks 
themselves by this method, so Cooke has had a chance 
to use it on only three patients. It was unsuccessful in 
one case in which the point was almost emerging from 
the skin and in which he thinks he had failed to dis- 
engage the barb from the corium. Hooks were removed 
from the other two patients in a few seconds painlessly 
and very easily. One patient was a woman whose hus- 
band was incensed because he could have removed the 
hook in this way, but had driven his wife 27 miles “to 
have it removed properly.” 

FOLLOWING A FEW preparations — 
such as reassuring the patient and 
than placing his hand on a firm sur- 
face — the hook's shank is depressed to 
disengage the barb. The loop of string 
is in position. A sharp jerk of the 
string in the direction of the arrow 
removes the hook quickly and pain- 
lessly. The dotted line indicates the 
disengagement of the barb as the 
shank is depressed. 






OU’VE probably noticed that a stick looks bent 
vhen it is part way in water. Maybe you’ve also noticed 
hat clear water looks shallower than it really is. And 
f you do any bow fishing you know that you usually 
lave to shoot the arrow slightly below the target in 
)rder to score a hit. The chances are, though, that when 
-ou do notice such things you aren't in the mood to 
;ive them much thought. But the reason why things 
iften look different under water is because light behaves 
lifferently when it enters water. If we want to be formal 
ve can say it’s all because of refraction. 

Whenever you look at something your line of sight 
ollows a straight path right to the object. But when 
•ou look into water from anywhere except directly 
bove, your line of sight is bent downward after it 
nters the water. This has the effect of making things 
ppear closer to the surface. If you look down into 
cater, as from a bridge your sight isn’t deflected but 
nything in the water still looks nearer the surface. 

Suppose you were sitting on the shore of a pool of 
lear water and you saw a fish that appears to you to 
>e about 3 feet below the surface. Another fellow stand- 
ng several feet higher would say that the fish was 

I omewhat deeper. And someone standing on a bridge 
irectly over the fish would estimate the fish to be still 
eeper. None of those people would be right, but the 
>erson on the bridge would be closest to the true depth. 

If you are a pretty good judge of distances you can 
stimate the real depth of clear water, or of something 
a it, by multiplying the apparent depth by 1.3. For 
xample, water that looks to be about 15 feet deep will 
eally be almost 20 feet deep. You must remember, how- 
ver, that this rule of thumb only works when you are 
ooking straight down into the water (like from a boat) 
nd not when you look into it at an angle (like from 
he shore). 

Fish don't know it, but their line of sight bends 
lownward when they look out of water (except when 
hey look directly overhead). Quite frequently this is to 
heir advantage because from certain positions they 
an see over low banks — and perhaps spot a fisherman 

Of course, you can't see into water if it is muddy or 
hoppy. Even with clear water a lot depends upon the 
position of the sun. And there are always surface re- 
lections to cope with. The clearer the water the deeper 
■ou can see ; but even in the clearest water more than 

BECAUSE OF REFRACTION, each of these persons sees dif- 
ferent images of the same fish. The person looking straight 
down into the water sees an image that is closest to the 
actual fish. 

half the sunlight is absorbed at the surface and at 30 
feet only about 25 per cent of the light remains. 

So now you know that many of the things you see 
in water are only illusions or images. But even though 
her secret’s out, old Mother Nature is going to keep 
right on playing tricks on your eyes whenever you 
look into water — and she’ll probably fool vou mam- 

R ANUARY— 1963 





Anglers should keep their reels in tiptop shape by checking 
them before and after use. Fishermen may buy the most ex- 
pensive reels on the market but cheap reels will do just as 
well if anglers are careless about their tackle and equipment. 

Each type of reel has its good and bad points. If you are a 
trout fisherman, you may prefer the old-style open reel with 
“wind-up” action because this type of reel needs little atten- 
tion. Or you may like an automatic. You may not be able to 
take in line fast enough with the “wind-up” reel if a lunker 
takes your fly, but it is easy to keep a taut line with an auto- 
matic reel. But be careful not to get any dirt or sand in an 
automatic or you might just as well quit fishing and go home. 

Perhaps you are a bass fisherman. If so, you probably use a 
good bait casting reel, but sometimes feel that you have more 
than your share of backlashes. Correct usage of your reel will 
eliminate many “bird’s nests,” but there is no guarantee against 
them. Even the best anti-backlash reels are not immune. How- 
ever, the anti-backlash reels do make better casting possible. 

CLEAN reel parts separately and place them on a large num- 
bered paper. Put reel together in reverse order, according to 
the numbers on the paper beside the parts. 

REWIND the coiled spring after cleaning. Hook outside of 
the coil to the inside of the cover. 

If you feel that the click on your reel wears out too fast, 
avoid casting with the click on. 

Maybe you like a spinning reel. You can cast farther with 
less effort and there are no backlashes to untangle. Moreover, 
spinning tackle can be used for either trout or bass fishing. 
But it is sometimes tricky to use and the handle is on 
the left side, while most people are right-handed. The tackle 
makers have turned this fact into publicity. “Now,” they say, 
“you can fish without changing hands as you cast and reel 
in.” Everyone has his own opinion, but I consider the things a 
bit awkward and prefer the ordinary bait casting reel. 

If you do any salt-water fishing, beware of corrosion. It’s 
an ever-present danger and makes it imperative that you stop 
corrosion before it starts. Otherwise, you may go out some 
day and find a non-usable reel in your tackle box. So after 
each fishing trip, dip your reel in a bucket of fresh water for 
about three minutes. This will keep your reel from corroding 
until you find time for a complete reel-cleaning job. 

Most reel troubles can be traced directly to their owner’s 
misuse and abuse. Make sure that your reel won’t fall apart the 
next time you go after that lunker. 

Make your reel a help as it was intended to be. If you are 
getting an abnormal amount of backlashes, the chances are yot 
aren’t using your reel as the manufacturer intended it shoulc 
be used. So get cut the instructions that came with the reei 
and read them carefully. Then follow them! Adjust your anti 
backlash for the weight of the particular plug you happen tc 
be using before casting. This will eliminate the necessity foi 
thumbing and cut down your backlashes. You’ll feel more liks 
fishing too because you won’t lose your temper so often. 

To keep your level-wind working, carry a small can of ligh 
machine oil with you and apply a few drops now and then 
Apply a little graphite grease to the level-wind before yoi 
start to fish to make it run smoother. 

Also, before you start to fish, make sure that all of tfi 
screws on your reel are tight. However, don’t tighten then 
too much. Over-tightened screws will sometimes affect th 
action of a reel ; the spool will be stiff and it will affect you 
casting. A little clear nail polish applied to the head of eaci 
screw will prevent it from loosening. 

All worn parts should be replaced before going on a fishin; 
trip. However, if something should go wrong with your ree 
while you are fishing, you can soon repair it with parts from ( 
“reel kit.” These kits are available at most sporting good 
stores at reasonable prices and contain reel pawls, screws, an 
other parts to fit most reels. 

If something goes wrong with your reel and you can 
fix it immediately, you don’t have to quit fishing if you carr 
a spare reel, complete with line, in your tackle box. 

Some bait casters buy only fifty yards of line instead 
the usual hundred. Reel manufacturers now supply a cork o 
plastic reel arbor to take the place of line backing, so your lir 
will fill the spool and make casting easier. 

After the fishing season is over, your reel or reels should I 
stripped of line, taken apart and cleaned thoroughly, repaire 
(if needed) and stored, after reassembling, in a dry place ti 
the next fishing season rolls around. 

When cleaning your reel, take the reel completely apart an 
wash the parts in kerosene, drying them off with a silk clot 

But do not clean nylon parts in kerosene. Kerosene will softe 
them. Just wipe nylon parts off with an oil-soaked rag. 

Replace all worn parts, paying particular attention to tl 
level-wind and the reel pawl. So that you don’t have parts !e 
over when you put the reel together, it is advisable to clet 
the parts separately as they are removed from the reel arj 
place them on a large, numbered piece of paper, as illustrate} 



Fhe parts will then be in order and reassembling the reel will 
fe easy. Merely put the reel together in reverse order, ac- 
prding to the numbers on the paper beside the parts. 

| Before reassembly, apply reel grease and light machine oil 
> the gears and other parts. Do not over-grease or over-oil. 
oo much oil and grease on the gears will tighten the action 
If the reel. 

Automatic fly reels can be tricky to clean because of the 
(oiled steel springs which power them. When you clean your 
lutomatic, don’t let the steel spring fly out of its cover or you’ll 
pend half a day trying to rewind it. Just remove the main 
:rew and clean the cover and spring together by dropping 
oth in a coffee can of kerosene. Use an old, silk rag to dry 
lem off. 

To remove the spring from the cover, hold both in one hand 
nd slip a screwdriver along the outside edge of the spring, 
his will loosen it so that it can be carefully uncoiled and 
leaned separately. 

,i After thoroughly cleaning and oiling your automatic reel, 
iewind the coiled steel spring clockwise, inside the cover, as 
ihown. Grease and oil the reel lightly and reassemble it, at- 
nching the main screw. 

“Wind-up” fly reels require little attention beyond a few 
irops of light oil now and then and spinning reels are easy to 
(lean and oil. A good reel will last a lifetime if you take 
|roper care of it. 


Spinning reels are easy to clean for trouble-free fishing, says 
Dick Wolff, the Garcia Fisherman. Dick contends that a four- 
step check, as demonstrated here, often during the season and at 
the end of it will save dollars and make fishing more fun. 

(1) Start with a clean place to work. Add a handful of 
paper towels, a special reel tool, screw drivers, oil, reel 
lube, and a small bristle brush. 

(2) Remove the spool and disassemble by unscrewing the 
drag nut. Lay out the parts in the order that you remove 
them : spindle, spoon shell, drag washer or brake spring, 
and wing nut. This makes reassembling much easier. 
Clean the parts with kerosene or any good solvent. Re- 
lubricate and reassemble before starting on the next part. 

(3) Open the side plate and carefully check the gears for 
dirt and grime or corrosion. Clean if necessary. 

(4) Frequently, the lube covering the gears needs only to be 
redistributed. Add fresh lube to cover the gears if neces- 
sary. Reassemble and oil the extremities of the bail, then 
wipe excess oil and grease over the body of the reel 
before storing it. 

Anglers should return their reels to the factory for major 
servicing and repairs. Worn gears and malfunctions which the 
individual angler might miss are quickly fixed by trained 
service repairmen. 

ANU ARY— 1963 


Gear Ratios Control Power Output of Outboard Motors 

ing out or pulling a heavy load. In broad terms, th : 
situation would be comparable to continuously running 
an automobile in high gear. At least this holds true fo 
smaller or middle sized outboards. 

With larger outboard motors, the situation is some 
what different. Smale explains that the resistance enf 1 
countered by a boat as it begins to plane can be over 
come through the use of either gear ratios or increase 
horsepower. A 75-horsepower motor, for example, ha 
sufficient torque to pull an almost direct gear ratio o 
23 :20 and still maintain speed and power. 

Gear ratios will vary with different models and brand ! 
of outboard motors and comparing the ratios them ' 
selves will prove nothing. Engineers establish ratios b ‘ 
determining the intended use of the motor, the prc ! 
pellers available and other factors so as to allow th 
motor to deliver the best possible all-purpose perform 
ance. Unless the motor is to be used for a special pur ' 
pose, such as competitive racing or commercial wor 11 
where an extremely heavy load is pulled, the outboar 1 
owner should not be concerned with gear ratios. Fc ' 

In paging through an outboard motor catalog or 
owner’s manual, you may have come across the subject 
of gear ratios. But, unless you’re quite mechanically 
inclined, a ratio expressed as 12 :21 probably meant little 
or nothing to you. Actually these figures refer to the 
number of teeth on the gears that make up the drive 
mechanism of your outboard motor. If you’re interested 
in this nuts and bolts aspect of outboard boating, Bill 
Smale, chief engineer at Evinrude Motors, offers the 
following explanation. 

The drive shaft, connected directly to the power 
head, turns at the same number of revolutions as does 
the engine. The drive shaft, through the use of gears, 
is also connected to the propeller shaft. If the drive and 
propeller gears were in direct ratio such as 12:12, the 
propeller would turn the same number of rpm as the 
engine. After the motor had a chance to wind out, this 
setup would result in maximum efficiency as far as 
speed is concerned. However, torque or pulling power 
would be substantially reduced since the engine would 
not be able to develop its full rpm potential when start- 



iverage, all-purpose use, the gears used in a standard 
notor will be most suitable. 

To better understand what gear ratios are all about, 
;eep the following points in mind. The greater the 
pread between the two numbers of the gear ratio, the 
greater is the reduction in propeller rpm to engine rpm. 
rhis reduction allows the propeller to develop greater 
orque. The first figure indicates the number of teeth 
>n the drive or pinion gear and the second figure, the 
lumber of teeth on the propeller shaft gear, which is, 
n effect, a reduction gear. 

Adequate Insurance Coverage 
Is Suggested for Boat Owners 

Like an automobile owner, the boatman should have 
nsurance to protect himself on two counts — property 
lamage or injury he may cause to others and damage 
>r injury he may suffer himself. Of the two, the first, 
vhich is referred to as bodily injury and property dam- 
ige liability insurance, is most important says the Evin- 
ude Boating Foundation. 

Many boatmen are automatically covered for liability, 
,t least to some extent, under their comprehensive home 
iwner’s policies. But since the coverage varies with 
lifferent insurance companies, types of policies and 
>arts of the country, it’s wise to know for sure just 
tow much coverage you have rather than assuming you 
tave enough. Your insurance agent can quickly explain 
he coverage and suggest an additional policy if it 
s needed. 

Insurance on your own equipment is also important. 
Contingencies most often covered are fire, theft, col- 
ision, sinking, stranding and loss of motor overboard. 
These and other perils are covered in all risk and com- 
trehensive policies, the type most often purchased by 
ioat owners. The annual premium for such coverage is 
isually about four per cent the declared value of the 
equipment. Other types of lesser coverage are also avail- 
.ble. Some insurance policies carry a deductible clause 
■tating that the owner must pay for damages which do 
lot exceed a certain amount, usually from $25 to $100. 
Ls a result, premium costs are reduced. 

Companies dealing in boat insurance realize that the 
equipment is not always used the year round and it is 
>n this premise that premiums are established. If in- 
sureds would limit their coverage to only the most active 
part of the season, premiums would have to be prorated 
ind raised accordingly. This being the case, no sig- 
nficant savings can be made by canceling your policy 
it the end of the season. For the little extra cost in- 
volved, it’s far better to keep your rig fully insured at 
ill times to protect it against such perils as fire, theft, 
ind windstorm that can occur at any time. 

Significant premium savings can be made, however, 
)y insuring your equipment for only its current book 
/alue. Depreciation must be taken into consideration 
:or, obviously, a rig worth $2,000 five years ago will be 
vorth considerably less today. In the event of loss, in- 
prance companies will pay only the actual cost of re- 

First Aid Procedure for 
Dunked Outboard 

Outboard motors are made to be clamped on the tran- 
soms of boats with only the portion that lies below the 
cavitation plate in the water. However, for one reason 
or another, each year many outboards get a complete 
dunking. Like your camera, radio, or any other piece of 
equipment, if they are submerged they can be damaged. 

Engineers at Evinrude Motors advise that engines 
submerged in salt water be taken immediately upon re- 
covery to a dealer. If a motor is submerged in fresh 
water for a period of 48 hours or longer, it should also 
be taken to a dealer as soon as recovered. 

However, if a motor is recovered from the water 
immediately, attempt to start it. If it starts, run it for 
about 30 minutes or until it is thoroughly warmed. Stop 
the engine and immediately try to start it again. If it 
starts the second time, there is no apparent damage. 

If a motor remains under water for a period of from 
an hour up to 48 hours, several steps should be taken 
upon recovery. First, remove the motor cover, then re- 
move the spark plugs, the carburetor sediment bowl and 
the carburetor drain screw. Pull the manual starter over 
six or eight times. Squirt some motor oil into the spark 
plug holes, then reassemble the motor and attempt to 
start it. 

If it starts, warm it completely, stop it, and attempt 
to start it again. 

If it starts, repeat the procedure for a motor sub- 
merged only briefly. Run it until thoroughly warmed 
up, stop it and attempt to start it again. If it starts a 
second time, it suffered no apparent damage. But if it 
will not start after reassembly, the natural step is to 
take it to a marine dealer. 

Most commonly, motors are dunked under two sets 
of circumstances. One is at the pier when attaching a 
motor to a boat already in the water. The other is when 

pairing or replacing the equipment. You’ll be money 
ahead if, when you renew your policy each year, you 
insure your equipment for only its current value. 

Since insurance is a detailed and sometimes confusing- 
subject, it’s best to consult a qualified insurance agent 
whenever you have a question. Have him explain the 
different types of coverage available and choose the 
one best suited to your needs. Being properly insured 
will give you peace of mind and make your boating- 
even more fun. 

clamp screws work loose while running. 

The best remedy is to play safe. When attaching a 
motor at a pier, take extreme care to avoid dropping it 
overboard. The best thing is to have some help — some- 
one to steady the boat if nothing else. Always check 
clamp screws frequently to see they are tight. A final 
precaution is to secure the motor to the boat with a 
safety chain so it won't drop in the water if it does 
work loose. 

JANUARY— 1963 



On October 15 I received a complaint that a channel change 
was being made on a certain trout stream which the Commission 
stocks with trout. Knowing that no permit had been issued for 
this operation, I made the necessary investigation on the 16th 
and made a report on the same date to the Chief Enforcement 
Officer in Harrisburg. On the 18th instant I received a letter 
from the Chief stating the matter was being handled. On the 
19th I received a copy of the letter that was sent by the De- 
partment of Forests and Waters to the party responsible for 
making the change. The contents of the letter stated that the 
person was in violation by not having obtained a permit and 
that the channel was to be restored to its original course by 
November 1. This order was carried out. It is suggested that 
people think twice before running a bulldozer in a stream and 
disturbing its bed and banks !- Willard G. Persun, District 
Warden (Bradford). 


A friend of mine on a fishing trip to Canada told me his 
Canadian guide suggested fishing for pickerel. Having fished 
for pickerel in Pennsylvania the suggestion was bypassed in 
favor of the bass fishing. On the final day at the lodge another 
angler came in with a nice catch of walleye. He then asked his 
guide why he hadn’t told him there were walleye in the lake. 
To his surprise the guide replied, “I asked you if you wanted 
to fish for pickerel and you said no !” My friend’s reaction was 
. . . “why are walleye called pickerel in Canada?” — District 
Warden Kenneth G. Corey (Warren). 


Lyman Run Lake has been a popular angling spot since it 
was stocked in September with nice brown trout. Anglers have 
been doing very well on wet and dry flies, live minnows and 
worms. Then, on October 24 a blizzard hit the vicinity shrouding 
the entire area. When the curtain of snow lifted, out on the 
shore line were some hardy fishermen fighting the wind, snow 
and 30-degree temperature. — District Warden Kenneth Aley 
( Potter) . 


On October 20 (first day of duck season) I arrived at Glade 
Run Lake about 10 a.m., and checked 22 fishermen. By 1 p.m., 
legal time to shoot ducks, all the fishermen had gone home 
leaving the lake to the duck shooters. I thought this showed 
either the anglers were good sports or they were afraid of 
getting poked with chilled shot. — District Warden Clifton Iman 
(Butler and Beaver). 

Retired Commission Personnel 


Guy E. Moyer was first employed by the Pennsyl- 
vania Fish Commission in the Propagation Division on 
August 21, 1919. He retired on August 24, 1962, after 
43 years of service. At time of retirement he was 
classified as a Fish Culturist. Mr. Moyer was born in 1 
Boggs Township and received his education in Spring 
Township. He is married to the former Kathryn Smith 
and they have five children. 


Ralph D. Hendricks retired from service with the 
Fish Commission on August 24, 1962, after 18 years ol 
service as an equipment operator at the Linesville 
hatchery. Mr. Hendricks was born in Linesville or 
August 12, 1897, and attended school in that area. He 
is well known throughout the state via his many year; 
of distributing fish of all species in all counties of the 
Commonwealth. He is married to the former Vid; 
Sherretts and they have two children : a daughter resid 
ing in Linesville and a son in the U. S. Marine Corps 
now stationed at Cherry Point, N. C. 



■ John J. Wopart was first appointed to service with the 
ish Commission on January 1, 1928. He was a laborer, 
•reman and then hatchery superintendent at the Com- 
tission’s Pleasant Mount hatchery, serving for nearly 
5 years. He was born in Archbald, Pa., attended 
Fools in the area and was a mine foreman before 
nployment with the commission. He is married to the 
•rmer Mary McCabe and they have one son. Mr. 
, opart plans to retire to Florida with his family. 

Former Commissioner Dies 

W. M. (Dick) Roberts died at his home in New 
astle, Pa., on October 29 last. He was appointed to 
ie commission on April 3, 1946, by Governor Edward 
lartin to fill the vacancy of Fred McKean. Born in 
/ashington, Pa., Mr. Roberts attended local schools 
id Washington and Jefferson College. He served until 
ily, 1947. 

The Worst Violator of Them All 

An alarming feature which is disturbing professional enforce- 
ent people, is the increase in violations of juvenile hunters and 
shermen. We like to think ideally of the sportsman parent who 
kes his son to field and stream and teaches him the true 
hies of sportsmanlike conduct. We have all heard the slogan, 
hake a Boy Fishing!” We still believe that most fathers want 
1 teach their sons and daughters to be sportsmen and to know 
id obey game and fish laws. 

If you “Take a Boy Fishing” and then catch enough extra 
sh to fill out his limit, are you teaching him anything about 
'•ortsmanship ? Will a youngster who has been taught by his 
ad to hold fish and game laws in contempt grow up with the 
'oper respect for any other laws ? Any parent who knowingly 
; willfully violates fish or game laws in the presence of a 
ivenile is probably committing the worst violation of all, that 
helping to train a new generation to cheat and chisel to get 
ore than their share. In a day when conservation is finally 
eing given the emphasis it deserves, let’s try to train our kids 
|t good sportsmanship and ethics rather than in how to be a 
jiiseler, fish and game hog. — Len Hoskins in Nevada Wildlife 

ANUARY— 1963 

and tf-ly-tyin^ 



T HERE is a marked contrast between the weedy waters of 
Penns Creek and the dark, cedar-stained waters of Michigans 
Au Sable. To fish them within three days when summer is just 
beginning, is an experience that comes rarely. Finding a single 
fly pattern that will prove effective on botT: ' waters within this 
short time interval is very improbable. 

There was a hatch of caddisflies coming off the weed-choked 
pools of Penns Creek. The afternoon temperatures had been 
flirting with the ninety-degree mark. An hour after the sun left 
the water the trout began to feed along the edge of the weed 
mats. A nine-foot, six X leader and a number sixteen Adams 
fooled them completely. These were not sluggish fish fresh from 
the hatchery but thick, brightly colored fish that had grown fat 
and heavy from the abundant food flourishing in the limestone 
silt. We laid our flies at the edge of the weed pockets with the 
line and leader lying on top of the weeds. We hooked them with 
ease. Landing them was another matter. When a large fish is 
hooked and dives into a weed mat it is a miracle if the 
terminal tackle is not broken. There were occasions that evening 
when the miracle happened and we made a respectable catch. 

Two evenings later, at the Big Bend below Cunningham’s 
landing, on the Au Sable, my partner filled the legal limit of 
ten pounds and one fish by catching five fish on six casts. The 
fly that lured those trout was a battered Adams that had been 
well mauled by the Penns Creek trout. Truly the Adams was 
home with a vengeance, for this was the very stream on which 
the pattern was born. There was a bit of disappointment in the 
evening’s sport. The angler was catching the fish that lay be- 
tween his stand and the real trophy, a brown that rolled up 
occasionally and showed a side that seemed as wide as a canoe 
paddle. The last fish, a slashing three-pound rainbow, created 
such a disturbance on being hooked that the big fellow was 
put down. We never saw him rise again. 

The Adams is easy to construct. The wings are a pair of 
grizzled gray hackles from a Barred Rock, tied spent. The tail 
and hackle are brown and gray grizzled mixed equally. The 
body is on muskrat fur spun tightly on the tying silk and tied 
so as to produce a neat slim body. The hackles are kept small 
so that the fly rides close to the surface. The fly fills the color 
gap between the brown and gray flies. Carry in all sizes from 
twelve to eighteen with the emphasis on fourteens and sixteens. 

The body is sometimes made of clipped deer hair from the 
neck of an old buck. This fly will ride the surface of rough 
water and when properly dressed is almost unsinkable. 

New Year’s Recipe . . . Take twelve fine, full-grozvn months; 
see that these are thoroughly free from all old memories of 
bitterness, rancor, hate and jealousy. Cleanse them completely 
from every clinging spite; pick off all specks of pettiness. Cut 
these months into go or gi equal parts. Do not attempt to 
make up the whole batch at one time, but prepare one day at 
a time, as follows: 

Into each day put equal parts of faith, patience, courage, 
work, hope, fidelity, liberality, kindness, rest, prayer, meditation. 
Add about a teaspoonful of good spirits, a dash of fun, a pinch 
of folly, a sprinkling of play, and a heaping cupful of good 
humor. Pour love into the whole and mix until a vim. Serve 
ivith quietness, unselfishness and cheerfulness. 


Rambling Rainbow's Jaw With Tag 

Maple, Ontario, Canada 
November 6, 1962 

Pennsylvania Fish Commission 
Harrisburg, Pa. 

Dear Sirs : 

We are enclosing fish tag No. PFC-E 779 together with 
card received from Sam Ottley, 56 Whyte Avenue, Thorold, 
Ontario, regarding the return of a tagged rainbow trout which 
was recently caught in the east side of the Welland Canal. We 
would appreciate if you would kindly contact Mr. Ottley direct 
and advise him regarding the detail of your tagging project. 

C. H. D. Clarke, Chief 
Fish and Wildlife Branch 
Ontario Dept, of Lands and Forests 
November 16, 1962 

Sam Ottley 

Thorold, Ontario, Canada 
Dear Mr. Ottley: 

Thank you for taking the time to send in the tag taken from 
a tagged rainbow which you took in your nets. Statistics on 
this fish are as follows : 

Species — Rainbow trout 
Tag No. — PFC-E-779 
Date Released — April 28, 1961 
Length When Released — 7.5 inches 

Point of Release — Crooked Creek, Pennsylvania, about 10 miles 
west of the Port of Erie 
Date of Capture — Unknown — Fall, 1962 
Length at Recapture — 20.25 inches 
Weight at Recapture — 5 pounds, 2 ounces 
Girth at Recapture — 12.25 inches 

Point of Recapture — East side of Welland Canal (a distance of 
about 75 miles) 

Your return is one of several we have received in which the 
rainbows undertook extensive migrations. At least one was 
taken below Niagara Falls. 

Gordon L. Trembley 
Chief Aquatic Biologist 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

My resolutions never last for one reason or another . . . 
they all seem to go in one year and out the other. 

Noiv comes the coldest season of the year, when the days 
are shortest and so are xve. 

Dr. Albert S. Hazzard Coudersport, Pa. 

Assistant Executive Director September 2, 1962 

Pennsylvania Fish Commission 
Harrisburg, Pa. 

Dear Dr. Hazzard : 

Enclosed is a photograph of some unusual fish caught in th 
Allegheny River just below the flood control channel in Couders 
port. They were taken on worms by some youngsters. 

A friend of mine has identified the fish as eel-pouts, Arcti 
ling or cusk but I have been able to find next to nothing in th 
encyclopedia. The kids caught about ten of these slimy creature 
in the same hole ranging in length from 12 to 18 inches or mori 
Can you give us any information on them? 

Bill Fish, Jr. 

The Potter Enterpris 

Mr. William D. Fish, Jr. September 18, 19( 

Managing Editor 
The Potter Enterprise 
Coudersport, Pa. 


Dear Mr. Fish: 

Your friend was correct in his identification of this fish ; L 
the burbot, Lota Iota (linnaeus). This fish is also common | 
called the ling or eel pout. 

The burbot is the only representative of the cod family fout 
in fresh water in this part of the North American continer 
Records of the burbot outside Lake Erie and its tributaries a 
very rare in Pennsylvania and we are especially interested 
its showing up in the upper Allegheny River. It is quite 
popular fish in some of the Western trout waters, that : 
Wyoming and Montana, and some of the local people fish f< 
them — especially to smoke them. As in the case of the sal ». 
water cod, these fish are excellent smoked but they also mal i 
good fish cakes and I have eaten a very fine chowder ma> [ 
from Lake Erie burbot. 

Although the burbot is somewhat predatory in its habits, if 
food consists mainly of bottom organisms and, in turn, t 11 
young furnish feed for such fish as bass, walleyes and trout, f 


Albert S. Hazzard 
Assistant Executive Direct!' 


Send both old and new address to Pennsylvania Fish 
Commission, Harrisburg, Pa. 



JltfAsUd Pike 



Fishery Biologist 

Benner Spring Fish Research Station 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

plan’s curiosity is responsible for all the wonderful 
liveniences, the high standard of living and the 
iarantee of longer life which we enjoy today. Many 
{ the things which we routinely accept today developed 
pm basic research — research which had no practical 
plication at the time. Many of these probing experi- 
pnts were conducted because of man's innate curiosity 
a desire to learn more about the living things around 
n. Into this category fall the hybrid fish experiments, 
hese were designed to determine if different species 
puld cross, and if so, what could be learned. 

Hybrid trout experiments at Benner Spring Fish 
isearch Station explained many things that were not 
own about trout. For instance, one of the many things 
it was established is how nature keeps her species 
parate. This does not seem to have practical applica- 
pn at the time but eventually all of the information on 
Jbrid fish will slowly fit into a pattern which will 
id to a better understanding of nature’s processes. 
One of these “curiosity” experiments which involved 
tie time or money was initiated at the Union City 
atchery under the direction of foreman, Roy Soren- 
fn. He crossed a female grass pickerel which scientists 
111 Esox americanus vermiculatus to a male northern 
<e. After the young were hatched, they were trans- 
Irred to the Benner Spring Station where they were 
liced in small dirt ponds. When they were in their 
bond summer on August 11, they were weighed, 
easured and photographed. These fish were from 
reive to fourteen inches in length and weighed a little 
bre than ten ounces. The growth was probably greater 
an the grass pickerel since a grass pickerel rarely 
ceeds fourteen inches at any age. However, the color 
ttern was not the light bean-shaped spots on the 
les, so typical of a northern pike, but tended to be 
are like the grass pickerel. The accompanying photo- 
aph of these hybrids is of a 12.5 and 13.1 inch fish. 

; It is well known that these species hybridize in 
ture but are these hybrids fertile and will they thereby 
ect a natural population of northern pike? This 
ring, if they survive the winter, they will be tested 
d, if mature, will be spawned. Then it will be known 
aether grass pickerel affect a northern pike population 
if nature has developed a mechanism to separate 
e species. 

Man’s curiosity not onlv leads to better living, but 
entually to better fishing. 

iNUARY — 1963 

HYBRID PIKE resulting from crossing a female grass pickerel 
and a male northern pike. 

IVititesi 2.uiy 


Your favorite trout stream is frozen along the edges; 
the hemlocks and rhododendrons bend beneath their loads 
of snow. The mammals that were more aware of you 
last summer than you were of them are probably hiber- 
nating. Let’s see if you can find them in this quiz : 

(Nine or ten right: AMAZING. Seven or eight: 
Average. Six or seven: AWFUL.) 

...... 1. Bat A. 

.. 2. Ground Hog B. 

.. 3. Mole C. 

4. Beaver D. 

5. Shrew E. 

6. Fox F. 

7. Bear G. 

8. Weasel H. 

9. Fisher I. 

10. Marten J. 

A pad of cotton or wool . . . 
or a spree ... or a club used 
in cricket and other sports. 
What you would like to be at 
this moment if you were off 
the coast of Florida. 

A hamburger. 

It sounds like the name of a 
songbird or a family name. 

A constellation ... or to 
carry ... or to be fruitful . . . 
to support . . . but none of 
them seems to fit him very 

Part of a knight’s armor . . . 
a gentleman’s high hat ... or 
a heavy woolen cloth. 

A scolding woman . . . who 
probably has a husband off 
on a fishing trip. 

Noted, at least in song, for 
its old man. 

A break water ... a "beauty 
spot” ... a gram molecule. 
To repair the uppers of shoes 
. . . to discolor ... to de- 
ceive ... or to turn reddish 

’01— Cl '6— a ‘8— H ‘L— 3 '9— f ‘S — D 'f— d I 'Z~D 'l~Y 



LAKE WALLENPAUPACK PRIZE, a 14-pound, 33-inch wall- 
eye, caught by Chester Andrejiwski, Wilkes Barre, Pa. The 
fish, held by lack Fabri, of Lakeville, Pa., was taken from a 
boat dock on a nightcrawler, took 20 minutes to land and is 
reported to be largest walleye to be taken from the lake. 

—Robert Jennings Photo 

CHARLES RUNCO, Throop, Pa., with 
two largemouth bass he caught at 
Lake Ariel, Wayne County, last Sep- 
tember 7, on a jitterbug at night. The 
bass on the right was 20 inches, 6 
pounds; on the left the fish was 19 
inches long, weighed 3V2 pounds. 

Clip. <Me>ie. 


Official Publication of the Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

Pennsylvania's Finest Fishing Magazine " 

Enclosed is $ for my (New) (Renewal) 

1 year (12 issues) $2.00 

3 years (36 issues) $5.00 

Please send to: 







Make check or money order payable to the Pennsylvania 

Fish Commission J 



Cash sent at your own risk. STAMPS NOT ACCEPTABLE. 1 

VETERAN ANGLER, Grant Sherman, of Coudersport, Pa., is 
78 years young and he took the trout in the photo on 
worms from the flood control channel of the Allegheny River 
in Coudersport, Potter County. These eight brown trout, 
ranging from 10 to 15 inches, were caught one afternoon late 
last summer. Mr. Grant fishes from the bank of the strearr 
behind his home from a chair because he's unable to move 
around up or down stream for any distance. — The Potter 

THIS CONMEAUT LAKE musky went 50 inches, weighed 1 
pounds taken by John Shanley, Meadville, Pa., on October 1 
last. The big fish hit an artificial minnow trolled deep an 
battled over 20 minutes to land with the help of fishing par 
ner, Bill Humes, also of Meadville. — Edward Gray Photo- 
Meadville Tribune. 

BIG BROWN, 23 inches long, weighed 4 lbs., 9 ounces, w 
caught in Spring Creek between Robesonia and Wernersvi 
last season by John M. Ash, of West Reading, Pa. The bro 
took a small stink worm on a No. 12 hook on a fly rod. A 
inch brook trout was found in his stomach. 



O^ (^wwe We 'Kkgua @kU6t*KU<3, *)<i. Over, 0 ?<xt&4 . . . f 

Gut. . . We tyu&t (?a*utot tfet 't^un to ^eave/ 

And . . . don't you leave this page until you clip the coupon on page 24 for 
your subscription to the Pennsylvania Angler 

Warm, cheery reading for the cold, dull and gloomy winter months ahead 

■ i * ~ 

Pennsylvania s New Governor 
Hon. William W. Scranton 



Your new Administration is dedicated to the 
belief that one of the most valuable resources of our 
State is our wild life, including the fish which swim 
in Pennsylvania's streams and lakes. 

As part of our conservation and wild life 
program, fishermen of Pennsylvania can look forward to 
sympathetic and progressive activity by their State 
Government . 

I as Governor and my entire Administration 
believe in the great value of fishing, not only as a 
sport, but as one of the most attractive assets we have 
to offer people and industries from other states. 

Sincerely yours. 

V . - 

Bill Scranton 



Albert M. Day 
Executive Director 

Dr. Albert S. Hazzard 
Asst. Director 

Warren W. Singer 
Assistant to Executive Director 

Paul F. O’Brien 
Administrative Officer 

Paul J. Sauer 



Aquatic Biology 

Gordon Trembley . Chief 

Fish Culture 

Howard L. Fox Superintendent 

Real Estate and Engineering 

Cyril G. Regan ..... Chief 

Edward Miller Asst. Chief 

Law Enforcement 

William W. Britton Chief 

\C observation Education-Public Relations 

Bussell S. Orr _... Chief 



Published Monthly by the 

William W. Scranton, Governor 



Maynard Bogart, President . Danville 

Joseph M. Critchfif.ld, Vice President Confluence 

Gerard I. Adams Hawley Albert R. Hinkle. Jr. Clearfield 

Wallace C. Dean Meadville R. Stanley Smith Waynesburg 

John W. Grenoble Carlisle Raymond M. Williams .... East Bangor 


VOL. 32, NO. 2 



2 SUPERSTITION — Wilbert Nathan Savage 

4 BALD EAGLE CREEK — George Harvey 



ii. Carlyle Sheldon . Warden Supervisor 

212 E. Main St., Conneautville, Pa., 

Phone: 3033 

9 A SWING INTO WINTER— Johnny Nicklas 
10 BOATING — Wayne Heyman 


rliNTER C. Jones Warden Supervisor 

1. D. 2, Somerset, Pa. Phone: 6913 


1. Clair Fleeger Warden Supervisor 

lox 64, Honesdale, Pa. Phone: 253-3724 

'erry Rader Fishery Manager 

1. D. 3, Honesdale, Pa. . Phone: 253-2033 

12 ACTION ON THE ICE AT LAKE ERIE — Photo Story — Johnny Nicklas — 
Staff photographer, Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

14 THUNDER PUMPER — Margaret M. Thornburgh 



20 WINTER WORKOUT — Gordon L. Strobeck 


ohn S. Ogden Warden Supervisor 

.130 Ruxton Rd., York, Pa. Phone: 2-3474 

Iobert Bielo Fishery Manager 

loltwood, Pa., 

Phone: Rawlinsville Butler 4-4128 

21 NOW’S THE TIME— Chauncy K. Lively 

22 YOUTH OUTDOORS— Don Shiner 

22 THE FEMININE VIEW— Marion Lively 

23 FLIES AND FLY TYING — Albert G. Shimmel 


ohn I. Buck Warden Supervisor 

?. O. Box 5, Lock Haven, Pa., 

Phone: 748-7162 

3an Heyl Fishery Manager 

R. D. 1, Spring Mills, Pa., 

Phone: Center Hall Empire 4-1065 


Harold Corbln Warden Supervisor 

521 13th St., Huntingdon, Pa., 

Phone: Mitchell 3-0355 

2urtis Simes ... Fishery Manager 

Scho Glen, Huntingdon, Pa., 

Phone: Mitchell 3-3651 


Back Cover Art by John F. Clark 

POSTMASTER : All 3579 forms to be returned to Times and News Publishing Co., 
Gettysburg, Pa. 

The PENNSYLVANIA ANGLER is published monthly by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, 
South Office Building, Harrisburg, Pa. Subscription: One year— $2.00; three years— $5.00, 25 cents 
per single copy. Send check or money order payable to Pennsylvania Fish Commission. DO NOT 
SEND STAMPS. Individuals sending cash do so at their own risk. Change of address should reach 
us promptly. Furnish both old and new addresses. Second Class Tostage paid at Harrisburg, Pa., 
and at additional mailing offices. 

Neither Publisher nor Editor will assume responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts or illustrations 
while in their possession or in transit. Permission to reprint will be given provided we receive 
marked copies and credit is given material or illustrations. Communications pertaining to manuscripts, 
material or illustrations should be addressed to the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, Harrisburg, Pa. 
NOTICE: Subscriptions received and processed after the 10th of each month will begin with the 
second month following. 



SPITTIN' ON THE BAIT may be horrible “etiquette'' 
elsewhere but when a fisherman does it for luck . . . 
it'll have to do until something better comes along. 

“Number thirteen is all I have left,” said 1 
motel owner to the middle-aged gent who plainly b 
inveigled his rapt wife into her first fin-and-sc 

“No thanks !" exclaimed the fortyish fisherman, ac 
ing as he departed, “You shouldn’t even have a numt 
thirteen room !” 

This little incident, illustrating the sensitive vigor 
enduring superstition, isn’t an imaginative one ; it 
an established fact ! Indeed, it is so valid that soi 
motels have no number thirteen room and many mol 
courts under construction are skipping the disreputal 
number altogether. In one case, a lady motel owi 
had so much trouble with room 13 that she finally cc 
verted it into a storage place for lawn furniture. 

But the number thirteen is only one facet of comm 
American superstitions. Nearly everyone — from jock 
to fisherman, from woodchopper to executive, and fn 
baseball player to expert boatman — nurtures a few ] 
superstitions. Very often these “absurd” convictic 
are personal ideas not to be trifled with by curie 
meddlers. But on other occasions an individual does 
hesitate to declare his dread of broken mirrors a 
black cats, or to affirm his faith in lucky coins, wi 
bones, rabbit’s feet, etc. 

In the credible accounts of peculiar notions amc 
Homo sapiens, anglers seem to have, in addition 
many standard superstitions, a pretty nifty assortml 
of their own. One of the best known of these is I 
ritual of spitting on the baited hook before making 
cast. The purpose of this untidy but very old praci 
is, of course, a bid to mollify the disposition of La 

its Lasting Powers of Persuasion Are WidMpread-- 
Even Fishermen Are Often Swayed by That 
Strange Influence Called 


uck. In some circles it is even sagaciously proper to 
Lrich the “fish-attracting” juices through chewing 
iirious additives — anise roots, birch bark, tea leaves, 
c. Repeated cold proof that the system never produces 
:sults seems to strengthen rather than weaken staunch 
allowing of the wacky habit. 

Ancient in origin but widely upheld was the yester- 
sar belief that scattering certain “good luck” berries 
1 the water would bring success to the angler. The 
:t could be effective only if performed before a crude 
pok was baited or a pole touched at the fishing site. 
. bit of research uncovered evidence that this super- 
ition was well known to the American Indian, which 
idicates that the palefaces who adopted the practice 
puldn’t very well be rated as “heap hep.” 
t Another fairly common superstition — and one still 
aoderately in vogue — warns that a severe span of bad 
lck will surely follow the trading of rods or any parts 
lereof while on a fishing trip. But take heart, all be- 
evers ! For any number of swaps can safely be made 
t home since the “whammy” frowns only on away- 
rom-home bartering urges. 

Many intelligent, modern-day anglers are not ashamed 
) admit they like to start a new season with the very 
ime fly they last used in the preceding year. And 
rom coast to coast you can find anglers who believe it 
. bad luck to step over a fishing rod while its hook 
; in the water. 

The American Indian believed it was very bad luck 
) discover that a dog was following him on a fishing 
aunt. A special incantation was necessary in order to 
reak the evil spell- — after making certain the dog had 
een driven back out of sight. 

When next you observe a dragonfly (you may also 
now the insect as “devil’s darning-needle,” “horse- 
tinger,” or “snake-feeder”) along a favorite stream, 
onsider the absurdity of the old wives’ tale which 
ffered strong assurance that the winged scoundrel has 
mg worked regularly at the task of sewing up the 
|yes and ears of children. This belief, which still may 
jxist in some remote areas, was so widespread that it 
B referred to in some of the better up-to-date encyclo- 
edias ; and Nature Magazine once dealt with the super- 
tition and called it “utterly foolish, since the drag-on- 
ly actually characterizes a relentless hawk in destroying 
armful insects, including mosquitoes. . . .” And you 
an safely bet your finest pair of waders that the quick- 
jarting creature has never been known to sting horses 
'r feed snakes! 

Back over the years, some fishermen believed that 
errible luck was sure to trail anvone who permitted 
iiscovery of favorite fishin’ holes. Others were certain 
,t was unlucky to whistle or sing in a canoe ; and some 
hought the boom of doom would be lowered if they 
hould sell all or any part of their catch. And to see “a 
>ig, a rabbit, or a lone crow” while going fishing was the 
■ery worst kind of a sign that tough sledding was ahead. 

Analogous to the scattering of lucky berries on the 
vater was the old-time practice of offering something 

to “set aright the moods of Pisces." A small coin, 
tossed into the water, was generally considered a fair 
gift to the glittering constellation of the fishes. But 
the bribing token could also be bits of food, herbs, 
tobacco, cloth, etc. Sometimes the sacrifice was accom- 
panied by a chanted bit of hocus-pocus ; and almost 
always the whole affair could be carried out only if 
Pisces was enjoying its periodic position of “advantage" 
over other star groups in the zodiac belt. 

To this day, fishing during the fecund cycle of a 
particular sign in order to gain greater rewards from 
the piscatorial gods is so extensively popular that a 
number of almanacs still carry “Best Fishing Days,” 
“Poor Fishing Days,” etc. 

Of all the celestial influences, probably none is more 
important to the fisherman’s luck than the moon. Mam- 
people insist that fish bite best when the moon is on 
the wane. The author knows personally a very success- 
ful bass fisherman who goes after bass only when 
there is no moon at all — and the darker the better ! 
Topping off accounts of lunar power over fish be- 
havior, one superstition (origin: Arkansas) couples it 
with a wise bird and declares that if you hear an owl 
hooting in the daytime during the dark of the moon, 
. . . “get out your skillet and cornmeal and butter 
’cause the big ’uns are a-waitin’ to be taken. . . ." 

The wind, so it has long been claimed, can be either 
a helpful or harmful factor for the fisherman. When it 
is in a mean mood we’re told that fish figure in the 
situation in this manner : 

Wind in the east, bite the least. 

But on the other hand : 

Wind in the south, hook in the mouth. 

•EBRUARY— 1963 


Or, even better : 

W ind from the west, biting the best. 

And still another, to round out the directions: 
Fishermen in anger froth 
When the wind is in the north. 

Some anglers are “morning” fishermen ; others swear 
by the wisdom of afternoon or evening fishing. There’s 
even a school of midnight fishermen, hut the angler 
vigorously favoring midday fishing is a rather scarce 
item. Quite frequently a superstition of one dimension 
or another is back of the various preferences. A boy- 
hood impression, good or bad, but based on an un- 
accountable happening, often creates a spooky con- 
viction strong enough to last a lifetime. Something as 
simple as a four-leaf clover may function for the good 
side of the picture (thousands of people still eagerly 
pick ’em at every opportunity!) ; and on the unlucky 
side the agent of evil can be anything from a toad 
accidentally touched to Black Friday or a genuine Penn- 
sylvania hex. The latter, without an approved charm 
to overcome it, has reputedly put many a man into 
uncomfortable situations with such punishing critters 
as copperheads and rattlers. The fishing hex, only 
moderately bold, usually flees if confronted by “a 
mustard seed, a rose seed, and the foot of a weasel.” 
And don’t forget, all you exacting fishermen, there are 
no substitutes for these three items! 

Ridiculous, you say? Well, perhaps — but how about 
the space-age fisherman who was caught with a rabbit’s 
foot in his pocket? Or the one with a horseshoe care- 
fully secured above the entrance to his den? Consider, 
too, the angler who has carried the same lucky coin for 
the past twenty-seven years — and would rather fight a 
wildcat than part with it ! Of course we also have the 
old outdoorsman who still carries a horse-chestnut to 
ease the misery of his rheumatism. Whether any super- 
stition is ludicrous or not depends entirelv on who 
is analyzing what. 

Superstitions involving fishing in one way or an- 
other have hinged on just about anything from cats to 
comets, and from badger grease to pulverized indigo. 
Some beliefs included the building of “lucky” fires 
before baiting the beardless old-time hook ; and certain 
small bones of several special animals have in the past 
received much higher acclaim than the detached foot 
of any bunny. Also benefiting the fisherman we trace 
a master hodgepodge of handkerchiefs, eel fat, bumble- 
bees, asafetida, lady bugs, salt, and new wool socks — 
all holding alleged efficacy in the realm of mystic 
whims, if you know the secret of making them work 
for you. On second thought, however, and at this 
juncture, you may be just as well off if you don’t 
know. You doubtless have your own pampered beliefs 
in the workings of talismans, amulets and such. Don’t 
add on untried new superstitions — stick with the high- 
yielding old reliables. Mixing ’em might just cause 
1 riction and call for corrective devices in the form of 
counter charms, spell-binders, exorcisms, divining rods 
and all sorts of other cunning gizmos ! 

Just keep spittin’ on your bait and let it go at that. . . . 


The following is condensed from the book, 100 
and edited by Jim Hayes, and published by H. C. Suehr 
Co.. Steubenville Pike, Pittsburgh 5 , Pa. ($2.00). 

Of all the challenges that angling affords, the supreme ch; 
lenge is fishing for big trout in a big stream. No matter he 
accomplished a fisherman might become at taking 16- to 21 -in 
trout, this is one phase of the game that separates the m 
from the boys. 

There are a number of streams in Pennsylvania that conta 
trout over the 24-inch mark. But if you want to fish a strea 
that has a lot of them, try Bald Eagle Creek in Centre Couni 
This is a stream that regularly produces brown trout fre 
4 to 8 pounds, and occasionally trout up to 10 and even 12 poun< 

Over the past 25 years the junction pool at the mouth 
Spring Creek has yielded an average of 20 to 30 trout, thr 
pounds and over, every season. Bald Eagle Creek recent 
yielded a 27-inch brown trout under the bridge at Julian. Y> 
will hear of some enormous trout below the dam at Howard, a: 
of more lunkers in the stretch below the mouth of Fishing Cret 

There can be a world of difference, however, between a cc 
sistently good trout fishing stream and a stream which reg 
larly produces trophy trout. The reputation of Bald Eagle Cre 
is based to a large extent on its big trout. Unfortunately, ma 
anglers, hearing of the stream by reputation, come to it < 
pecting great things. And more often than not they are sac 

On a season-long basis, Bald Eagle Creek is not a stre 
you would recommend for practical trouting. After mid- June 
least four-fifths of the main stream becomes marginal. It 1 
miles and miles of barren, unproductive water. Within th 
marginal stretches, however, you will find occasional springhc 
and deep pools where the big trout can find relief from h 
water temperatures. 

One of my favorite stretches is the two-mile section betw 
Curtin and Mount Eagle. While the fishing is spotty, extrem 
so during June and July, the area contains many sizable tre 
I am thinking now of one particular pool where the large tr 
cruise out of the deep water to forage in the shallows at 
mouth of a small, spring-fed brook. It was here, in late Jul> 
1956, that I saw a half dozen trout, none of them under f 

Fishing after dark, I managed to hook and subdue one 
those fish. It was a brown trout, 26 l /i inches long, weigl 
7 pounds 4 ounces. That fish, incidentally, was consider; 
smaller than the largest trout I observed that night in 
beam of my flashlight. 

If you go to Bald Eagle Creek any time after mid-June \ 
the idea of bringing home a mess of trout, your best bet wil 
to limit your fishing to the tributary streams. However, if y 
goal is to take a trophy trout, and you are willing to re 
work to get one, then be prepared to do a lot of exploring in 
main stream. Using a stream thermometer, seek out the 
zones where the trout are likely to forage at night. 

After you have found several likely locations, try them a 
dark with either wet flies or bait. Hot, dark, calm nights 
usually best. Be prepared to spend several nights at each 1 
tion before you write it off. If you keep at this long eno 
and if you are either very smart or very lucky, you 
well find yourself tied into a trout so big you will wish 
had never heard of Bald Eagle Creek, much less gone tl 

That’s what keeps me coming back! 



Cussewago Creek Improvement Project 


(Meadville Tribune Outdoors Writer) 

Meadville Sportsmen’s Club officers and committee- 
en have done a lot of work recently on a Cussewago 
reek stream improvement project just west of Dun- 
mi Road bridge. 

And still more work is scheduled, if the water level 
:fops back shortly, on this plan for improving fishing 
id boating in summer seasons or other low stream 

An old gravel bar several hundred yards west of 
te bridge, and not far from the original Cussewago 
am off Race Street extension, had eroded away until 
:ry little of it was left. This contributed heavily to a 
•op of the stream level in summertime to far below 
istomary stages. 

Sportsmen’s Club committeemen, feeling that this 
jindition ultimately would have proved detrimental to 

t e recreational value of the Cussewago, set about to 
iprove the situation. They worked for some weeks 
^placing the former gravel bar with concrete waste 

Joe Byham, chairman of the Club’s Fish Committee, 
id others hoped that the stream level above the area 
ould be raised about a foot above its recent low-water 
vels. He and Art Webb, president of the sportsmen’s 
roup, emphasized that the project “will affect the 
ream only during the dry season when even a slightly 
igher water level is important to the fish population.” 

Good Murky Water 

The Cussewago, which enters French Creek north- 
est of Mead Avenue bridge, long had been known as 
! ne of the better muskellunge waters of Pennsylvania. 
>ut both the size and number of ’lunge caught out of 
he stream in the last few years have been decreasing, 
eteran anglers say. 

Webb said interest had been shown in the project by 
lie Pennsylvania Fish Commission, as well as Sports- 
len’s Club officers and members. The plan was origi- 
iated by Clyde Beers, a widely known area musky 
sherman. Club members have provided volunteer 
;tbor and the organization is supporting the project 


Creek Rising 

Material placed in the creek at the narrow neck of 
ie gravel bar west of Dunham Road bridge stretches 
0 feet from shore to shore. The “dam” is about two 
,eet wide at the top and perhaps two feet deep. Last 
ime work was done on the project, the temporarily 
igher Cussewago Creek waters flowed atop the fill. 

f EBRUARY— 1963 

Crawford County, placing stone, bricks and crushed concrete 
in stream to stabilize the water level. Working the project 
are Roy Neff, Wayne Wolfe, Joe Byham, Clyde Beers (on the 
end of the wheelbarrow) and Otto Seaman. 

ADDING THE SMALL DAM has raised the summer level of 
Cussewago Creek and it is now boatable for almost twc 
miles. Viewing completed project are: Harold Crist, Otto 
Seaman, Joe Byham and Art Webb, president of the Mead- 
ville Sportsmen's Club. 




Our Climate 

Our Weather 

Climate is one of the greatest upsetters of human 
plans and activities. It dictates our economy, what we 
wear, the kind of house we live in, the sort of food 
we eat, how hard we work, and even when and where 
we spend our vacations. Farmers and industrial mag- 
nets must bow to it ; all animal life, from insect to 
elephant, lives and dies under its rule. 

Mankind has never known a “normal" climate. We 
are at the tail end of an ice age, living in a time fol- 
lowing a period of climatic violence as great as any the 
earth has known. Several of these periods can be traced 
in the earth’s crust, and between them there have been 
long ages of genial climatic uniformity, looked upon 
by geologists as “normal” times. 

Climate runs in cycles. Our oldest rocks reveal gravel 
deposited under physical conditions not greatly differ- 
ent from those of today. 

We are all familiar with the daily cycle in the tem- 
perate zones : a maximum temperature in early to mid- 
afternoon and a minimum shortly before sunrise. The 
annual range is also familiar, through the variety of 
temperature, rain, snow and wind that makes up spring, 
summer, autumn and winter. 

Next in significance, probably, is the widely-accepted 
11 -year cycle corresponding to the cycle of sunspot 
frequency. Records kept for more than two centuries 
show that sunspots wax and wane in number and 
extent twice in about every 23 years on the average. 
Since the sun is the source of our heat and the basic 
cause of our weather changes, it is natural enough to 

suppose that cycles of weather should correspond 
such changes in the sun’s condition, although this 
not yet proven. 

It Is Getting Warmer 

One point about which there seems to be gene 
agreement is that the earth’s surface is getting warm 
Back in 1949, Professor G. H. T. Kimble and Prof' 
sor F. K. Flare, both of McGill University’s Depa 
ment of Geography, totted up the score for this su 
mer, added it to their charts and decided that we ; 
well on our way to a new type of climate in the cor 
tries bordering on the Atlantic coast. 

Summers, they say, are getting progressively hot 
and longer ; winters are milder. But, they hasten 
add, our historical records go back only a short c 
tance — merely for seconds on the clock of the eart 
progress. The present trend, detected in the 188( 
"may be just a shiver in the world’s weather, but 
might also be the road back to a much different dim? 

We are rising out of a cold period that had 
greatest depth about 1,500,000 years ago. Glaciers 
over the world are receding rapidly ; the permaner 
frozen subsoil in northern Canada is melting slow 
ships can now reach Spitzbergen, north of Norw 
during nine months of the year instead of the th 
months of 40 years ago. When we are entirely out 
the Ice Age there will be forests in the interior 
Greenland where the ice is now two miles thick. 

(From the Royal Bank of Canada Letter by permission) 



Climate and Food 

|No other earthly force can so mold civilizations as 
(change in climate. Men are pushed forward impetu- 
jisly in some regions and held back to a sluggish pace 
others, both physically and mentally. We think and 
ft because of the burning of food in our tissues, and 
(e speed of this burning depends largely upon the 
ipe of our food and exercise. Exercise steps up the 
te. If the temperature and humidity are too high, 
lr body temperature rises quickly. We are soon 
rostrated. So we learn to take it easy in the tropics, 
f Availability of food is important. We have seen 
jgae, a low form of plant life, thriving in hot springs 
;| 200 degrees ; there are Siberian Arctic plants whose 
lot-systems survive short periods of 90 degrees below 
fro air temperature ; but most plants grow within a 
firrow range. For each degree of latitude north of 
ije Equator and for each 400-foot increase in height 
fove sea level on this North American continent, the 
ijite of flowering of plants of the same species is re- 
plied 4 days. 

Weather and Health 

' The weather, which is a fickle actor within a change- 
ale but less hastily changing climate, has much to do 
ith our health. There is an undoubted connection 
ttween kinds of weather and prevalence of this or 
iat malady. Hay fever belongs to autumn ; what is 
fenerally called “lung trouble’’ is more prevalent in 
>ring than in midsummer ; cold damp weather in- 
■eases the discomfort of rheumatism. A tropical di- 
late favors the organisms that cause some diseases 
uch as malaria and hookworm, and reduces our resist- 
tice to disease of all kinds. 

1 We are the kind of animal that cannot live if our 
bdy temperature varies too much above or below 98.6 
egrees Fahrenheit. Through extremes of temperature, 
:om the lowest to the highest the body strives to main- 
kin a constant temperature through its own heat- 
pgulating machinery. In cold weather it speeds up the 
ite of heat production, contracts its surface blood 
essels and even produces extra circulation by shivering, 
n hot weather the surface blood vessels are enlarged to 
irry heat more quickly from the inside to the outside, 
! nd the evaporation of sweat has a cooling effect. 

As for the common cold, there probably is no disease 
rat doctors know they know less about and that every- 
Ine else thinks he knows more about. Some people 
(elieve a cold comes from lack of proper food or drink; 
;thers blame their neighbors or a draught. 

| Pepys, the English diary writer of the 1660’s, seems 
3 have been particularly susceptible, as some amusing 
xtracts from his diary will show ; “Got a cold by sitting 
po long with my head bare for Mum to comb and 
pash my ears. . . . Got a strange cold in my head, by 
[tinging off my hat at a dinner and sitting with the 
kind on my neck. . . . Caught a cold through leaving 
hy waistcoat unbuttoned.” Out of all these dire ex- 
periences he evolved a preventive device which will 

amaze many medicoes and laymen : “Myself in good 
health, but mighty apt to take a cold, so that this hot 
weather I am fain to wear a cloth before my stomach.” 

Heat waves, too, bring their perils to Americans. 
We may have difficulty in subduing our inner fires 
quickly enough to meet the sudden difficulty in heat 
loss. Thousands of us may develop heatstroke of greater 
or lesser seriousness at temperatures that would not 
bother tropical residents in the least. We are inclined 
to eat too much carbohydrate (sugar, starch and fats) 
and then expose ourselves to the sun. This means that 
we are raising heat inside and absorbing it from out- 
side at the same time. 

Wind and Weather 

We have become accustomed, since our earliest days, 
to associate certain winds with certain kinds of weather, 
and it is surprising the number of times we are right. 
Yet, say the experts, there is no clear-cut relation be- 
tween the two. It is possible, says Dr. Kimble, to have 
drought as well as rain with a southerly wind, and 
heat waves have accompanied north winds on occasion. 
It is air masses, not wind directions, that are reallv 

When the difference in temperature between the 
equatorial regions and the polar regions sets up large- 
scale movements of air, they are modified by the 
rotation of the earth, thus establishing a system of 
alternating wind belts and belts of calm. There are 
four main belts : the doldrums, the horse latitude belts, 
the trade wind belts, and the belts of the prevailing 

The prevailing westerlies are north and south of the 
horse latitude belts. The air tends to move from the 
high pressure of the horse latitudes to the low pressure 



of the poles, deflected by the earth's rotation so that 
winds blow from the southwest in the northern hemi- 
sphere and from the northwest in the southern hemi- 
sphere. The greater part of North America lies in the 
path of the prevailing westerlies. 

Our Water Supply 

When air rises, it expands and so cools to a tem- 
perature lower than at the earth’s surface. Its water 
vapor condenses, thus forming great masses of minute 
droplets, and such a cluster of visible moisture is called 
a cloud. 

Many a cloud looks as if it had been put together 
painstakingly after a year’s work of planning and 
fitting. This is certainly true of the cumulus, thick, 
mountainlike masses often seen on a summer day about 
half a mile from the ground. The cumulus is the most 
majestic of clouds, moving in stately deliberation, with 
perfectly formed and sharp outlines which are yet as 
transitory as a dream. It is said that the great painter, 
Turner, declared there were only two aspects of nature 
he would not attempt to paint : the snow of the high 
Alps and a cumulus cloud. 

Cirrus clouds are thin, featherlike formations, at a 
height of about three to ten miles, composed of minute 
ice crystals. Stratus clouds are flat layers often seen near 
the horizon early in the day, at a height of about 800 
feet. Nimbostratus clouds, our familiar rain or snow 
clouds, are dull gray, with thinner spots that suggest 
a slowly-moving light behind the veil. They may be a 
few hundred feet or a mile high. 

An inch of rain is the amount of precipitation on a 
level moisture-proof surface to the depth of one inch. 
When we say, for example, that the total annual pre- 
cipitation at Fredericton is 41.90, that means there is 

enough precipitation on the surface where it is meas- 
ured to cover it, if level and moisture-proof, to a depth 
of 41.90 inches. As a rule, about ten inches of snow is 
required to make one inch of water. An inch of rain 
is 113 short tons of water upon an acre. 

H umidity 

Humidity is just another word for moisture or damp- 
ness, but we mean far more than that when we say 
“the humidity.” That means the degree of wetness of 
the air. We may express it in a percentage, which repre- 
sents the amount of water in the air relative to the 
amount which would be present were the air saturated 
at the same temperature. A relative humidity of 40 
per cent means that the air holds 40 per cent of the 
maximum amount of moisture which it could hold at 
that temperature : if the air is saturated, the relative 
humidity is said to be 100 per cent. 

When high humidity interferes with loss of heat 
from the body, because the air is already so moist it 
cannot take up all the moisture our bodies would like 
to throw off, we are uncomfortable. Then when a humid 
spell is broken by a shower our drowsiness may vanish, 

It would be useful to have an absolute scale of com- 
fort in relation to temperature and humidity. (Scien- 
tists have established 68 degrees as suiting most office 
workers, and say the humidity should be 60 per cent.) 
But the making of such a chart runs up against the 
difficulty that there is a marked difference in wha' 
individuals call comfortable. The work in many office! 
and factories would be improved if temperatures were 
adapted to the comfort of the normal well people, ane 
let the complaining few put on more or less clothes 

Controlling Weather 

What we should like, of course, is more orderlines 
in the weather. There should be some snow and io 
in winter, so that we are willing to work hard enougl 
to enjoy a little leisure when spring comes. Sprin; 
should be a poet’s delight, with flowers and bees ant 
mating birds, and it should last two months. Summe 
should be warm enough to thaw the frost out of ou 
bones, give us the right tint of tan, and grow ou 
garden vegetables and gladioli to the right size, textur 
and shade. Autumn should be long enough for us ti 
rest after a strenuous summer, colorful enough t 
gratify our aesthetic sense, and just cool enough to eas 
us gently into winter. 

Every season should dignify itself by coming in o 
the proper date. This would enable us to make, se 
and buy clothes in a reasonably stable way, and t 
know whether it is necessary to lay in another to 
of coal. 

Till these improvements can be made, the clothin 
manufacturer, the department store, the coal deale 
and the consumer must plug along with the aid o 
Almanacs, the Meteorological Bureau and their ow 
amateur efforts at forecasting. Perhaps it is better s< 
because if our weather ideals were achieved what shoul 
we grumble about? 



Photographs by Johnny Nicklas, 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

jJnto n Vint^x 

•USE BOATS of summer are frozen and silent in Misery 
iy off Presque Isle, Lake Erie. 

iATING AND SAILING on frozen Black Moshannon Lake, 
intre County. 

ICE BOAT at anchor on Lake Erie Bay. It's a fast, thrilling 
winter sport wherever there are vast stretches of slick ice. 

EMPTY PIERS, empty slips remain but the boaters have long 
since left Conneaut Lake, Crawford County. 

A YOUNGSTER who can boast of a boat in the family is a 
lucky kid. Those many hours spent fishing with Dad wiii 
always be remembered. Also remember to check the weather 
before you stray far from the dock. 

Selecting the Proper Outboard Motor 


CHOOSING the right motor to match an outboard 
hull often presents a difficult problem — even for a 
surprisingly large number of veteran outboarders who 
have logged up three or more seasons. The typical 
mistake is not underpowering the boat, which would 
be obvious to even the greenest beginner, as much as 
with overpowering, a fault which often goes undetected. 

Perhaps one reason for picking an improper motor 
might be due to the fact that eighty-eight different 
models are marketed in the United States under twenty- 
Gx name brands. These range in size from the tiny, 
gasoline operated 17 pounder with a midget 1.7-hp 
all the way up to the new 1963 MerCruiser, which 
supplies a giant 110-hp. Trying to pick out the right 
motor may seem at the outset like a hopeless task, 
but somewhere in this wide span is the proper engine 
for your boat. 

One quick way of narrowing down the field is first 
to determine which type of the three basic hull designs 
you have — displacement, semi-displacement (planing) 
or true planing. The third and last hull can be elimi- 
nated since it is designed primarily for high-speed 
work and is restricted largely to racing. 

The displacement-type outboard is shaped to go 
through water, and has a slightly curved keel, canoe- 
like bottom and narrow stern. Prime examples are row- 
boats, dinghies, kayaks, canoes and sailboats. When 

launched the displacement-type hull sinks clown fa 
enough to displace the amount of water equivalent ti 
the total weight of boat, motor and passengers. If givei 
sufficient power, the hull pushes or displaces water witl 
its bow as it moves forward. The displaced water i 
then forced backwards, around the sides of the hull 
to fall back into position again behind the boat. 

A displacement-type boat has excellent load-carryin 
capacity, but it is not designed for high speeds. It haj 
a natural “barrier” beyond which it cannot be pushe 
except by big increases in power. For example, an IF 
foot displacement boat with a total poundage of 1,08 
pounds must displace 1,080 pounds of water for even 
18 feet it moves forward. The motor pushing this bos' 
has the work load of displacing more than 364, 80| 
pounds of water for every nautical mile it travel: 
Overpower the boat with too large a motor and it wi 
squat at the stern, drag a large bow wave and wi 
mishandle badly. Underpower it though, and the troubl 
is just as great. 

The best motor for a displacement-type hull is or’ 
that will bring it up as close to its “barrier” speed s 
possible. Trying to add more power beyond the boat 
natural limit will only result in fuel waste, poc 
handling and very little, if any, increase in speed. 

A semi-displacement or planing hull, as it is mot 
often called, is designed to ride the surface, that i 
as the speed increases, the hull lifts, levels out an 
skims along on top of the water. However, unlike tl 
hydroplane, the planing hull does displace some wat< 
as evidenced by the trough cut in the water and tl 

IT IS SIMPLE 1o distinguish the bread, fist-bottom stern of 
semi-displacement planing hull. This runabout is powered I 
the new inboard-outboard 110-hp MerCruiser designed pi 
posely for better safety and proper planing action. 



idling wake of displaced water formed at the sides and 
hhind the hull. This of course is a small technicality 
;nce the semi-displacement hull will plane correctly — 
rovided enough power is used. Underpower it and 
il will simply lean back and wallow along. 

One of the best methods of figuring out the right 
jotor for a semi-displacement hull is to allow one 
brsepower for each 35 pounds of gross weight to be 
ii.rried. If the horsepower ratio falls below this allow- 
ace, planing action fails. Figure the gross weight of 
bat, passengers, and motor, divide the total by 35, and 
le answer will be the horsepower required to plane 
je load correctly. It is always wise to add a few 
■jctra horsepowers, since they do improve control and 
Deration over this bare optimum. 

MOTORS will not make the boat go twice as fast. They 
however, give the boat better performance, better 
taneuverability and power should one engine fail. 

Boating Safety Is Many Things 


One of the big pleasures of family boating is hav- 
ing the children on board. But sometimes these midget 
mariners can present a serious problem if simple safety 
precautions are not first taken. All outboard authorities 
recommend that every child on board should be 
equipped with a modern, up-to-date life jacket. 

There are many types of life preservers on the 
market today. These range in style from the approved 
Coast Guard ring buoys all the way down the line to 
buoyant cushions. But where youngsters are concerned, 
it is a wise parent who makes sure his child has the 
collar-type life jacket. The explanation is simple: Ring- 
buoys are difficult to handle and those pretty floating 
cushions often require the victim to be an expert 

Many types of life preservers, such as the inflating 
belt, are basically designed for older members of the 
family. If worn by a child, the worst could result. If 
for example the young wearer becomes unconscious, 
and many do from shock, the nose and mouth are im- 
mersed and the child may drown. Collar life jackets 
prevent tragedies of this type. In fact, they are so de- 
signed the collar keeps the wearer’s nose and mouth 
above water under all circumstances. 

With children aboard, some thought should be given 
to capsizing. If possible, a capsized boat should give 
a signal immediately. The best way to insure this, is to 
always keep a portable, hand-operated foghorn handy 
where some older member of the family can find it 
after the boat has upset. For night boating, the crafts 
tool box should be equipped with a number of flares, 
screwed tightly into a tin can. The flares and con- 
tinuous blasting on the foghorn will almost certainly 
attract attention and help. 

Thunderstorms are dangers easily avoided. The best 
warnings, of course, are the weather reports. Look at 
the newspaper before starting out. If thunderstorms 
are predicted, you may be pretty sure that you will 
have a dose of them during the day. 

Weather reports are broadcast frequently via radio 
every day. Take the precaution to tune in on the days 
vou plan a family outing. 

MAKE IT A RULE, youngsters must wear life jackets every 
second they are in the boat. The new life jackets designed 
for children are light and colorful. The younger folks get used 
to wearing them and you'll have more peace of mind while 



EBRUARY— 1963 






Staff Photographer 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

UNDER THE STERN of a Wilmington, Del., tanker 
tied up for the winter this angler is fishing for smelt 
with a conventional spinning outfit. 

fat pei 

TRANSPORTATION over the ice takes many forms, WELCOME t< 

sleds, skiis, boxes, discs plus anything that can easily spread pretty 

be mushed. 'em in. 

PARKED CARS of hundreds of ice anglers at 
Erie's water pumping station. 

WINDBREAKS of all shapes, sizes and types 
are used at Erie Bay. This is a more com- 
monly used canvas break. 

ICE ANGLERS and skaters often vie for the same 
stretch of ice but there is plenty of room for everyone. 
This tent with a wooden raised floor can accommodate 
several persons and a good place to get out of the wind. 

angler but th< 

SOMEWHILE LATER, same angler but look at the FROZEN IN ICE AND TIME, these gizzard 
catch! shad and mooneyes are commonly seen in the 

vast reaches of Erie Bay. 

irmen may seem 
guy start pulling 

"HOW'S LUCK?" is the commony query with 
ice anglers also. One angler looks like he's 
waist deep in a hole but a closer looks shows 
he's kneeling on a cushion. 

EVERY TYPE ice fishing equipment is seen at Erie 
Bay. Simple homemade jigs are very popular. 

ithe line for one 
be interested. 

ALUMINUM TYPE windbreak of screen and plastic is 
well designed, affords good view and light to handle 
on the aluminum sled vehicle. 

STILL ANOTHER TYPE shelter from the 
winds that whip across Lake Erie ice. Erie 
granary silos are shown in the background. 


The marshy lake shore looked much as usual, 
but there was something odd about a reed near the 
water’s edge. Though it pointed skyward and blended 
magically into the mass of vertical stems, swaying with 
them in the fresh morning breeze, it had a wary yellow 
eye on each side ! 

When the breeze subsided and the stalks were 
motionless, the strange reed became rigid, too, without 
the slightest movement. That, fellow anglers, was an 
American Bittern, a triumph of camouflage if ever 
there was one. Slow and passive, minding his own 
business, he depends for safety, not on alertness and 
speed, but on his marvelously protective coloring and 
imitative postures and behavior. At the first sight or 
sound of danger he freezes in weird, unbirdlike angles, 
and becomes a snag or stick, a projecting root, or 
stems of reeds and the mottled shadows between them. 

Four stakes projecting above short marsh grass look 
like the remains of an old duck blind, but close inspec- 
tion proves them to be fledgling Bitterns, still too young 
to fly. With a nonchalance that would do credit to their 
elders, they are pretending to be sticks. 

So successful are these intriguing disguises that Bit- 
terns are more frequently heard than seen, and even 
the most observant sportsman may pass within a few 
feet of the large, brown streaked bird and never be 
aware of its presence. If you do detect it among the 
cattails and then look away, it is a problem to find it 

Such confidence do they have in this mimicry that 
they will often allow the intruder to come very near 
before they try to escape, and have even been known 
to play dead, actually allowing themselves to be picked 
up. When released, however, they fly off, feet dangling, 
big wings flopping slowly. Once underway this charac- 
teristic sluggish take-off changes to a businesslike, noise- 

less wing beat which is quicker than that of other 

Most fishermen are familiar with the hollow, vibrant 
call that seems as typical a part of swampy places as 
the rising mist and chorusing frogs. A half mile away 
it sounds like a mallet whacking the head of a stake. 
The two or three notes which are heard at closer range 

become an echoing boom, and the creaking of a wooden 
pump. The Bittern’s local names include Indian Hen 
and Green-legged Crane, but the favorites are Stake 
Driver and Thunder Pumper from these startlingly 
realistic sounds. 

Uttered most frequently in the spring, when they 
may ring out at any hour, the resounding tones may be 
heard in summer also, but rarely in the fall. Early 
rising anglers hear them before sunrise. They come 
often just after sunset, and sometimes in the middle of 
the night. In intensity and volume the male Bittern’s 
call is the loudest, most penetrating of marsh noises. 

Such an impressive boom obviously has to have an 
amplifier of some kind, and in the spring the skin of 
the neck is reinforced with gelatinous and muscular 
tissue, becoming thickened, loose and wide. The esoph- . 
agus can then be distended with air to form an elastic 
bellows, and thus inflated it becomes a resonating organ 
for the Thunder Pumper’s prodigious voice. 

If appearances mean anything, the production of this 
reverberating sound which echoes across the water is no 
easy matter. The Bittern’s violent contortions and excru- 
ciating efforts resemble nothing so much as an acute 
case of nausea. Snapping the bill open and closed, the 
head and neck are jerked down, then up and forward, 
there are hiccoughing sounds and the lower throat and 
breast begin to swell ; their dilation increases until the 
pumping is well started, and does not diminish until 
the remarkable performance is over. 





Illustrations by Elizabeth W. Leopold 

YOUNG BITTERNS on their nest on a typical slough. In the nest are two eggs of the ruddy duck. Some water- 
fowl species often dump eggs around in a promiscuous manner. — Photo by Martin Bovey, Jr. 

FEBRUARY — 1963 15 

LEAST BITTERN is a familar shore bird to most fishermen. Often called the "Shy-Poke," he bitterly resents 
being rousted from his shore line perch.— Photo by Allen D. Cruickshank from National Audubon Society. 

No ugly duckling ever exhibited a more unexpected 
adornment than the plain brown Stake Driver acquires 
in the spring. Other herons display beautiful nuptial 
plumes, but the Bitterns go them one better and parade 
a wide ruff of white or creamy feathers which seem to 
grow from the shoulders and spread around the sides. 
In order to flaunt this surprising ornament they in- 
stinctively minimize all their brownness. Resembling a 
grouse or pheasant, they crouch in unheronlike pose, 
and run with a smoothly rapid, gliding motion. With 
body almost touching the ground, the neck is lowered 
and drawn in until the head seems barely to extend in 
front of the breast. 

The spectacular ruffs, visible to an observer at a 
great distance, are shaped something like wings, with 
the tips sometimes pointing straight up, sometimes 


lowered backward. From the front the area of white 
appears almost complete, with only the head and a 
small patch of breast left dark colored. From the side 
it appears a wide band of white around the incon- 
spicuous body. Their finery, like Cinderella’s at the 
ball, can disappear in a moment, as the white “wings” 
are lowered, and then hidden by the dark, streaked 
feathers lying just in front of them. 

With a wingspread that varies from two feet four 
inches to more than four feet, and a body that may be 
from twenty-four to thirty-four inches long, the bulky!] 
American Bittern shows a greater range in size than 
almost any other North American bird. 

The spry and glossy Least Bittern, standing only 
ten inches high, seems a little fellow by comparison. 
The female, brown and nondescript, is a sharp contrast 


:o the male, with his handsome markings of greenish 
olack, chestnut and buff. Though smallest of the heron 
:ribe, they have a stout bill and sturdy legs that can 
really get around. They’d rather run than fly, and 
when the water gets too deep for wading, they simply 
run above it with lengthy steps— no, not on air, but 
with a swift, straddling gait in the reed stems ! Their 
arge flexible feet were made for grasping, and they 
dutch a single reed or two or three together, moving 
with an agility and surefootedness that can hardly be 
surpassed by a squirrel in a tree. 

Literally taking in stride the dense marsh growths 
that slow and stop their enemies, they are able to com- 
press their bodies to an incredible one inch width and 
glide through grassy crevices that their pursuers find 
impenetrable. Since water snakes are an added hazard 
in this amphibious environment, their unusual “spread- 
eagle” method of traveling is a great advantage in more 
ways than one. Even the downy young birds, with 
wings as yet undeveloped for flight, can progress, es- 
cape, and hide in this medium between air and water. 

Besides their unusual facility in running away, the 
resourceful Least Bitterns have three other ways to 
cope with danger. Most original is the realistic imita- 
tion of a broken reed. When surprised on the nest they 
assume a statuesque wooden attitude with bill pointed 
straight up, feathers of head and neck so compressed 
they seem glued to the skin and hardly wider than 
the bill, and feathers of the lower neck held out in front 
of the body and narrowed to a point which matches the 
bill at the other end. The body is flattened into the 
nest so that the stiff little head and neck seem entirely 
separate. They hold this position without the slightest 
quiver of movement until the trespasser is almost upon 

The second strategy uses a different technique : the 
straight neck and up-pointed beak are fitted between 
two flag stems and all the neck feathers fluffed out 
as fully as possible, the streakings of dark and light 
merging into flags and the spaces between. 

The third method, surprising in a member of the 
nonagressive heron family, is a plucky and fierce de- 
fense of nest and young. Wings are spread, every 
feather stands out, and the brave defender appears 
three times normal size. The head is drawn back on 
the shoulders, the sharp spear of a bill aims for a thrust 
at the enemy, and this shy bird, much preferring to live 
in peace and privacy, is prepared to give battle. 

Not a boomer, like his large relative, the Least Bit- 
tern has a voice that is improved by distance. Heard 
jonly in the mating season it sounds, near at hand, harsh 
and raucous with a touch of the hollow quality. Farther 
away it becomes soft and cooing, almost like a dove's. 

The young have an unusually aggressive method of 
getting food. When the parent bird returns to the nest 
the babies, even those newly hatched, jump at his beak 
until one gets hold of it, seizes it at right angles, and 
pulls his head down. The young then thrust their bills 
into that of the adult bird, one at a time, and another 
feeding is accomplished. 


In behavior and characteristics Bitterns are different 
in several ways from other herons. They are more 
stolid, less active, and they are seldom seen in the open ; 
they practically never alight or roost in trees, but al- 
ways on the ground ; they are not gregarious, do not 
nest in colonies, and are usually found singly or in 
pairs ; their flights are low, and for the most part 
short, as they drop back into the concealment of marshy 

The home territory of Bitterns and their kind de- 
creases every year, as swamplands are drained to supply 
more acres for cultivation, and as crowding populations 
expand into untouched areas. Bitterns are a part of 
the disappearing wild regions that conservationists are 
striving against such odds to preserve for future gen- 
erations. Like the quiet water and its reflections of 
clouds and sky, like the bullfrog’s croak and the rustle 
of dry reeds, the Thunder Pumper’s booming voice 
belongs to the unspoiled remoteness that marks the 
mood and special fascination of the marsh country. 




G. Max Noll, District Fish Warden for Susquehanna 
County, Northeast Region, has retired from the service 
of the Fish Commission after 21 years. Mr. Noll was 
born November 5, 1900, and graduated from Montrose 
High School, class of 1918. He was formerly employed 
in the electrical field and appointed a state fish warden 
on March 12, 1941. He is married to the former Frances 
Jonas and they have one daughter. Along with Warden 
Lithwhiler, he was honored at a special testimonial 
dinner in their dual honor, receiving many fine gifts. 

Fish Commission President Maynard Bogart and 
other Commission personnel attended the affair. 

Charles C. Litwhiler, District Fish Warden for 
Montour and Northumberland Counties, Northeast 
Region of the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, has re- 
tired after 20 years of service. He was born on April 
6, 1897, was educated in Locust Township Public 
Schools and formerly employed in the maintenance sec- 
tion of the Pennsylvania Department of Highways. Fie 
served in World War I. He is married to the former 
Anna Viola Crawford and they have four children. Mr. 
Litwhiler and G. Max Noll were the recipients of many 
fine gifts at a dinner held recently at Harveys Lake in 
their honor. 


While on patrol last November in the Hallton section of Elk 
County, I came upon a car parked at the mouth of Spring 
Creek and figured it was a hunter. Upon further investigation 
I found a man fishing the Clarion River just upstream from the 
confluence of Spring Creek. As I checked his license he ex- 
plained he hunts only rabbits and when he has poor luck at it 
turns to the fishing rods he carries in the car at all times. 
I checked his fish bag, skeptical as to what I would find. 
Along with a few overgrown chubs he had the following: Six 
yellow perch from 9 to 12 inches ; about a half dozen bullheads, 
10 to 15 inches and 15 large white suckers. He had fish biting 
on both rods at once. Irony of this story is the fact the angler 
was 67 years old, the weather was very cold, windy and raining 
. . . he was soaked to the skin. As I walked back to my car 
and thought about the old vet and the miserable weather I said 
to myself. . . . “Duck hunting — Si ! . . . Fishing . . . No !” — 
District Warden Bernard D. Ambrose (Elk). 

Early Thanksgiving morning while at Lyman Run Lake I 
was surprised to see the number of nice trout held over in the jl 
lake from the past season. I watched and counted at least 50 
trout feeding on the surface. I was unable to find what they 
were feeding on but it was definitely a hatch of flies. — District 
Warden Kenneth Aley (Potter). 


While patrolling the Susquehanna River near Hoover’s 
Island below Selinsgrove one morning I noticed a flock of i 
American merganser hens feeding on a riffle. Among these! 
colorful ducks was a lone sea gull. I then noticed a flock of! 
gulls flying about this group and each time one of the flock 
attempted to land, the lone gull drove him off. Some time later 
the group of gulls flew on. Either our lone gull had laid claim 
to a harem of merganser hens or else the ladies were stirring 
up a gourmet’s delight on the riffle. — District Warden Richard 1 
W. Fry (Union and Snyder). 




The PENNSYLVANIA ANGLER is proud to present this record of long service to the 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission honoring the following employes as the year ig63 began. 

^^—25 Years or more 

20 Years or more 

Dorothy Schaar 

Russell G. Bender 

Budd Sampsell 

David J. Doyle 

Albert Besecker 

James Owen Clark 

Robert H. Brown 

Clemo McCleland 

Howard L. Fox 

Philip R. Stark 

Albert S. Brungart 

Ambrose Critchfield 

Jacob Knisely 

Warren R. Hammer 

Charles M. Burd 

LeRoy E. Sorenson 

James L. Biddle 

George Magargel 

Alton P. Confer 

Melbourne O. Sorenson 

John C. Lockhart 

Roswell Smith 

Frederick H. Leitzell 

Arthur D. Bradford 

Andrew J. Tate 

Roy Smith 

James A. May 

Kenneth P. Alev 

Russell H. Weaver 

Blair Strayer 

Tony Catalfu 

Claude B. Baughman 

J. L. Zettle 

John A. Pratt 

Theodore J. Dingle, Jr. 

Minter C. Jones 

Donald L. Houser 

William C. \\ ert 

Samuel C. Griffey 

William E. Mcllnay 

Neils P. Sorenson 

*Paul S. Pechart 

Charles N. LeDane 

John S. Ogden 

T. J. Dingle 

James H. Banning 

Harry B. Naugle 

Lester C. Ogden 

Metro P. Dorosh 

Norman L. Blum 

John Seiders 

Clarence Shearer 

Willard T. Ralston 

Leland E. Cloos 

W. J. Clark Sheaffer 

S. Carlyle Sheldon 

James E. Stum 

Sam F. Henderson 

Herman H. Walker 

Norman W. Sickles 

Merrill 0. Lillie 

Clifton Iman 

Charles Bourke 

James Starner 

Charles F. Stark 

Cyril G. Regan 

Gordon C. Burdick 

Harold A. Stitzer 

Julius F. Terry 

Glen Spencer 


Veteran Commission Employe Dies 

Paul S. Pechart, R. D. 5, Carlisle, Pa., passed away 
recently at his home. He was a veteran of 25 years' 
service with the Pennsylvania Fish Commission and his 
[name appears on the list of Veteran Employes in this 
llissue of the PENNSYLVANIA ANGLER. He was 
employed at the Huntsdale Hatchery and was a World 
War II veteran. 

District Warden Kenneth G. Corey (Warren) and Norman 
L. Blum (Forest and Clarion) reported excellent walleye fish- 
ling in the Allegheny River during the cold, frosty nights of 
■late fall, many of these fish in the 26-28-inch class, weighing 
■from 4 to 9 pounds. 

Fishermen on Lake LeBoeuf (Erie) are finding thai mus- 
kellunge do not prefer large bait in November. But seven 
muskies were taken on 6-8-inch bait on spinning tackle and these 
fish ranged from 34 to 45 inches, the largest weighing 25 
pounds. District Warden Norman E. Ely (Erie). 

Several nice muskellunge were taken from Gordon Lake 
(Bedford) in November past. Ray Koontz of Bedford, Pa., 
caught a 37-inch muskie along with four walleyes between IS 
and 22 inches long. Another fisherman from Cumberland, Md.. 
took a 42-inch muskie. On Thanksgiving Day three anglers 
caught 12 walleyes from Gordon Lake, smallest 18 inches, 
largest going 26 inches. — District Warden William E. Mclllnay 



Walleye and muskie action in the French Creek area was 
I, reported good with walleyes up to 10 pounds taken. Anglers had 
| a tough time getting muskie-size bait during the late fall period 
and this may have detracted from the numbers taken in a fine 

( season. — Raymond Hoover, District Warden (Crawford). 

j .. * 

i While checking two elderly gentlemen at Glade Run Lake 
»( Butler), I noticed two shotguns resting against a tree and I 
tasked them if they were hunting ducks along with their fishing. 

They told me they had hunted small game from 7 a.m. to 
IlO a.m., were going to fish until 2 p.m. then play a round of 

I "golf until 5 p.m. ... a full schedule for two retired veteran 
sportsmen. — Clifton E. Iman, District Warden (Butler and 

The muskie program of the Commission on the North Branch 
of the Susquehanna River is going well with many anglers very 
enthused about catching a big one. I have had reports of under- 
size muskies being caught with one legal fish measuring 31 
inches. Fall fishing has been fine. — District Warden, Willard G. 
Persun (Bradford). 


Peter Nishnick of Waterford and vice president of Gem 
City Outdoorsmen’s Club caught several undersize walleye in 
French Creek last year. Before releasing them he would clip a 
fin. While fishing this past fall he caught an 18-inch walleye 
that had a clipped fin and he is certain this fish is one he 
returned the previous year. — District Warden Norman E. Ely 





Fellow anglers, the off-season is here and it’s time to take 
a good, hard look at your tackle to see if it needs mending. Nine 
times out of ten some of it does. Your first look into the tackle 
box is bound to be one of dismay. Quite often you’ll find dirty 
lures with dull and rusty hooks entangled amid monofilament 
lines and leaders ; your reels need cleaning and it seems as 
though someone had dumped everything together helter-skelter. 

“How can I ever get this mess cleaned up?” you wonder. 
Well that “someone'’ who made the mess was you, but if you 
follow these tips you should have no trouble fixing your tackle 
and you will find you have plenty of time in which to do it. 

No, don't dump the tackle box on some old newspapers as 
you may be tempted to do; repair your tackle in an orderly 
manner. Remove your lures from the box, checking each as 
you take them out. Untangle any monofilament lines and leaders 
still usable and wind them on old line spools. Plugs which need 
repairs should be kept apart from those which don’t. 

Now let’s clean up that dirty tackle box. You’ll find aerosol 
cleaners extremely handy and time-saving on both steel and 
aluminum tackle boxes. Then, after your tackle box has been 
cleaned, you can set it aside and work on your plugs. 

That favorite lure of yours is probably all chewed up, if 
it’s a wooden plug ; plastic wood, sandpaper and varnish come 
in handy here. Maybe you need new hooks. Old hooks should 
be sharpened and rusty ones exchanged for new. (See illustra- 
tion.) Any of your plastic lures, however, will probably need 
only new hooks. Remember that the keener your hooks, the 
more fish you will catch as sharp hooks are surer, easier to set. 

Aerosol cleaners are handy for plugs. SOS pads, a little 
water and some elbow grease will make those old, scratched 
spinners and spoons shine like new, as enticing as ever. 

NEEDLE-SHARP HOOKS are "sure-set" hooks when sharp- 
ened via a small hone. Replace rusty hooks, straighten bent 
ones with pointed pliers. 

OLD WOODEN PLUGS take on lost glamour when fitted with 
new hooks and a coat of varnish or clear lacquer applied. 

North American Wildlife Conference 
Scheduled March 4-6 in Detroit 

Albert W. Trueman, director, The Canada Council, 
Ottawa, will be the chairman of the first general session 
of the 28th North American Wildlife and Natural 
Resources Conference that will be held March 4-6 in 
the Statler Hilton Hotel, Detroit, Mich. William A. 
Kluender, director, Agricultural and Resource Develop- 
ment Department, Chicago and Northwestern Railway, 
Chicago, will serve as the session vice chairman and 
discussion leader. 

“Sinews of Security” is the theme of the opening 
session on Monday morning, March 4. Session speakers 
will include Fred A. Harrison, vice president, Canadian 
International Paper Company; Edward A. Weeks, edi- 
tor, “The Atlantic Monthly”; Marion S. Monk, Jr., 
president, National Association of Soil and Water 
Conservation Districts; and Ira N. Gabrielson, presi- 
dent, Wildlife Management Institute. 

The North American Wildlife and Natural Resources 
Conferences are sponsored each year in a major city 
by the Wildlife Management Institute. Many of the 
nation’s foremost conservation leaders, biologists, tech- 
nicians, sportsmen, and outdoor writers regularly at- 
tend the three-day meetings. All sessions of the con- 
ferences are open to the public and interested persons 
may register and attend without charge. “Conservation’s 
Common Frontier” is the overall theme of this year’s 

Lehigh Club Elects New Officers 

Carl Weiner, formerly of the Executive Committee, has been 
elected president of the Lehigh Fish and Game Protective As- 
sociation, replacing Mark Passaro. Dick Jacobs was elected vice 1 
president replacing Mike Fedorak. R. P. Stimmel continues as 
secretary and Bill Minnich remains as treasurer. Ben Roth 
starts his second term as financial secretary. Filling the four 
vacancies on the Executive Committee will be Frank Baddick, 
Harold Plusch, Homer Wambold and Paul Corbiere. Delegates l 
named to the Lehigh County Federation were Calvin J. Kern 
and Ray Krause. Their alternates are Ralph Rhodes and Mark 



CHECK LEADERS for wind knots. Generally these can be 
undone with the point of a needle. A wind knot is a simple 
overhand knot but it can reduce the strength of a tippet 
by one-half. 



Someone once made the sage observation that there isn’t much 
lifference between grownups and kids; the grownups’ toys just 
•ost more. Most hobbyists accumulate a formidable assortment 
>f the various “playthings” which help to make hobbies in- 
eresting — and anglers, with their tackle, fit into this category. 
Df course, there are fishermen who fish happily year after 
i-ear (and successfully, too) with a dog-legged old rod held 
ogether with tape and optimism while others collect custom- 
nade rods and rarely use them. Between these two extremes is 
he average angler who loves to fish and enjoys using a good 
lutfit even when the fish are not hitting. 

Winter is the time to look over your tackle and attend to 
he pleasant chore of getting your equipment in shipshape 
■ondition for the coming season. The photo-illustrations are a 
ew reminders of tackle items that should be checked. While 
he check points shown apply to fly tackle, the same cotisidera- 
ions should be given spinning and bait casting gear. 

One important suggestion not shown ; check boots and 
vaders for leaks. Opening day water is ice-cold, a fact to 
vhich I can uncomfortably attest. 

With reasonable care, the angler’s tackle will serve well 
or many seasons. The little repairs that are occasionally needed 
lot only put your equipment in good working order but furnish 
|m excuse to get out your pet outfit and reminisce over past con- 
gests. — And that’s not a bad deal on a long winter evening. 

CHECK FOR FRAYED rod windings with a magnifying glass. 
Varnish on bamboo rods should be carefully examined and 
if badly cracked, rod should be refinished. Small scuff- 
marks on varnish can be remedied by lightly buffing area 
with steel wool and applying a little varnish with fingertip. 

DRY FLIES that have done their job well are bound to be 
somewhat matted from fish slime. Steaming will usually re- 
store flies to good condition. Crowding too many dry flies 
in a single compartment will cause hackles and tails to 
"set" out of shape. 

MODERN FLOATING fly lines are virtually trouble-free, but 
once the finish begins to crack it's best to start looking for 
a new line. An isolated crack or two can sometimes be filled 
in with varnish, but when line is cracked in regular intervals 
(as above) it becomes an abomination to use and should be 



fyo-l&tll Outdlo-O-tlA, ^U(l£ zmUIUlE ( l LEVJ 




The tensile strength of spider webs is well known by those 
who use these tiny filaments in the manufacture of scopes and 
scientific instruments. Yet, it came as a surprise to learn that 
spider strands are capable and strong enough to “hang” a 

Such was the fact conveyed by Scott Johnson, of Berwick, 
when he displayed the unusual photograph of a snake caught 
in a spider web. The location of the strange occurrence was a 
rock ledge in the gorge through which flows that magnificent 
trout stream, the Big Wapwallopen. While fishing in a frothing 
pool beneath one of the giant waterfalls, he glanced at the 
nearby cliff and was startled by the sight that greeted him. 
A watersnake was suspended in midair. Its tail was entangled 
in the filaments of a spider web. It was completely exhausted 
by the fruitless struggle to gain freedom. 

Johnson critically focused the miniature camera that was 
slung about his neck, and complimented himself for having 
included his camera on this trip astream. The photograph 
reproduced here is the one Johnson snapped that day. An arrow 
superimposed on the picture calls attention to the thin strands 
of spider webbing that “hung” the snake securely. 

Abraham Lincoln, born 161 years ago, stands taller with each 
passing year. In his Gettysburg Address he said that his words 
would not long be remembered. They can never be forgotten. 
7 heir truth, their wisdom, shine more brightly as the decades 
roll by. His admonishment, ‘‘government of the people, for the 
people and by the people . ' is a thing that Americans should 
remember very clearly in this troubled era. 

Math was never my strong point in school, mainly, I think 
because I was usually asked such questions as “How mud ; 
roofing would be required for a building of so many square fee t 
when the roof pitch is so many degrees?” Since I could nevei 
really foresee the time when I would need to know this, I hac 
a great deal of trouble working up any enthusiasm for figurine .< 
it out. But I don’t want you to think that I’m a complete idio fe 
about figures, in spite of what some of the men of my acquaint s 
ance might say ; I can usually balance the checkbook withou 
too much difficulty and sometimes I get carried away and fine 1 
myself actually enjoying making out income tax returns — unti 
the horrible realization that those figures I end up with actually 
have to be paid! When my mother, sister, and I shop for eacl i 
other we get involved in extremely complicated financial deal 
which we carry in our heads for months until we are practicalb 
even again and nineteen cents will clear the slate so we cai 
start all over again. These financial maneuverings leave ou 
more mathematically-oriented husbands not only lost but awe 

Now even I know that 2X leader material is heavier than 6X ; 
I’ve known this practically forever and I can even remember it 
But is that good enough for the fellows around here? No, X’: | 
are not accurate enough ; they insist on measuring leaders witl 
micrometers and calling them complicated things like .0041 oi 
.0094. When talk turned to leaders and tippets we might a; 
well have been speaking different languages. They rattled of 
figures while I murmured pitifully, “But what X is that— 
approximately?” They spent several evenings with paper anc:j 
pencil trying to teach me the fine points of the decimal system! 
but by the time I went fishing again, I’d forgotten. They fixec 
me up with a leader dispenser and marked the sizes in decimal 
and the only way I could tell which X was which was to fee 
them and that didn’t work too well when it was cold and 
fingers were numb. So I gathered up all my little spools o: 
leader material which were marked with X’s and stacked then 
up in order of size, strung them on an old piece of yarn, knottec 
the yarn and stuck the whole works in my jacket pocket. Tht 
fellows thought it was a horrible-looking mess but it workec 
very well. I had 2X, 3X, 4X, 5X, 2X, and 7X. That secont 
2X spool really held 6X but I knew that because it was between: 
5X and 7X. I never let the men see that one because they ge 
rather unreasonably upset over things like that. I do dislik 
upsetting them so I kept trying to think of a way to remember 
their darned decimals. So one day I mentally added a dollai 
sign in front of all those numbers — and do you know, I’ve nevei 
had a bit of trouble with them since although I still carry in}; 
spools strung on yarn and privately translate figures into X’sl 
The men were very pleased with me and although they agree 
that I’m no mathematical genius, they concede that I do under- 
stand money — even down to mills. 

I love old trees 

That lift up their voices 

High above the grasses. 

They do not sing 

At the light wind’s bidding: 

They chant alone to storms. 



fyli and tf-ly 


WHEN a man has spent better than four decades in pursuit 
if trout he looks upon certain patterns of flies with real affec- 
tion. The better specimens of brown trout that have been able 

f o survive, become sophisticated, and a challenge to the skill 
f the expert, are taken more often by some simple, drab- 
olored fly. While the amateur tries his skill on the brighter, 
lore complicated patterns, the experienced angler prefers those 
If simple construction that can, if necessity arises, be improvised 

I ffiile angling. 

The Blue Spider can be turned out by a skilled craftsman 
t the rate of at least a dozen per hour. It consists of a body 
pun from the underfur of rabbit or muskrat, a tail consisting 
f three or four strands of lemon wood duck flank. The hackle 
5 bronze blue dun that matches the body color as closely as 
•ossible. We prefer to color our own hackles by taking a pale 
ringer neck and using Blue Dun dye. The result is a mouse 
;ray that reflects a bronze sheen when held toward the light. 

The Blue Spider is a versatile fly in stream practice. It is 
. fair imitation of most of the grayish colored naturals that 
an be found from the beginning to the end of season. It can 
>e used in all sizes from ten to twenty. The smaller sizes are 
o imitate the tiny slate colored midges that are abundant in 
imestone streams. Size fourteen and larger will fool trout 
vhen the early hatches of Quill Gordon and Hendrickson are 
>n the water. 

The fly can also be used effectively as a spent imitation or 
j'l hatching nymph by wetting the lower hackles and stroking 
hem back along the body while the upper hackles are dressed 
vith flotant. The fly then lies awash at the surface. In this 
Position it is taken for a hatching nymph at the beginning of 
! i hatch. 

By omitting the dressing this fly can be fished as a wet or 
he hackles may be stroked back and secured with a single turn 
)f tying silk to make a nymph imitation. The muskrat nymph 
hat has been so highly publicized in recent years is a child of 
:he Blue spider. The same result may be obtained by clipping 
he hackle or burning it with a cigarette. 

Here is a pattern that will serve the angler as a wet, a dry, 
i nymph and a spent wing. Try it! 

Your Fishing License Expires 
-February 28, 1963- 
For Another Year of Fishing Fun 
And Relaxation ... Buy Your New 
License Now! 


Silent Spring by Rachel Carson. 368 x pages. Illustrated 
with thumbnail sketches. Published by Houghton Mifflin Com- 
pany, 2 Park Street, Boston, Mass.; 1962. Price $5. 

Champions of the anti-pesticides, anti-spraying school hail 
this new book as a long-needed national expose of the hazards 
and fallacies of chemical biocide programs. Manufacturers of 
the chemicals, dealers, and the various interests who, in one 
way or another, have financial stakes in the use of chemical 
poisons, hastened their side of the story into print. The charges 
and counter-charges have been many, sometimes heated, and 
always righteous. The virtue or the irascibility of arguments 
both for and against the whole spectrum of pesticides is judged 
mostly by an individual’s position. There is little middle ground 
in the great pesticides debate ; the superior forces lie with those 
who are patently for pesticides and those who patently oppose 
their use. 

The person who wishes to familiarize himself with the reasons 
for the pesticides problem should read this book. The application 
of pesticides in various insect control and agricultural pro- 
grams has been accompanied by the death and debilitation of 
livestock, pets, birds, fish, and other animals. Those things did 
happen ; they were reported by respected and authoritative 
observers. So pesticides can be a threat to society, and how 
large a threat they pose to man, his possessions, and surround- 
ings is actually the subject of the debate between those who 
would and those who would not use pesticides. 

Silent Spring really does not resolve anything ; it apparently 
is not intended to. Its principal purpose appears to be to in- 
form, to alert, to arouse. Its practical result, it is hoped, 
would be to help the interested public conclude that far more 
study and investigation must be done before either side can 
remotely claim a victory. Taking the long-range view, these 
problems will be with mankind for years to come. Caution in the 
use of pesticides is the best policy in the absence of knowledge. 

I Vc stand on the new frontier where science and its machines 
threaten man. Our industrial plants and our modern con- 
veniences have ruined many of our rivers and lakes. The uproar 
of motors penetrates deeper and deeper into the remaining 
wilderness areas. Man has a constantly diminishing chance to 
find any retreat. Yet with the expanding population rue need 
expanding wilderness areas where youngsters and old folks 
alike can escape the dreariness of life for an hour, a day, 
or a month and once more become in tune with the universe. 

— Wm. 0. Douglas 


/ / / 

FORTY INCHES of fightin' musky, 1934 
pounds, taken by Nelson Shultz of Baden, 
Pa., at Tionesta Dam, Forest County, 
on September 16, 1962. 

THIRTY-FOUR INCHES, 14 pounds of 
catfish, caught by Samuel Gerber of 
Elizabethtown, Pa., from the Susque- 
hanna River near Falmouth. The fish 
was taken on a live minnow and put up 
a good battle. 

FIRST FISHIN' TRIP for seven-year- 
old William F. Meller of Pittsburgh, Pa., 
netted him this nice string of yellow 
perch from a party boat in Lake Erie 
recently. William declared ... "I want 
to go again." 

FORTY-ONE INCHES, 19 pounds of 
northern pike caught by Mahlon Woley 
(center), Somerset, R. D. 1, Pa., last 
August. At left is John Buliat and right, 
Carl Wooley, both of Somerset, helping 
to hold the giant. 

Photo by Somerset Daily American staff. 

Clip. cMene 


Official Publication of the Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

Pennsylvania's Finest Fishing Magazine " 

Enclosed is $ for my (New) (Renewal) 

1 year (12 issues) $2.00 

3 years (36 issues) $5.00 

Includes Full Sel — 46 — Fishing Maps Free 

Please send to: 


Address ... 


Make check or money order payable to the Pennsylvania 
Fish Commission 


Cash sent at your own risk. STAMPS NOT ACCEPTABLE. 

Sub-fieHO- 'UJeailte'i 2*uq, 


If you're going to be a “Compleat Angler,” you’ll have 
to know the terminology of your sport. Try this: 

All right : Splendid 
7, 8, or 9 right : So-So 
6 or less right : Sorry 


1. Line A. An old tradition in Virginia 

2. Reel ... B. One of the commercial forms in 

which tobacco is sold ... or an 
old horse . . . and contrary to 
fact, it never holds fire ! 

3. Sinker C. Temptation 

4. Rod D. Skillful use of words 

5. Troll E. A monster out of a fairy tale 

6. Bait F. Washed down with breakfast 

coffee at the “Greasy Spoon” 
when the wife’s visiting her folks. 

7. Fly G. A baseball batted high, wide, 

and handsome. 

8. Plug H. A graceful exercise carefully 

practiced by most all football 

9. Tackle I. Measure of length 

10. Spinning ... J. A homey but noble skill of pio- 
neer women. 


f : 01 H : 6 a : 8 D : Z 0 : 9 

3FS T-V d-£ V : Z CL 1 



- Also - 

famiay ‘pieef 

Pennsylvania Waters-Highway Maps 
Of Every County in the State 
Except Philadelphia 

(while they last) 

— 46 — 


(Formerly sold at $ 18.95 per set) 

With Every Three-Year Subscription to the 





MARCH 1963 



Albert M. Day 
Executive Director 

Dr. Albert S. Hazzard 
Asst. Director 

Warren W. Singer 
Assistant to Executive Director 

Paul F. O’Brien 
Administrative Officer 

Paul J. Sauer 



Aquatic Biology 

Gordon Trembley .. Chief 

Fish Culture 

Howard L. Fox Superintendent 

Real Estate and Engineering 

Cyril G. Regan ..... . . Chief 

Edward Miller . ... Asst. Chief 

Laiu Enforcement 

William W. Britton .... Chief 

Conservation Education-Public Relations 
Russell S. Orr ... _ Chief 



S. Carlyle Sheldon Warden Supervisor 

1212 E. Main St., Conneautville, Pa., 

Phone: 3033 


Minter C. Jones Warden Supervisor 

R. D. 2, Somerset, Pa. Phone: 6913 


H. Clalr Fleeger Warden Supervisor 

Box 64, Honesdale, Pa. Phone: 253-3724 

Terry Rader Fishery Manager 

R. D. 3, Honesdale, Pa. Phone: 253-2033 


John S. Ogden Warden Supervisor 

1130 Ruxton Rd., York, Pa. .... Phone: 2-3474 

Robert Bielo Fishery Manager 

Holtvvood, Pa., 

Phone: Rawlinsville Butler 4-4128 

Pennsylvania Anyleb 

Published Monthly by the 

William W. Scranton, Governor 


Maynard Bogart, President Danville 

Joseph M. Critchfield, Vice President Confluence 

Gerard J. Adams Hawley Albert R. Hinkle, Jr. . 

Wallace C. Dean ..... Meadville R. Stanley Smith ... 

John W. Grenoble Carlisle Raymond M. Williams .. 

MARCH, 1963 

..... Clearfield 
East Bangor 

VOL. 32 NO. 3 


JOHNNY NICKLAS. Photographer 


A DAY' — Albert M. Day, Executive Director, Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

6 PREVENTING LAND CANCER — M. Graham Netting, Carnegie Museum 





19 SWING INTO SPRING — photo story by Johnny Nicklas, photographer. Penn- 
sylvania Fish Commission 



Cover Photo — Wetting the First Line of the Season 
By Gordon L. Strobeck 

Inside Cover — Nice Catch of March Suckers 

Back Cover — A Wonderful Sign of Spring 
Photos by Johnny Nicklas 


John I. Buck Warden Supervisor 

P. O. Box 5, Lock Haven, Pa., 

Phone: 748-7162 

Dan Heyl Fishery Manager 

R. D. 1, Spring Mills, Pa., 

Phone: Center Hall Empire 4-1065 


Harold Corbln Warden Supervisor 

521 13th St., Huntingdon, Pa., 

Phone: Mitchell 3-0355 

POST M AST ER : All 3579 forms to be returned to Times and News Publishing Co., 
Gettysburg, Pa. 

The PENNSYLVANIA ANGLER is published monthly by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, 
South Office Building, Harrisburg, Pa. Subscription: One year— §2.00; three years— $5.00, 25 cents 
per single copy. Send check or money order payable to Pennsylvania Fish Commission. DO NOT 
SEND STAMPS. Individuals sending cash do so at their own risk. Change of address should reach 
us promptly. Furnish both old and new addresses. Second Class Postage paid at Harrisburg, Pa., 
and at additional mailing offices. 

Neither Publisher nor Editor will assume responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts or illustrations 
while in their possession or in transit. Permission to reprint will be given provided we receive 
marked copies and credit is given material or illustrations. Communications pertaining to manuscripts, 
material or illustrations should be addressed to the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, Harrisburg, Pa. 
NOTICE: Subscriptions received and processed after the 10th of each month will begin with the 
second month following. 


Less Thun a Penny u Day 


Executive Director 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission 


ThE Pennsylvania Fish Commission on January 21, 
in an effort to improve its financial condition, voted to 
request the Legislature to approve a $2 increase in all 
fishing licenses. In other actions, the group moved to 
request General Fund appropriations to provide the 
Commission’s share of a Federal Accelerated Public 
Works Program and to finance specified capital im- 
provement projects. In addition, the Commission also 
voted to request the Administration for legislation 
which would make the necessary changes in the boating 
law so that it will conform to the requirements of the 
Federal Bonner Act. 

If the fishing license increase is granted it is expected 
that $650,000, or two-thirds of the anticipated million 
dollar increase, will be needed to place the organization 
back on the same footing it was eighteen months ago. 
The other one-third, or $350,000, would be used to 
expand services for those who fish in Commonwealth 

If a General Fund appropriation of $300,000 is au- 
thorized to match a similar amount available to the 
state through the Federal Accelerated Public Works 
Program, it will be possible to immediately undertake 
a sizable stream improvement operation and develop 
two large lakes and an important boating access area 
on Lake Erie benefiting fishermen and reducing unem- 
ployment in critical areas. 

If the request for a General Fund appropriation of 
$1,136,000 for capital improvements only is approved 
a new hatchery will be constructed to replace the fish 

production lost at the Spring Creek facilities in Centre | 
County. Production at these installations has been se- j 
riously curtailed because of pollution from State College.: j 
Badly needed rehabilitation of the hatchery system, de- 
velopment of sixteen additional access sites ; construc- 
tion of a fishing lake, and payment of General State 1 ; 
Authority obligations could also be accomplished. 

If the proposed amendments to the boating law are , 
approved by the Legislature the increase in revenues j 
would assure better services for boaters of the Com- I 
monwealth. An increased boating safety program, in- 
cluding accelerated safety patrol of all boating waters i 
and buoying and marking of dangerous channels would 1 1 
be instituted. The vacant assistant director for boating ! 
position would be filled. 

There is a growing interest in all forms of outdoor < 
recreation in Pennsylvania. We cannot afford to let the ! 
important elements of fishing and boating deteriorate 
However, continuing all of the functions of the Fish i 
Commission on a fixed income in the face of increasec j 
costs of services and commodities is no more possible 
than operating a home when income has failed to keep: j 
pace with cost of living increases. 

The sale of Pennsylvania fishing licenses reached it: 
peak in 1953 when more than 750,000 licenses were 
sold. This number decreased gradually until it seem, 1 
to have leveled off at about 600,000. 

During this same period operating expenses — salaries i 
wages, equipment, supplies, fish food and even postage, j 
— have continued to increase. 



Perhaps it is of little comfort to compare our situa- 
.ion in Pennsylvania with neighboring states, but I 
should point out that the trend here is not peculiar. 
Nearly all the eastern, and some midwestern, states 
lave shown similar declines in license sales. New York, 
\Vest Virginia, Maryland, Ohio and Michigan, and 
others are undergoing the same fiscal crisis that we 
ire here in Pennsylvania. 

A recent national survey conducted by the U. S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service points out that only two cents 
if the fishermen’s dollar goes toward his license fees, 
yet this is the only means of supporting, managing and 
:reating better fishing. The other ninety-eight cents 
, r oes for incidentals such as boats, gas, oil, food, cloth- 
ng, tackle, etc. 

When it became evident in August, 1961, that ex- 
penditures were exceeding income, the Fish Commission 
lid the only wise thing that a responsible agency could 
lo. Expenditures were cut to a point somewhere close 
o revenues. The result was a substantial saving for 
he balance of the 1961-62 year and a considerable re- 
duction in operating costs in all major lines of activity 
or the fiscal year 1962-63. 

This was difficult, but it was essential. In engineering, 
we abolished our two stream improvement crews — 
very reluctantly, I can assure you. In the hatchery di- 
vision, Upper Spring Creek in Centre County was 
partly closed ; operations were reduced in all others 
by a sharp cut in manpower, while the muskellunge 
program in the Northwest was curtailed by the use 
of less expensive pond culture to replace some of the 
tank rearing that had been most successful. New 
equipment is not being bought. The hatcheries, one of 
which dates back to 1875, have had no major improve- 
ments in twenty years. They continue to deteriorate. 

Because of the continued pinch in finances, we found 
it necessary late last fall to liberate some 110,000 two- 
year-old trout into lakes throughout the Common- 
wealth because we couldn't afford the $50,000 or more 
that it would cost us to carry these fish through the 
winter for planting this spring. 

We stopped the long established and exceedingly 
popular operations at Fishermen’s Paradise, distributed 
some 12,000 of the large fish held there around the 
state and made the Spring Creek project a "fish for 
fun” stream. 

ysv' : r 




Privilege fees 
and other expenses 




11 % 



■ /o 

Food and 

10 % 



1ARCH— 1963 


Our six regional offices were discontinued and war- 
den supervisors now do their work from their own 
homes. Our warden force has been red-need by six 
men due to death and retirement. These vacancies are 
not being filled, but the other wardens are exerting 
themselves to take up the slack. Biologists were cut 
from fourteen to nine. 

In order to put the PENNSYLVANIA ANGLER 
on a self-sustaining basis, the subscription price was 
increased from $1 to $2 a year. 

If revenues are not increased, further reductions will 
have to be made. These cutbacks would place a mor- 
atorium on all new land purchases for fishing and 
boating lakes. Further purchase of access sites would 
have to be halted. Lack of sufficient funds to purchase 
these important areas would occur at a time when land 
prices are increasing so rapidly that in the near future 
it is reasonable to expect the cost of such acquisition 
will have soared far beyond the reach of Fish Com- 
mission funds. Urban development and other demands 

for land also are rapidly absorbing many areas which 
would be suitable for development for fishing and boat- 
ing purposes. In many areas, the point of no returr 
is already here. In others, acquisition must be ac- 
complished soon or never. 

Unless additional revenues are made available to the 
Fish Commission, it will be necessary to drop or defei 
indefinitely planned development of lakes and acces; j 
sites already acquired, quite possibly at the risk o 
losing Federal Dingell- Johnson funds. These funds, de- 
rived from the Federal excise tax on fishing tackk 
and equipment, are used to reimburse state agencies a 
the rate of 75 per cent of the cost of approved projects 
Unless the Fish Commission has sufficient funds tc 
initially finance the projects, the Federal money is lost 

The Commission’s policy has been to keep main 
tenance of our properties at a high standard. Com 
mission field personnel have done a remarkable job o 
maintaining existing areas. This service to the fishing 
and boating public, however, cannot long be continuer i 
with equipment that is old and unreliable. Rental o 
bulldozers cost $14 per hour, whereas Commission- i 
owned equipment can be operated at less than $£ 
an hour. Unless our old machines can be replaced 
maintenance work will necessarily be limited, as the 
Commission cannot afford the expensive rental ol 
privately-owned equipment. ; 

As I have already pointed out, our hatcheries have 
had no major improvements in twenty years. They con- 
tinue to deteriorate. Many of our tank trucks usee 1 - 
to transport the fish to the streams have reached the 
point where they are either impractical or impossible 
to repair. Replacement of nets and other equipment 
needed for an adequate warm-water fish managemeni 
program is not possible. Unless additional funds are 
made available this situation cannot improve — it car 1 
only get worse. If further drastic cutbacks must be 
made they will have to be made in the fish propagatior 
program. Hatcheries will have to be closed, the muskel ! j 
lunge program and other important warm-water fish ' 
projects will have to be curtailed. We cannot continue 
to produce an adequate supply of fish for Common- j 
wealth anglers without the funds needed for new equip 
ment and hatchery improvements. 

We have stripped our research program down to ;] 
skeleton now. Further reductions in this very importan . : 
phase of our program are certain to occur if lack o 
funds prevents us from competing with the Federa 
Government and private industry for trained personnel 

We already have been unable to fill vacancies or 
our law enforcement staff. Many of our wardens serve- 
two or even three counties. It already is physically ' 
impossible for these men to attend all important meet 
ings because of the large territory which they mus; 
cover. The wardens do far more than merely apprehend 
fishermen and boaters for law violations. An importan) 
part of the warden’s job is to investigate and report 
on new mining applications and to search out tht 
sources of fish killing pollutions. They serve the fisher- 
men, boaters and other recreationists of the Common j 



vealth in many other ways. Presentation of slide lec- 
ures on Commission activities ; assistance to groups in 
he planning and installation of stream improvement 
irojects; providing instruction in fishing and conserva- 
ion matters to schools and youth groups, and answer- 
lg a constant flow of inquiries concerning fishing and 
oating in their respective districts are all vital aspects 
f the wardens’ service to the fishing and boating pub- 
c. These services obviously cannot be continued as in 
le past in the face of personnel and budget cuts which 
le enforcement division has undergone. 

In conservation education and public relations re- 
uced funds will necessitate curtailed activities. The 
isplay of live fish at sportsmen’s shows and other spe- 
ial events and the publication of informative and edu- 
ational booklets and other materials will have to be 
rastically reduced. 

The Fish Commission has practiced every economy 
vailable to it in an effort to stay within the limits of 
ievenues available from present license fees and related 
aurces. The fish management program of Pennsyl- 
ania has suffered and is going backward instead of 
prward in vital fields of activity. It will continue to 

0 so, it cannot help but do so, as long as the present 
jelationship of revenue to cost is allowed to prevail. 

This is the situation as it exists today. Common- 
-ealth sportsmen must decide if the Fish Commission 
s to be given adequate funds to enable it to continue 
p provide the services to which they are entitled. 

The $2 increase in fishing license fees, which would 
Dst the fisherman less than a penny a day, would en- 
ble the Commission to restore and improve the fol- 
,)wing services which were earlier considered normal : 
Restore hatchery operations and increase production 
f our valuable muskellunge and other warm-water 

Replace and increase the number of stream improve- 
lent crews which we were forced to discontinue. 

Renew production of large holdover trout for plant- 
ig in Pennsylvania streams. 

Complete land purchases and finish construction on 
shing lakes not possible on present revenue. 

Improve the maintenance of existing access areas 
ad construct new ones which are needed to better ac- 
Dmmodate the public. 

Re-establish observations and studies for better 
tilization of the commercial and sport fisheries on 
■ake Erie. 

Fill existing warden vacancies, not only for enforce- 
lent of the fishing and boating laws, but also to do a 
etter job in contacting and servicing the fishermen, 
oaters and other recreationists of the Commonwealth. 
Restore a normal complement of regional biologists 

1 order to meet the growing problems connected with 
ypanding water use programs. 

The General Fund appropriation to take advantage 
t the $300,000 made available to the Pennsylvania 
ish Commission by the Federal Accelerated Public 
Forks Program would make it possible for Pennsyl- 
ania to undertake fishing restoration projects or re- 

lated betterments which otherwise would have to be 
delayed indefinitely. On approved projects, the Fed- 
eral Government will bear up to 50 per cent of the 
total cost. The remainder must come from state funds. 
The Federal allocation will go to other states or revert 
to the treasury and thus will not be available for ex- 
penditure after June 30, 1963, unless it is obligated 
through an approved project agreement before then. 

The approved projects include stream bank stabiliza- 
tion and improvement, development of water access 
areas, boat ramps, construction of public fishing lakes 
and lake and stream renovation. 

The Fish Commission is convinced that the time 
has come when all of those wTio share in the recrea- 
tional enjoyment of the facilities which we provide 
should also share in the cost of maintaining our pro- 
gram. Yet only the buyers of fishing and boating 
licenses now pay the bill. 

We recognize the fear in some quarters that use of 
General Fund monies might encourage interference on 
the part of the State Legislature. We are convinced, 
however, that so long as General Fund money is re- 
quested only for capital improvements, such fears are 

General Fund money would supplement, not dom- 
inate, the program. License money, under control of 
the Commission and the budget secretary, would con- 
tinue to finance day-by-day operations, leaving the con- 
struction of new projects to the General State Authority 
and the General Fund. Items listed in this request in- 
clude: the 1963 payment to the General State Authority 
- — $60,000; payment for access site on Walnut Creek, 
Erie County — $40,000; construction of fishing lake — 
$206,000; development of sixteen access sites at $5,000 
each — $80,000; rehabilitation of hatchery system — 
$250,000, and construction of new hatchery to replace 
Upper Spring Creek — $500,000. 

The Lish Commission has practiced every economy 
available to it. However, we cannot hope to continue, 
much less expand, the services to which the fishermen 
and boaters of the Commonwealth have become ac- 
customed. The time has come when the sportsmen of 
Pennsylvania must realize the importance of providing 
the Fish Commission with adequate funds to do the 
kind of job they demand and rightfully deserve. 

'ARCH— 1963 


COMMUNITIES have welcomed draglines and coal trucks , exulted in 
brief prosperity ; and then numbly awaked in a lunar landscape of raw 
spoil mountains, dry springs and sterile vistas. 

Preventing Land Cancer 


in Carnegie Magazine 

Pennsylvania Game Commission Photos 

PENNSYLVANIANS familiar with the varied ter- 
rain, extensive forests, and rich farmsteads of their state 
rightly consider it to be a fair and favored land. With 
cool valley or shady forest as objective, such natives 
may traverse ugliness with mental blinders in place and 
use full vision only when a state park or boating water 
is reached. Few ponder the image of Pennsylvania the 
tourist gains. Fresh from superb roadside parks or bill- 
board-free scenic highways elsewhere, our visitors often 
drive through strip-mine-ravished countryside or wind 
through rural blight in search of infrequent roadside 
rests or pleasant campsites. 

In recent years strip mining, although by no means 
the only villain in landscape destruction, has generated 
almost as much heat as the coal it yields. Operators 
have been damned en masse — although only some are 
irresponsible — lawmakers have been sharply criticized 
for not enacting stronger controls, and enforcement 

agencies have been upbraided for not doing as muc 
as, or more than, the statutes require. As a conserve 
tionist I am wholly in favor of adequate controls an 
strict enforcement to curb the irresponsible. My cor ' 
science impels me, however, to place a goodly measur 
of blame for the eyesores of our countryside upon 
group that has rarely been castigated — the landowner 
who have leased properties for stripping. Operator 
lusting for a quick profit regardless of surface desecra 
tion have found landowners equally money-craving an 1 
more intent upon maximum coal royalties than upo 
restoration. The landowner has always had the rigb 
to stipulate what recontouring and replanting he de 
sired, and excellent restoration has been achieved wher 
the owner loved the land more than the highest cas. 

Our strip-mining ills are the tragic result of humai 
greed, a shameful and thoughtless preoccupation wit 



present profits, a heedlessness of the necessity for a 
stable economy and a land legacy for the future. Whole 
immunities have welcomed draglines and coal trucks, 
exulted in brief prosperity, and then numbly awakened 
n a lunar landscape of raw spoil mountains, dry 
springs, and sterile vistas. 

All of us, regardless of deeds in bank vaults, are but 
sojourners on the earth’s surface. Almost every acre, 
ce caps and deserts usually excepted has nourished 
previous sojourners, and its life-providing potentialities 
ire too precious to be virtually destroyed by any rapa- 
;ious generation. No one, during his brief occupancy, 
ras the moral right to ruin land, pollute a stream, or 
iestroy a forest, and leave the area less habitable than 
vhen his stewardship began. Pioneer ethics — wear out 
me farm and one wife and move westward to two more 
—are untenable when there is no frontier but space, 
exploding population requires wiser land use, greater 
:oncern for water, and clear recognition that the con- 
;ervation of natural resources is essential to human 

Although I defer to no one in my abhorrence of strip- 
nining abuses, fairness compels me to risk vilification 
ry asserting that stripping is a good method of obtaining 
i mineral fuel essential in our industrial civilization. It 
•ecovers the maximum percentage of the total deposit, 
t leaves no vacuities underground to plague future 
users of the surface, it leaves no mountains of culm that 
:annot be vegetated in decades, and it is far safer and 
lealthier for the employes than deep mining. 

Its principal disadvantages are three : it permanently 
Liters surface configuration — but not always for the 
vorst; it destroys existing surface vegetation — a trag- 
:dy in areas of fine forest ; and it alters the drainage 
Dattern ; but it need not cause water pollution nor water 
shortage. If properly done, coal stripping, in bituminous 
'egions at least, can improve the water supply by creat- 
ng lakes of pure water where none existed before and 
j:an rapidly form a new landscape of gentle contours 
lothed with grass and trees and dotted with water- 
loles for wildlife. 

In western Pennsylvania, fine but isolated examples 

0 validate my strong statement can be found in many 
■ounties. I choose for illustration of what can — and 
aiust — be done the pioneering demonstration of restora- 
ion and the one with which I am most familiar, 
Florence Mine of the Harmon Creek Coal Corporation, 
it Burgettstown, Washington County. The Corporation 
; )egan mining in the area in 1928, but large-scale sur- 
ace mining was not started until 1937. At this time the 
ndustry contended that restoration could not be done 

■ l“conomically. 

Fortunately James F. Hillman, president of Harmon 
Ireek, was a staunch conservationist, imbued with a 
:eal for wise use of natural resources. He recognized 

1 moral obligation for total restoration and made this 
in operating policy three years before the first statute 
equiring only partial reclamation was passed in Har- 
isburg in 1945. Mr. Hillman’s aversion to gaunt high 

Jvalls is as strong as that of a mother with venture- 

4ARCH — 1963 

some youngsters, and he proceeded to prove that com- 
plete restoration, without man-made cliffs, could be 
done within the bounds of constructive capital invest- 

Florence Mine has been kept a profitmaking opera- 
tion in spite of the vicissitudes of the coal industry. 
Furthermore, the employes have been paid union rates, 
unusual in many stripping operations and a source of 
antipathy to this method of mining. Of 5,066 acres 
presently owned by the company, 2,300 acres have been 
mined, and 2,240 acres reclaimed. More than 2.000 
acres have been clothed in grasses and legumes, and 
over two million trees and shrubs have been planted. 

In a number of important aspects the procedures at 
Burgettstown differ from customary operations. First, 
the area to be mined two years later is measured and 
the planting needs calculated so that nursery production 
can be started. When mining begins, the topsoil that 
has taken thousands of years to develop is scraped off 
and stockpiled. Recontouring begins immediately after 
removal of the coal, with the grading bulldozer never 
more than five or six acres behind the shovel. After 
regrading — not actually leveling, for rounded knolls 
and enclosed swales hold more water — the topsoil is 
spread over the surface like icing on a cake. And fine 
icing it is, even though it may have come from marginal 
farms, for it is rich in soil organisms and weed seeds 
that help to provide rapid vegetative cover. Lime, and 
occasionally fertilizer, are applied as needed, and the 
area is usually planted with a “cover crop mixture” of 
nine clovers, lespedezas, and grasses, with a seasoning 
of black locust and blackberry seeds added. The aim, 
of course, is to reclothe the surface as rapidly as pos- 
sible so that the spoil banks will not bleed in the rains 
and bake in the sun. 

In a richly varied field experience I have observed 
devastation by natural forces as well as destructiveness 
by man. Nature’s recuperative stages are time-tested, 
and by copying them we can achieve faster and more 

STRIP MINING operations are often the tragic results of hu- 
man greed and thoughtless preoccupation with present profits. 


SAND CHERRY PLANTS, three years old, on mine spoil, already producing a crop of fruit. 

desirable revegetation. The common practice of machine- 
planting of evergreen trees on raw spoil is unnatural 
and shortsighted. In our area, natural reseeding begins 
with a cover crop of weeds, briers, and grasses, or 
deciduous trees such as aspen, sumac, thorn, sassafras, 
and locust, or a mixture of both. 

Win Allison, the first reforester at Harmon Creek, 
and Wade Van Kirk, his successor, have followed 
nature rather than attempted to impose their will upon 
her, and the results of this cooperation are impressive. 
Driving along company roads — no coal is hauled to the 
tipple over public highways — one views rolling fields 
of grass, alfalfa, and clovers, some only two seasons old 
and ready for interplanting of pines and deciduous trees 
that will have a higher survival rate and will make 
faster growth because of the sod mat and the nitrogen 
fixed by the legumes. On older areas pearly gray Rus- 
sian olives display good crops of fruit, relished by game, 
five years after being set out as one-year nursery seed- 
lings ; high hedges of multiflora rose along one side of 
the roads provide perfect travel lanes for wildlife and 
superb nesting cover for birds ; even slow-grading honey 
locusts boast nutritious seed pods seven years after 
planting. On the reclaimed lands at Florence Mine, red 
oak and red pine, white oak and white pine, buckeye 
and persimmon, mulberry and hickory, white ash and 
white dogwood, and other trees have already become a 
flourishing mixed forest, ecologically more suited to our 
climate and immeasurably more productive of game 

food than the solid phalanxes of pine or spruce that 
characterize many coal-stripped areas. 

And what has this carefully planned technique of 
reclamation accomplished? At ITarmon Creek visiting 
groups — and many conservationists, foresters, and: 
others come to observe the results — may see a 9-acre 
lake teeming with black bass, bluegills, channel catfish, 
and some rainbow trout, fields of grass waist-high two * 
years after grading, flourishing forests of varying age 
and many species, pools of pure water glinting at the 
foot of slopes, and small game in abundance. The re- 
claimed areas are growing more trees, better grasses, 
and more game, and are aesthetically more satisfying 
than the marginal farmlands before mining. A fair 
profit has been made, steady employment provided, 1 
recreational facilities constantly enjoyed by workers and 
their families, and land values and attractiveness im- 

And what has it cost to conclude profitable mining 
with the final excellence of a pleasant and productive 
landscape, instead of the desolation of gaunt high walls 
and serrated spoil banks? Accurate cost figures have 
been kept, and such total reclamation has amounted to 
8.6 cents per ton of coal mined, ranging from $360 to 
$450 per acre depending upon the thickness of the seam 
and depth of overburden. Mr. Hillman readily grants 
that his planting costs were reduced by the establish- 
ment of the nursery, although some stock is still pur- 
chased. Obviously if an operator owns his land, he can 



kfford to do likewise for the enhanced property value 
hat will result. Similarly, a lessee should welcome a 
royalty reduction of a few cents per ton to have as 
rood, or better, property after mining — a case of eating 
j r our cake and having it too. And communities faced 
vith the prospect of ruined environs, surface erosion, 
ind water pollution should insist that both operators 
jind landowners recognize their obligation to keep every 
Pennsylvania acre green. Naked earth should be a 
noral affront to everyone imbued with a commanding 
ense of what’s right for the land. 

Mr. Hillman’s dedication to land reclamation is 
natched by his interest in human conservation. He 
eels strongly that corporations should be interested in 
j'ecreational facilities for their employes, either directly 
>r by supporting organizations such as the Western 
Pennsylvania Conservancy. At Harmon Creek, public 
mnting is encouraged, and the employes have their 
>wn fishing committee with independent control of fish- 
nanagement operations. The company cooperates in 
hese recreational developments by emphasizing game- 
ood plantings in reclamation and by landscaping lake 
ind picnic areas, but does not exercise control. Mr. 
jlillman believes that through pioneering in outdoor 
estoration and through establishment of employe- 
nanaged recreation facilities a high degree of mutual 
mderstanding has been attained. 

Many conservationists contend that a drastic increase 
n the operator’s bond will solve most of the evils of 
urface mining, but this is an oversimplification of a 
:omplex problem. Even a $500-per-acre bond will avail 
ittle if it is refunded after planting, whether the plants 
[row or not. 

We must keep in mind that all legislation and en- 
orcement should be aimed at three essentials : 1 ) pre- 
r ention of water pollution and soil erosion; 2) max- 
mum restoration of the surface ; and 3 ) successful 

An inflexible rule against issuance of new permits 
o operators who have failed to comply with existing 
equirements, who have been cited for repeated viola- 
ions, or who have had “accidental” discharges of acid 
vater, would have an immediate salutary effect. Stock- 
piling of topsoil for final top-dressing should become 
tandard procedure. Much more emphasis should be 
Raced upon planning future land use before mining 
'egins ; an area intended for cattle-raising will need 
llifferent treatment from one for lecreation use. Many 
nore lakes should be planned. 

Planting programs should be varied in accord with 
ocal conditions and the landowners’ preferences, and 
ertification of successful revegetation should be re- 
quired before all bond moneys are refunded. Lest this 
eem a harsh requirement, I cite the commendable speed 
kith which new highway cuts are reclothed by the 
|nodern technique of blowing a mixture of fertilizer, 
arious seeds, and straw upon steep cuts lacking even 
he advantage of topsoil. 

Many may moan that my recommendations are 
isionary or economically unattainable. I contend, how- 


AN AGED PLANTING affords abundant food and cover for 

ever, that water is as precious as coal, topsoil too golden 
to bury, and a usable countryside a necessity for sur- 
vival. Poor land means inexorable, poor people. Boom 
and bust, whether it be lumbering without reforesting, 
agriculture without soil conservation, or mining without 
reclamation, will never maintain economic stability. 
Devastated acres, however produced, testify to unthink- 
ing greed and disregard of future welfare. No state can 
afiford to advertise to visitors that it is committing 
economic and social suicide, acre by ruined acre. “Keep 
Pennsylvania Green” signs are a mockery where tower- 
ing spoil banks, horrendous chasms, and orange streams 

Surface mining — of coal, clay, limestone, and other 
minerals — is an extractive technique inescapably with 
us. Responsible landowners and conscientious operators, 
sportsmen and nature-lovers, lawmakers and public of- 
ficials must join forces to leave our land as a goodly 
legacy for posterity. James F. Hillman and others have 
proved that strip mining can be profitable yet end in 
beauty and promise. Many richly deserved awards have 
been made to him for his pioneering in reclamation, but 
I know that Mr. Hillman will feel most deeply touched 
by the flattery of widespread imitation. The Franken- 
steinian draglines can write our epitaph acre by acre, 
or they can build our future by re-creating a landscape 
we may walk without shame. 

1ARCH— 1963 




SPEAR IS RECOVERED from carp thaf broke handle. Forest 
County District Game Protector Cecil Toombs frees the spear 
while George Lewis (right) and Ben Blum (left) give advice. 
Note Blum prefers a three-fined spear. The wounded carp 
was spotted struggling under the clear ice and was finished 
off when the men cut a hole over it. 

The fishermen of Tionesta, Forest County, do not 
give up very easily. They fight winter when it starts 
to build ice over their favorite walleyed pike pools in 
die Allegheny River by breaking clown skim-ice as 
quickly as it forms. Inevitably, just after deer season, 
winter wins. Ice covers several slow channels formed 
by a series of 13 small islands that string out down- 
river from Tionesta. 

It’s then that the spearmen examine the ice for 
soundness, hour inches of clear ice means that spears 
are taken out of garages, crosscuts and axes begin to 
cut large holes. And then the carp and sucker-spearing 
begins with no letup as long as the ice holds out. 

Below I ionesta the river offers several acres of ice 
suitable for spearing. A typical backwater channel 
which in the first week of January yielded 88 carp 
averaging about 15 pounds each, is about 100 yards 
long and sixty yards wide. The river here is from two 
to eight feet deep. 

On this ice sheet are cut a dozen holes, each about 
ten yards apart width-wise and 30 yards apart length- 
wise. Five spearfishermen make up an ideal party. Two 
men go upstream and with thick clubs begin stomping 

the ice and “driving.” Three others position themselves 
over the first holes, spears in the water about halfway 
from the river bottom. The hand that drives the spear ' 
is held high on the handle for thrust. As the stomping 
begins, the carp, suckers, walleyes and muskies begin 
moving downstream. Evidently they don’t like the 
stomping shocks. The spearfishermen know that only 
carp, suckers and gar may be gigged. Carp are most 
easily identified because of their hulk and bluish forms. I 

When a carp passes underneath, the spear is quickly 
thrust downward, with the head making the best target 
since some compensation is then given for the fish’s 
movement. After a few thrusts the spearfisherman 
begins to hit carp whether they pass at eight-foot or 
three-foot depths. If the carp is hit the barbed points 
are driven through the fish until it is pinned on the 
gravelly bottom. The tremors of a big carp’s struggle 
are easily felt even in the stout-handled spearing tools. 
Only after the spearfisherman feels that the carp or 
sucker is properly impaled is an attempt made to bring 
the lunker from under the ice. Heavy, tail-swishing 
carp, some up to 49 pounds, at times easily snap the 

Drivers stomp ice in zigzag patterns until the course! 
is run, with watchers moving to downstream holes as 
drivers approach. Sometimes this allows v/atchers three 
or four thrusts at downstream-moving carp. The drive; 
is then reversed, and the carp are driven upstream 
This harassment continues until the carp become too 
wary. And they are a very intelligent fish. Somehow 
they seem to sense where the ice is thinnest and where 
the spearfishermen will not pursue them. Or they move 1 
out into open water. 

If carp spook too much, they are rested for a fewj 
hours ... or the spearfishermen return the following' 
morning. The carp work back under the ice over night. 
In the first week of January, 1963, in three days 
running Tionestans working one channel speared 
carp. Tiring of carp they turned to suckers. Spearing^ 
from “safe” shore ice, they intercepted suckers coming] 
upstream to spawn and took 38 suckers in one after 
noon, some redtails weighing up to nine pounds each. 

Many of the carp and suckers were smoked. Carp 
when cleaned and scaled are soaked in a brine (5 pounds; 
salt to 100 pounds of fish) overnight and then smoked 
up to 20 hours with hardwood and corncobs. If flesh is 
still stringy a 45-minute baking in a 275-degree oven 
produces a delicacy. Suckers, also scaled and scrubbed; 
clean, are turned into prized snacks after they are 
soaked in brine and smoked for about three hours. 



TIONESTANS have long had reputations as skilled spear handlers. These modern-day spear- 
fishermen of the space age take no back seat to the old-timers who talk of gigging buffalo 
suckers under the torchlights of the late 1800's. Surveying the results of two days' spear- 
fishing in the Allegheny River, a mile below Tionesta (Forest County), last January are, 
from left. Bill Anderson, George Lewis, Ben Blum, Ken Anderson, Ed Mooney and Phil 
Rigby. The 88 carp shown here weighed over 1,000 pounds. Many of the fish were smoked. 

3 HEAD SHOT . . . Bill Anderson 

ej 25-pound carp. Note size of hole 
i the ice. 

CARP ARE NOT WASTED . . . spear- 
fishermen Ed Mooney, Ken Anderson 
and Bill Anderson drag their share of 
carp up the snowy river bank to the 

VETERAN George Lewis hoists a big 
carp which passed under him as Phil 
Rigby, in background, stomped the ice 
as a driver. 

IARCH— 1963 



Like a rotund puppet on a string it stretches toward 
the earth. . . . 

Moment of truth comes fas il 
droplet breaks from its elct 
ground. . . . 

Droplet becomes heavier, elongates as more ice melts 

Larger and longer and heavier it grows. . . . 

r rrTTTTTTTTTT ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ 

More droplets form and become a chorus of drips and 
drops in regular tempos, swelling rivulets, rills, brooks, 
runs, creeks, rivers, bays to the sea. . . . 

Then spring arrives, all soft and green and beautiful. 
From winter, in first photograph, to spring in this one 
is the difference of one droplet. 



file Mew Stern 


















' ... 


. ; . .. 



NEWEST CONCEPT in marine propulsion is the all new stern drive engine that combines 
an inboard engine with a steerable, tiltable outboard-like unit. Featured here is the 110-h.p. 
model developed by the Kiekhaefer Corporation. With the new stern drive there is no pro- 
peller shear pin to fail. The propeller is splined to the shaft and the Flo-Torq propeller 
safety clutch absorbs impact in inertial loads. Positive alignment of engine and stern drive 
unit is achieved with precision-machined rear engine mounts cast integrally with the inner 
transom plate. Leveling adjustments on the front engine mounts permit final alignment in 
the vertical plane. This permits fast, accurate alignment that is completely independent 
of the hull. 



This year’s boating season will mark the beginning 
of a new type engine for boat owners. It’s the all new 
MerCruiser III with a stern drive unit that packs up to 
450 horsepower at 5,000 r.p.m.’s. Stern drive is the 
brain child of the Kiekhaefer Corporation ; a company 
'that has contributed more than its share of new in- 
ventions that have proved a boon to the boating field. 

Veteran water sportsmen will immediately disco ver 
that the new stern drive offers a host of improved 
features. First and foremost, it allows large, seaworthy 
inboards to at last dispense with conventional marine 
transmissions, V-drive gear boxes, propeller shaft logs 
and struts, rudders, mufflers and exhaust pipes and 
.cooling water intakes, with screens, built into the hull, 
i Since each of these now obsolete necessities require one 
or more holes in the hull, the boat owner can bask in 
the relaxation of eliminating a good dozen or so trouble- 
some leakage areas. What is even more apparent to 
the casual glance is, the MerCruiser III steers and tilts 
like an outboard motor. This gives large inboards a 
degree of safety, maneuverability, motion control and 
versatility never before attainable with a fixed-shaft, 
direct-drive propulsion. 

Another noticeable feature is the dual hydraulic 
shock absorbers that are purposely designed to do two 
important jobs. In addition to protecting the stern drive 
unit, transom and engine from the strains and stresses 
of impact with submerged or floating obstacles, they 
also serve as hydraulic jacks for a dashboard-controlled 
power-tilt system. 

Since there is no fixed propeller shaft, strut, rudder 
or rigidly-mounted propeller to damage, beaching an 1 
launching the MerCruiser III becomes a safe and easy 
chore. In fact, the power-tilt feature is the first prac- 
tical beaching gear that can be used for shallow water 

One of the Kiekhaefer engineers responsible for 
jbringing the stern drive past the planning stage proudly 
revealed what is perhaps the best news yet. Under the 
corporation’s trade mark, the all-exclusive Jet-Prop 
exhaust system has completely eliminated that noisy 
muffler-type exhaust setup that is always associated 
with an inboard. Now instead of the engine exhaust 
passing out through the transom by pipes, Jet-Prop 
allows fumes to be fired through the propeller hub 
where sound and exhaust are dissipated deep under 
water. The resulting quietness is a revelation to boat 
owners, as well as guest and lake front dwellers, who 
have been forced to accustom themselves to the rumble 
and sputter of conventional inboard exhaust systems. 

The large-diameter, slow-turning propellers provide 
the necessary blade area to give the MerCruiser III 
tremendous thrust capacity without sacrificing high 
speed efficiency. With its standard 1.5 to 1 reduction 
ratio, the MerCruiser III can swing propellers as large 
as 19 inches in diameter. A super-thrust lower unit, 
available as optional equipment, handles propellers 
from 19 to 22 inches in diameter and has the lowest 
gear ratio in the industry with a 1.7 to 1 reduction. 
The vertical drive shaft is of ample length so the pro- 

Docking Skill Requires 
Experience or Practice 

Watching a skilled helmsman maneuver his boat 
alongside a pier or into a narrow slip is an interesting 
experience. Although it looks simple or even auto- 
matic, you can be sure it takes some practice. If jockey- 
ing your outboard boat in close quarters is a problem, 
here are a few tips from the Evinrude Boating Foun- 
dation that should make it easier. 

When you want to come alongside a pier, it’s best to 
make your approach at about a 45-degree angle. Keep 
a light hand on the throttle and when within 10 yards 
of the pier, cut your speed to an idle. Coast the last 
several feet in neutral and just before the bow has a 
chance to nudge the pier, cramp the steering wheel 
toward the pier and shift into reverse. This will swing 
the stern around and bring the boat parallel with the 

If a stiff breeze is blowing or a current is moving the 
water, try to make your approach into the wind or 
current, whichever is stronger. This will brake your 
forward motion and give you more control over the boat. 

If you must approach with the wind or current, make 
allowances for the extra push it will give the boat. In 
some cases it may be necessary to keep the engine in 
reverse. In any case be ready to shift gears quickly to 
control the motion of the boat. Remember, your stand- 
ard shift outboard will shift easiest at idling speed. 
With the newer automatic push-button type, the throttle 
can be set at higher speeds and the boat maneuvered by 
simply pushing the buttons. 

A couple of fenders placed between the boat and the 
pier will keep the hull from being scratched. Have the 
fenders attached and ready to flip over the side of the 
boat as you approach. 

When leaving a pier, it’s important to remember that 
your boat does not steer like a car. The stern will re- 
spond first when the steering wheel is turned. This 
being the case, never attempt to turn out sharply when 
the boat is snug against a pier. This can cause the stern 
to either swing into or under the pier. It’s best to shove 
the boat away and, when it is clear, shift into forward 
gear and proceed. If a wind or current is pushing 
against the boat, turn the wheel away from the pier, 
shift into reverse and back up until the boat is free. 

When docking, waiting to get on a ramp, or operating 
a boat in any other tight situation, remember that a 
cool head and a light hand are most important. Try to 
anticipate the effect of the wind and current and be 
ready to act accordingly. Skillful helmsmanship, like 
anything else, can be learned by either practice or ex- 
perience. Experience takes years, but practice can do it 
in a surprisingly short time. 

peljer can be operated at its required depth without the 
stern drive unit being submerged while the boat is at 
rest. This should be appreciated by many boat owners 
who find it to their advantage to have deep-set pro- 
pellers on a deep-V hull. 

MARCH— 1963 



Pittsburghers Plan Outdoors Program for Youths Sent to Development Center 

By ROGER LATHAM, Outdoor Editor 

The Pittsburgh Press 

The program sponsored by the Pittsburgh club is 
somewhat of a pilot project. If successful, and there is 
good reason to believe it will be, the program will be 
extended to other institutions for delinquent boys and 
girls. And as this is done, it is hoped that more and 
more sportsmen’s clubs and individual sportsmen will 
volunteer their time and talents. 

Casting and Archery Classes First 

Starting this week at the Youth Development Cen- 
ter. two weekly courses of instruction will get under 
way. The first will be casting classes given by the 
Pittsburgh Casting Club under the direction of Ted 
Specht. The second item will be indoor archery instruc- 
tion with Carl Kestner of the North Side Sportsmen’s! 
Assn, and the Allegheny Branch YMCA in charge. 

Other plans for the winter include fly tying classes 
conducted by the Pittsburgh Fly Tyers Club, talks on 
conservation and nature subjects, outdoor films and 
slides and demonstrations of outdoor activities and 

Along with this over-all winter program, a Boy 
Scout troop will be formed. This troop will be spon- 
sored by the Pittsburgh Sportsmen’s Luncheon Club; 
and will function under Ray Edwards, Scout commis- 
sioner from Wexford, and a committee composed of 

Those of us lucky enough to be born and brought 
up in the country can hardly realize that there are boys 
who never get to know the thrill of fishing, camping, 
hunting or just “being out in the woods.” But right 
here in Pittsburgh and vicinity there are plenty of them. 

Some dozens of such boys are today “doing time” at 
the Youth Development Center (formerly Thorn Plill) 
near Warrendale in Allegheny County. They have been 
sent there by Juvenile Court judges who found them 
guilty of some law violation. Practically each of them 
is a boy off the streets of Pittsburgh or surround- 
ing cities and boroughs. 

if a new project initiated by the Pittsburgh Sports- 
men's Luncheon Club succeeds, these boys, and those 
to follow will learn about camping, cooking out and 
enhance in the wild; they’ll become familiar with 
, the birds and mammals and other living 
ature ; and, in general, they’ll find out there 
•ays of having fun without breaking laws, 
mien's Luncheon Club members are firm 
believer- dial Ik out-of-doors can keep boys out of 
trouble. They cite the case of the Juvenile Court judge 
in the Washington who examined the court 

records of -fo.OOO boys and girls who were brought 
before him. lie found that not one of them had a 
wholesome out<L n- hobhv as his or her chief interest. 


Iclub members, clergymen and Youth Development Cen- 
ter personnel. 

Warm weather activities will be even more ambitious. 
It is hoped that the sportsmen will sponsor a fishing 
pond project. At present there is no pond or lake on 
the 1200-acre property but there are plenty of good 
Iplaces to construct one. With a pond, properly stocked, 
the boys could have fishing close at hand, plus ice fish- 
ing, canoeing, skating and other water sports. 

In addition, plans are being laid for camping, both 
Dn and off the Center property, conservation trips so 
the boys can see the work of the Game and Fish Com- 
nissions, the Department of Forests and Waters, Soil 
Conservation Service, Western Pennsylvania Conserv- 
ancy and other conservation organizations. 

The boys will participate in conservation projects, 
compete in casting and archery events and in general 
no the things that most boys delight in doing outdoors. 
We even expect to have them raise game birds. 

Equipment, Clothing and Books Needed 

To accomplish all of this over a period of time, the 
sponsors will need help. Although there are only about 
100 boys at the Center now, soon there will be more 
Fan twice that many. We need fishing tackle, archery 
equipment, camping supplies, Boy Scout uniforms, and 
outdoor clothing for these boys. 

In addition, we need good books and magazines, par- 
dcularly with an outdoor theme for the Center’s library. 

And above all, we need people with time and talent 
:o help convince these boys that there’s more to life 
Fan city streets, corner gangs and outwitting the police. 
These boys, most of whom have never known love as 
children, need to be shown that men have an interest 
n them. 

Lawrence Veney, the dedicated superintendent of the 
Center, has given his wholehearted support to the pro- 
gram. He will even permit sportsmen to take one, two 
tr three boys for a day or half-day on weekends for 
fishing trips or other similar outdoor jaunts. 

Sportsmen who might wish to contribute equipment 
:o the project should mail the items to Lawrence Veney, 
Superintendent, Youth Development Center, Warren- 
iale, Pa. Sportsmen’s clubs could collect equipment 
from their members and transport the whole lot to 
vVarrendale. Those who have large amounts of equip- 
nent and would wish to have the box picked up, could 
vrite to Roger Latham, Outdoor Editor, Pittsburgh 
°ress, Pittsburgh 30. 

Let’s make this project a success and eventually ex- 
end the effort and good influence to the other cor- 
'ectional institutions in the Pittsburgh area. 

Sportsmen have a great opportunity to do much 
good for boys who think no one cares. It should be a 
great satisfaction to watch a boy change from a city- 
;treet rowdy to a good citizen and a true sportsman. 

You take a piece of living clay 
And gently form it day by day ; 

Moulding with your power and art 
A young boy’s swift and yielding heart. 



All fishing in trout waters of the Commonwealth will 
be prohibited from midnight, March 14, to 5 :00 a.m. 
April 13. 

The waters include sections of any stream or river or 
any pond or lake if such section of stream or river or 
such pond or lake has been stocked with trout by the 
Fish Commission within the preceding year. 

Ponds and lakes in which fishing is prohibited by this 
law are posted by the Fish Commission. 

A complete list of the waters and sections of waters 
in which fishing, including spearing, is not permitted 
during this closed season is included iti the final page> 
of the 1963 Summary of Fish Laws. 

4ARCH — 1963 


National Wildlife Week, 

March 17-23, 1963 

The PENNSYLVANIA ANGLER salutes a “week” 
which actually promotes the interests of the general 
public — National Wildlife Week, March 17-23, 1963. 

Spotlighting important conservation problems each 
year, National Wildlife Week in the past has alerted 
us to the need for preservation of several valuable wild 
birds and animals, the need for conservation of wet- 
lands for waterfowl, to the advisability of considering 
wildlife and recreation in public land management 
policies, and to the national disgrace of water pollution. 

Theme of the 1963 observance is “Chemical Pesti- 
cides are POISON — Plandle with Care,” most timely 
considering the recent release of Rachel Carson’s book, 
“Silent Spring,” and the increasing variety of deadly 
chemical poisons for controlling insects, rodents and 
other pests on the shelves of our neighborhood stores. 

It is altogether too easy to let the relatively un- 
controlled distribution and use of these poisons go 
unchecked. Steps must be taken to protect the public — 
and the nation’s heritage of abundant fish and wildlife 
—from quick or slow death at the hands of some users 
of chemicals who seem to have dismissed songbirds 
and fish as unnecessary and unworthy of consideration 
in massive spraying campaigns. 

National Wildlife Week, scheduled for March 17-23 
this year, is one of many worthwhile conservation edu- 
cation projects sponsored by the National Wildlife 
Federation, which has its headquarters in Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Representing some two billion local affiliate mem- 
bers, individual contributors, and associate members, 
the Federation publishes NATIONAL WILDLIFE 
VATION REPORT, as well as numerous leaflets on 
conservation education for teachers and school children, 
and program suggestions for local and state conser- 
vation organizations. 

It provides leadership on national conservation is- 
sues, sponsoring a national conservation conference 
in Washington each December. It awards a number of 
valuable scholarships and fellowships to college con- 
servation students each year and also assists state 
teacher-training programs, having spent almost a quar- 
ter of a million dollars on conservation training projects 
during the 26 years of its existence. National Wildlife 
Federation television public service announcement films 
and press releases for newspapers carry the conser- 
vation message to all citizens. 

National Wildlife Week is conducted at the com- 
munity level by local sportmen’s and other conservation 
group.' which are members of the state affiliate of the 
National V ildlife Federation and valuable assistance 
is provided by 'late game and fish conservation agencies. 
It was first proclaimed by President Franklin Delano 
Roosevelt in 1938 and has received the proclamation 
of each succeeding president. 



The following is condensed from the book, 100 
and edited by Jim Hayes, and published by H. C. Suehr 
Co., Steubenville Pike, Pittsburgh 5 , Pa. ($ 2 . 00 ). 

From its source as a small meadow stream in the undulating 
hill country atop the Allegheny plateau in Potter County to its 
meeting with the Monongahela at Pittsburgh’s historic point, i 
the mightiest river in Pennsylvania is the fabled Allegheny. ^ i 

Although this river boasts an enviable reputation as a producer 
of smallmouth bass, muskies, northern pike and walleyes, it has 
never to my knowldege been written up as trout water. 

Yet in its own right and by virtue of its many magnificent ( 
tributaries the Allegheny is a trout river without equal in eastern 
United States. 

In its upper reaches the Allegheny harbors trout from native 1 
fingerling brookies to brown trout up to at least seven pounds 
and rainbows to twice that poundage. The river itself ranges 
from a brook so small you can step across it to a brawling 
white-water terror that can crush, smash and drown an angler 
with absolute impunity. 

The Allegheny rises as a meadow brook in the rolling hill 
country of Allegheny Township in Potter County. Flowing out 
of a broad valley, it crosses Route 49, winds down through a 
pasture, and parallels Route 49 all the way to Coudersport. 

This upper stream from the source through the village of 
Seven Bridges and on downstream is predominantly brook trout 
water. Its only notable tributary before Mill Creek comes in at 
Coudersport is Woodcock Creek, a brook trout stream. 

With the added volume of Woodcock and Mill Creeks, the 
Allegheny attains at Coudersport a normal flow width of 10 to 
12 feet. It contains large brown trout both above, below, and I 
within Coudersport itself. 

Between Coudersport and Roulette the river parallels Route 6. 
This is all excellent holding water, producing many fine brook, 
brown and rainbow trout. The major tributaries are Fishing 
Creek and Dingman Run. 

Along this same stretch you find two of my favorite fishing 
sections. The first is the stretch from the mouth of Lehman Run 
to Trout Brook. The other is the long riffle and pool below the 
mouth of Reed Run, three miles above Roulette. These are good 
early-season stretches with plenty of browns and rainbows to jt 
keep you busy. 1 

Another outstanding stretch for early-season trouting is the ; 
entire run of river between Roulette and Burtville. Unfortu- 1 
nately, the trout fishing falls off with the beginning of warm 
weather about mid- June. 

Whether you prefer fly-fishing, spin casting, or the use of||;l 
bait, you will find this upper Allegheny an ideal piece of trout' 1,1 
water. The favorite fly patterns are the White Wulff (No. 8) :'>■ 
the Edson Dark and Light Tiger ; the Gray Ghost streamers 
and then the standard dry and wet fly patterns. I 

From Port Allegheny through its swing through lower NewjjlH 
York State the river contains bass, muskie and northerns butjJH 
very few trout. Upon entering Pennsylvania again above Cory-|«| 
don in Warren County, however, the Allegheny is a river H 
reborn — swift, brawling, rock and gravel bottomed, lovely to ■ 

From Corydon to Kinzua, the stretch to be impounded by 
the Kinzua Dam, the river contains smallmouth bass and trout,! jH 
mostly rainbows. Some of these rainbows may run from 4 to 1C 'fl 
pounds, and many big ones are taken each year at The Poinl 11 
in Corydon. 



HERE THEY ARE in the Commission's new glass tanker YES . . . YOU CAN LOOK ... all you please at these 

about to be stocked in one of Pennsylvania's trout streams luscious scrappers, 

open to public fishing. 


with a camera, of course 


but on April 13 you've got to 

MARCH— 1963 



District Warden Walter G. Lazusky (Lackawanna) declares 
Jay Sara is an expert ice angler. On Newton Lake he uses a 
jig rod of his own design and a perch eye, catches bass, pickerel 
and perch in abundance at the lake. 


Earl Eichelberger, Bethlehem, Pa., fishes both Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey streams and he has found a way of paying for 
his Jersey license. His favorite trout stream in that state flows 
through a certain northcentral New Jersey golf course and 
when the fish are off feed he uses his long-handled landing net 
to retrieve golf balls that have been sliced or hooked beyond 
the reach of unfortunate golfers from deep holes in the stream. 
Sales of retrieved golf balls are pretty good. Eichelberger has 
pet holes for trout and pet holes for golf balls but where they 
are nobody knows. — District Warden Miles D. Witt (Northamp- 
ton and Bucks). 


District Warden Paul Antolosky (Centre) and Regional 
Warden Supervisor John Buck checked an angler on January 
18 at the old Paradise, now a “Fish-for-Fun” project. The 
fisherman had just landed a 23j4-inch brown trout, his third 
fish of the morning. Three other anglers were observed enjoy- 
ing the “Fishing in January.” 


During the period of ice fishing for trout I was surprised to 
see how many anglers took advantage of this type fishing. It 
was interesting to see the many improved devices. A good 
number of brown trout were taken on minnows, liver, worms 
and cheese. The first trout, a 10-inch brown, was caught by 
Paul Karhan, Germania, Pa., using liver. The largest trout was 
a 16p2-inch brown, caught by 14-year-old Tom Zengerle, Gale- 
ton, Pa. — District Warden Kenneth Aley (Potter). 


Ice fishing fever is very catching in Somerset County waters 
with each winter bringing out more and more anglers fishing 
through the ice. The fish have been willing with a good number 
of northern pike, bass and bluegills furnishing the action.. On 
a recent Saturday afternoon it rained steadily but there were 
anglers out on the ice from early morning on and they were 
catching fish. — District Warden Joseph Dick (Somerset) 


Minter Jones, Southwest Regional Warden Supervisor, re- 
ports the receipt of a $100 donation from the Champion Pipe 
Products Co., at Salisbury, Pa. The company expressed its 
gratitude in this manner for the cooperation and work with 
District Warden Joseph S. Dick on projects in the area. 


It appears the muskellunge program of the Commission on 
the North Branch of the Susquehanna River is going to be a 
success. Fishermen of the area are enthused about hooking into 
one of the monsters. I have had many reports of undersize 
muskies being caught, one of legal size, 31 inches. — District 
Warden Willard G. Persun (Bradford) 


Recently, the Austin-Costello Sportsmen’s Club notified me 
they would maintain their wired stocking areas on the First 
Fork of the Sinnemahoning Creek for the 1963 season. The 
Oswayo Valley Rod and Gun Club, at a recent meeting, decided 
to maintain their wired areas on Oswayo Creek this coming 
season. — District Warden Kenneth Aley (Potter). 

Retiring Fish Commission Employe 


Scott Earl Bailey was appointed in April, 1930, to 
the Fish Commission in the Propagation Division. He ! 
served as a Fish Culturist Assistant and Fish Culturist. J 
Born on December 28, 1900, he was educated at Spencer i 
School. He is married and has a son, Earl Bailey, and ; 
four grandchildren. Mr. Bailey is active in church work, 
teaches a Sunday School class and intends to take life 
easy, will reside in Corry, Pa. 

I did a lot of early sucker fishing at Koon Lake (Bedford), 
where I fished with a retired railroad man. The RR man had a 
wooden shotgun shell box in which he carried all his gear 
except rods. The box was open on one side. In the box he 
placed a kerosene lantern that gave a fine light to watch the 
fishing rods at night and also gave out a lot of heat. The secret 
of keeping warm was in the old, long topcoat he wore. When 
he sat down the coat would hide the back of the box and the 
heat from the lantern under the coat would keep him as warm 
as toast. — Special Fish Warden Homer C. Shaffer. 


About five or six years ago I filed a Technical Case Report 
on an old fellow from Old Forge, Pa. He was an Italian and 
spoke very poor English. The “technical” was for having caught 
sunfish, chubs and suckers with a minnow trap and using the 1 
same for bait. He was sent a letter at the time charging him 
with using miscellaneous bait. One year later I picked him up 
again and he was using sunfish for bait taken with minnow set. 
I fined him for the second offense. Last Saturday I again 
checked him fishing one of our lakes. He said I had caught 
him before but wouldn’t catch him again. I asked why. He said 
he received a letter from Harrisburg saying he was using 
miscellaneous bait and since he did not know what “miscel- 
laneous bait” was, he kept on using sunfish. We all got a big 
chuckle out of his story. — District Warden Harland F. 
Reynolds (Wayne). 



Here is a story related to District Warden Ray Bednarchik 

(Chester, Delaware and S. Berks ) by an angler who witnessed 
he action. Two anglers were fishing from a boat on one of the 
rout lakes of the district and doing quite well catching trout, 
ivery time a fish was caught it was placed in a mesh bag left 
langing in the water. After catching a trout, one of the anglers 
placing the fish therein failed to tie it to the boat securely and 
t sank. Disgusted, the two men quit, went ashore. A short 
ime later, another angler snagged the bag containing the seven 
ish and rowed ashore. He removed the fish, returned the bag 
o the floundering fishermen then strolled merrily on his way. 


Fishermen on Gordon Lake report walleyed pike on the in- 
•rease. One angler told me that during the month of December 
le caught 21 walleye, all about the same size, the largest going 
',Sy 2 inches. Several undersize muskellunge were caught and 
eleased. — District Warden William E. Mcllnay (Bedford). 


It takes all sorts of people to make a world and fishermen 
ve no exception. On December 1, 1962, the last day of bear 
eason, while on routine patrol atop Red Rock Mountain, I was 
Ltnazed to see Lake Jean with an ice cover thick enough to 
upport a man’s weight at this early date. Looking across Route 
187 to a beaver dam on one of Lake Jean’s feeder streams, 
here sat a fisherman in a row boat ! He had bludgeoned his 
vay through at least three inches of ice to a position one third 
>f the way across the pond and sat contentedly minding his 
wo fishing poles. — District Warden James F. Yoder (Luzerne 
jind E. Sullivan). 


One of the most humorous highlights of last year featured 
.wo Philadelphians who journeyed to Lake Jean to try their 
land at ice fishing. Upon arrival, they were greeted by an ice 
cover of twenty-eight (28) inches (actual measurement). Hav- 
ng nothing at hand in the line of conventional ice cutting bars, 
'tc., they set to the task of cutting their lone hole with a hand 
ixe. About twenty (20) inches square at the top, it tapered to 
i scant six (6) inches at the bottom. Their plight can be best 
envisioned by anyone who has never tried this by considering 
hat the first stroke of the axe which breaks through fills the 
■ntire hole with water, leaving any trimming or enlarging of 
he bottom to be done with hands and arms submerged in the 
cy depths. One of the pair ventured, “This is our first attempt 
it ice fishing and I have a feeling we’re going about it all 
ivrong!” — District Warden James F. Yoder (Luzerne and E. 
Sullivan) . 


When the Pennsylvania Fish Commission announced trout 
could be taken through the ice there was some speculation as 
o best baits to use. While live minnows produced limit catches 
bf brown trout, the rainbows were conspicuous by their ab- 
sence. A few anglers began trying salmon eggs which they had 
n their trout fishing kits. These proved to be just what the 
ijoctor ordered. Rainbows in the 17- to 21 -inch class were com- 
non at Harvey’s Lake. Unfortunately, this discovery came at a 
ime when most anglers had few eggs left and stocks of the 
lealers were almost nil. One enterprising angler scooped up a 
imall handful of eggs which had been deposited on the ice by a 
reshly-caught ripe female rainbow. He carefully stripped about 
our of the small eggs on a No. 6 hook and soon thereafter 
anded a 14-inch brown trout. These eggs are about one-half 
he size of regular jarred salmon eggs but they do produce! — 
district Warden James F. Yoder (Luzerne and E. Sullivan), 

Outdoor Editor Bill Walsh 
Heads Duquesne Program 

Outdoor writer and editor of the Erie Times, Bill 
Walsh has been appointed conservation director of 
the Duquesne Brewing Company. He will head up 
Duquesne’s new 3-point Conservation Program de- 
signed to preserve and safeguard the Tri-State area’s 
woods, waters and wildlife through cocperation, public 
education and specific conservation activities. 

He is a charter member and past president of the 
Pennsylvania Outdoor Writers Association and has 
written many articles for the PENNSYLVANIA 

D. E. Delacey, New Hope 
Conservationist, Dies 

Donald E. Delacey, vigorous fighter for conservation 
and long-time champion of the outdoors, is dead. The 
New Hope, Bucks County, man was well known 
throughout southeastern Pennsylvania, was a member 
of the Washington Crossing State Park Commission, 
a charter member of the New Hope Sportsmen’s Club 
and secretary of this organization and was associated 
with the Wildflower Preserve at Bowman’s Hill section 
of Washington Crossing Park. He was also a Justice 
of the Peace in New Hope and a license issuing agent 
for the Fish Commission. He was a good friend of all 
lovers of the outdoors and will be sorely missed by 
his many friends. 

Claude E. Mench, Jim Thorpe 
Sportsman, Passes On 

Claude E. Mench, 75, of Jim Thorpe, Pa., passed 
away of a heart attack at the home of his daughter in 
Connecticut. He was secretary of the Northeast Divi- 
sion, Federation of Sportsmen’s Clubs. He was first 
vice president and chairman of the Fish Committee of 
the Carbon County Sportsman’s Association and a dele- 
gate from Carbon County to the Federation. Mr. Mench 
was very active in civic and charitable groups in his 
area. Another fine conservationist and sportsman over 
the Long Trail who will be keenly missed. 

4ARCH— 1963 


—Photo courtesy of Sharon (Pa.) Herald 

CITATIONS went to Game Protector Arden Fichtner and Dis- 
trict Fish Warden Richard Abplanalp at a recent holiday party 
at the American Legion Home in Mercer, Pa. Receiving the 
honors are, left to right, Abplanalp, Fichtner, Elmer Wherry, 
chairman of the program; Alan Morris, president of the 
county federation of sportsmen's clubs which sponsored the 
affair with Deputy Game Protectors; and Seth L. Myers, in 
charge of preparations. 


By Albert G. Shimmel 

Of all the equipment, necessary or otherwise, that the angler 
carries astream the landing net, as it is sold over the counter, 
is the most exasperating. It can also be positively dangerous. 
1 he offenders are the elastic sling and the dangling net bag. 

The net has a positive affinity for brush, barbed-wire, project- 
ing roots and tree branches. It attaches itself, unnoticed by the 
angler and stretches the elastic sling. Under strain the net 
pulls free and the handle of the net becomes a projectile capable 
of injuring the angler with a blow in the back or on the head. 

A bit of ingenuity and a few seconds of time will solve the 
safety problem, tame the net and put it into position where it 
will fulfill its purpose when it is needed. 

A French snap can be secured at most hardware stores. It 
will release under the pressure of thumb and finger. Screw 
such a snap into the handle of the net and secure it in turn to 

Tips for— 

* 7 yttty file Stieamen, 


Because of the large size, the streamer is a simple fly to 
make. And the materials used in its construction are as varied 
as the weather in April. Naturally, definite materials and colors 
are used to tie established patterns, but others can be made 
with whatever materials are at hand, and limited only to your 

The illustrations here show the method of tying a typical 
trout streamer. Study these for a moment. Note that in each 
picture a thread dangles downward from the fly. The primary 
function of this is to hold the materials securely to the hook. 
Look first at the photo illustrating the tail being held in place. 
This appendage is simply a group of fibers cut from a duck’s 
wing feather. Other materials such as bucktail, peacock herl 
and wool yarn can also be used. All of these are held in place 
by this tying thread. 

Next in the tying sequence is the body. Strands of silk 
floss, chenille, wool yarn and tinsel are most popular. These 
are held securely to the hook by wrapping the tying thread 
around one end and then wrapping the material around the 
shank until the distance from bend to eye is covered. In some 
cases two materials are used ; first floss or chenille, then tinsel 
wound spirally over the body to give a glistening effect. The 
first several photos show silk floss in use. In the picture showing 
wings being added, chenille has been used as the body material. 

Next comes wings. This part is made with groups of feathers, 
as illustrated here, or with materials such as polar bear hair, 
bucktail (hence the name of a streamer fly) or hair from a 
squirrel’s tail. Wings can also be combinations of hair and 
feathers, each tied on top of the other for a special effect. 

For all practical purposes the streamer is complete at this 
stage. Though for added appeal, the majority of fly tyers 
prefer to add a “cheek” and “throat” to the fly. These are 1 
added to the side and underside of the shank. Undeniably, these 
add to the appeal streamers have for lunker trout. 

The last thing of importance is knotting the thread at the 
eye. The tying thread is wound over the ends of the wing 
material and tapered down gracefully to the eye. Here it is 
looped, half-hitched or knotted in such a way that the thread 
cannot unravel. The whip knot is by far the most popular. Then 
a drop of varnish or cement is placed on the thread to prevent 
it from fraying. 

These steps constitute the construction of a streamer fly. They 
also apply to other types of flies — dry, wet and nymphs — though 
slightly different materials and tying procedures are used. 


the ring in your basket harness. Retain the elastic and it will 
prevent the net from dropping at some crucial time. 

An ordinary snap clothespin of wood is fastened to the net 
handle with a pair of brass screws. The net bag is given a turn 
around the frame and the tip secured in the jaws of the 
clothespin. This keeps the net flat against the frame. It can be 
released by thumb pressure in less time than it takes to shake 
out the folds of a loose net. The net thus secured is out of the! 
way, almost tangleproof yet when the clip is released and, 
pressure on the handle applied, the net drops of its own weight, 
into position for use. 



;:ut a section of fibers from a duck's wing 
s to the shank to serve as the streamer's 

Next tie in several strands of floss or chenille 
for the body. 

Wind the floss around the shank of the hook 
to form the streamer's body. 

Ips you would like to rib the body with 
e tinsel. Do so in this manner. 

Several long hackle feathers are then tied 
near the eye of the hook for the streamer's 
long wings. 

Cheek and throat materials are tied in place 
for the finished touches. 

The knot used to finish the head is important. This keeps 
the fly from unraveling. The whip knot is the popular 
one used. 

The whole lineup of streamer flies is tied in this man- 
ner. You will enjoy making a box full of streamers 
and enjoy catching nice trout with them. 

Cornell University 
College of Agriculture 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

Dear Editor : 

I received the December issue of the ANGLER that in- 
cluded the Explorer Scout trout nursery article. Thanks many 
times for giving these industrious boys and the Canton Rod 
and Gun Club great cooperation. 

Incidentally, the trout that were raised at the nursery were 
released a couple of weeks ago under the supervision of Warden 
Willard Persun. It was truly amazing how the things grew. 
Many of the trout were better than a foot long at the time of 
release. The boys are currently busy collecting deer livers to be 
frozen and used for trout feed next summer. 

Thanks again for the interest shown in this project. 


Howard E. Bullock 

March, in the Julian calendar, was the first month of the 
Roman year. Being a warlike nation, they dedicated the month 
to Mars, the God of War. The Anglo-Saxons called it Hyld- 
Monath, the loud and stormy month, because of its rough, windy, 
boisterous weather. Actually, March is the month of the awaken- 
ing of spring, when the greening up of trees and shrubs 
appear. The birds return to the northern climes, and the farmers 
begin llieir plowing and planting, and folks are seen chasing 
their hats. It is really the month of promise ... of flowers 
and fruits to come. 


Official Publication of the Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

"Pennsylvania's Finest Fishing Magazine” 

Enclosed is $ for my (New) (Renewal) 

1 year (12 issues) $2.00 

Includes One (1) Free Map County of Your Choice 

3 years (36 issues) $5.00 

Includes Full Set — 46 — Fishing Maps Free 

Please send to: 



Make check or money order payable to the Pennsylvania 
Fish Commission 


Cash sent at your own risk. STAMPS NOT ACCEPTABLE. 

Pennsylvania Fish Commission, 

Harrisburg, Pa. 

Gentlemen : 

Did you ever hear or see what the enclosed photo portrays? 

I and three others saw this on the shore of a lake this past 
summer. Both the water snake and the bullfrog were motion- 
less, and for some time, when we discovered them. But just 
before I had a chance to snap the shutter of my camera the 
"drama in nature” broke up. So I had an artist friend paint 
the scene for me, and I photographed it. 

Believe me, four of us witnessed this. I am wondering 
whether any other human (s) ever witnessed such a demonstra- 
tion of concern and intelligence on the part of a bullfrog. 

I’d appreciate your reply. 

Sincerely yours, 

Wilmer H. Long 

The Rev. Wilmer H. Long 
3019 North Wales Road 
Franklin Village 
Norristown, Pa. 

Dear Rev. Long : 

Your most interesting letter with the attached picture of 
"chain reaction feeding” has been forwarded to this office for 
reply. We assume that the smaller frog might have been a 
leopard frog which had been captured and was being swallowed 1 
by a watersnake which in turn had been grabbed by a bullfrog, 

In our field experiences we have seen the bullfrog eat or alj 
least attempt t'6 eat nearly everything that came within sight. 
For example, they take trout, bullheads and small sunfish. They 
will also take and swallow the largest nightwalkers, sometime? 
seven or eight inches long, and while at Cornell University 
recall there was at least one record of a bullfrog taking a young 
duckling. Bullfrogs are attracted by most anything that moves 
and this may be the reason why the bullfrog struck at the 
snake which had a smaller frog, perhaps writhing, in its mouth,; 
We, therefore, believe the action of the bullfrog was merely a| 
feeding reaction and not one of concern or intelligence on the 
part of the bullfrog, although one could speculate for a long 1 
time on the reason underlying this unusual action of the bullfrog,! 

For your interest we are enclosing a copy of "Pennsylvania 
Reptiles and Amphibians” which we believe you will find inter- 
esting reading and a handy reference guide to carry with yor: 
when you are afield. 

Thanking you for writing us about this interesting incident 
we are 

Yours very truly, 

Gordon L. Trembley, 

Chief Aquatic Biologist 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission 





Pennsylvania Waters-Highway Maps 
Of Every County in the State 
Except Philadelphia 

(while they last) 

> 46 - 




(Formerly sold at $18.95 per set) 

With Every Three-Year 
Subscription to the 

/4 oaten 



Show me a parent who hasn’t had such a request and you’ll show me a parent who has missed a 
mighty important facet of parent-child relationships. Books have been written about the recreational 
values, the nerve-quieting and soul-searching opportunities realized by those who spend an hour or a 
day at their favorite fishing spot. 

In Pennsylvania the parent who wants to take his youngster fishing is blessed with unlimited oppor- 
tunities to do so. There are thousands of miles of streams, plus ponds and lakes of all sizes, where many 
species of fish ranging from the bluegill and yellow perch to bass, muskellunge and walleye are to be 
found. In addition, there are many miles of trout streams where the parent and child can enjoy fishing 
of the stocked variety, or they can search out the more remote streams where the usually smaller, but 
highly colored “natives” grow. 

At the turn of the century when fishing was more apt to be a matter of providing food for the family 
table than one of fishing for fun, the extent of fishing waters was limited mostly by the ability of the 
angler to arrange transportation to the general area in which he wished to fish. 

Pollution, the automobile, urbanization, industrialization and many other developments over the years 
have done much to restrict the ready availability of good fishing waters in some areas of the Common- 

Through all of these years of changing conditions, the Pennsylvania Fish Commission has attempted 
to maintain, improve and even restore fishing. This constant struggle to provide good fishing for pres- 
ent generations of anglers, as well as to insure it for future generations has been a difficult one for the 
Commission and its staff. There never has been a time when a surplus of funds was available to 
finance this work. There have been times when the determination of Commission workers to provide 
an important service to their fellow Pennsylvanians was stretched to the limit to keep things going. 

At the present time the failure of the income from license sales to keep pace with steadily increasing 
operational costs is making the task impossible. The present rate of fish stocking, the acquisition of 
lands and the development of fishing waters for the public cannot be continued. 

The Fish Commission has requested the sportsmen of the Commonwealth to support a $2 increase 
in the cost of fishing licenses. This amounts to less than a penny a day, and is estimated to be the 
minimum amount needed to restore Commission activities to a normal and needed level. Immediate re- 
turn to a financial level which will permit the restoration of the Commission’s management, acquisition 
and development programs is vital to the present generations of parents and youngsters. It is perhaps 
even more important to future generations that these programs be continued and expanded quickly. 

I he parent who steadfastly refuses to meet the Commission’s request for additional funds refuses to 
recognize the imperative need for adequate financing of the programs designed to provide him and his 
children with good fishing. Worse than that, however, the parent or person who refuses to recognize 
the present needs of the Fish Commission almost certainly is destroying the plans and programs which 
would insure good fishing for future generations. 

The father who refuses now to pay the less than a penny a day needed to perpetuate good fishing in 
Pennsylvania is making it impossible for the father of the future to say “yes” when his youngster says 
— “Take me fishing, Daddy.” 

— Russell S. Orr, Chief, 

Conservation Education Division, 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission. 


PennlifAu-ania An<j,le>i 

Published Monthly by the 


Albert M. Day 
Executive Director 


William W. Scranton, Governor 

Warren W. Singer 

Assistant to Executive Director 

Paul F. O’Brien 
Administrative Officer 

Paul J. Sauer 



Aquatic Biology 

Cordon Trembley — Chief 

Fish Culture 

Toward L. Fox Superintendent 

Real Estate and Engineering 

Iyril G. Regan Chief 

Sdward Miller ... Asst. Chief 

Law Enforcement 

vVilliam W. Britton Chief 

Conservation Education-Public Relations 
Russell S. Orr — Chief 



b. Carlyle Sheldon’ Warden Supervisor 

1212 E. Main St., Conneautville, Pa., 

Phone: 3033 


Maynard Bogart, President .. Danville 

Joseph M. Critchfield, Vice President Confluence 

Gerard J. Adams Hawley Albert R. Hinkle, Jr. Clearfield 

Wallace C. Dean Meadville R. Stanley Smith Waynesburg 

John W. Grenoble Carlisle Raymond M. Williams East Bangor 

APRIL, 1963 

VOL. 32, NO. 4 



Assistant Executive Director, Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

0 PARADISE — LOST OR REGAINED: — Gordon L. Trembley, Chief Aquatic 
Biologist, Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

R. Grove, Vice President, Pennsylvania Federation of Sportsmen's Clubs 

12 SPAWNING OF BROOK TROUT — photo story by C. R. Buller, former Chief 
Fish Culturist, Pennsylvania Fish Commission 


Hinter C. Jones Warden Supervisor 

1. D. 2, Somerset, Pa. Phone: 6913 

14 BOATING — THE RIGHT PITCH — by Wayne Heyman 
16 SOMETIMES IT HELPS TO THINK — Richard Alden Knight 
18 TWO ALL-SEASON NYMPHS — Stuart Duffield 


T. Clair Fleecer Warden Supervisor 

Box 64, Honesdale, Pa. Phone: 253-3724 

Terry Rader Fishery Manager 

1. D. 3, Honesdale, Pa. Phone: 253-2033 


ohn S. Ogden Warden Supervisor 

1130 Ruxton Rd., York, Pa. Phone: 2-3474 
Robert Bielo Fishery Manager 

loltwood. Pa., 

Phone: Rawlinsville Butler 4-4128 

— Ray Ovington 



Cover Art by Bob Cypher 
Back Cover — Fishing the Little Lehigh 
Photo by LaMar Muinbar 


Iohn I. Buck Warden Supervisor 

P- O. Box 5, Lock Haven, Pa., 

Phone: 748-7162 

Oan Heyl Fishery Manager 

R. D. 1, Spring Mills, Pa., 

Phone: Center Hall Empire 4-1065 


Harold Corbin Warden Supervisor 

521 13th St., Huntingdon, Pa., 

Phone: Mitchell 3-0355 

POST M AST ER : All 3579 forms to be returned to Times and Sews Publishing Cn. 
Gettysburg, Pa. 

The PENNSYLVANIA ANGLER is published monthly by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission. 
South Office Building, Harrisburg, Pa. Subscription: One year— S2.00; three years— S5.00: 25 cents 
per single copy. Send check or money order payable to Pennsylvania Fish Commission. DO NOT 
SEND STAMPS. Individuals sending cash do so at their own risk. Change of address should reach 
us promptly. Furnish both old and new addresses. Second Class Postage paid at Harrisburg, Pa., 
and at additional mailing offices. 

Neither Publisher nor Editor will assume responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts or illustrations 
while in their possession or in transit. Permission to reprint will be given provided we receive 
marked copies and credit is given material or illustrations. Communications pertaining to manuscripts, 
material or illustrations should be addressed to the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, Harrisburg, Pa. 
NOTICE: Subscriptions received and processed after the 10th of each month will begin with the 
second month following. 


The potential is great hut Pennsylvania fishermen must 
he willing to invest in the future 


Assistant Executive Director 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission 


Some people seem to have the mistaken notion that 
the Pennsylvania Fish Commission has been doing- little 
or nothing- for warm-water fishermen, and that its only 
work has been for the trout fisherman. It is easy to 
understand how this idea came about. Prior to 1955, 
more than half our budget was spent on hatchery 
propagation and distribution and most of that went 
for trout production. Law enforcement and most other 
activities in those years were also pointed toward the 
:rout fisherman. However, beginning in 1956 and in- 
creasingly to the present, we have been doing more for 
he warm-water fishermen. A careful analysis of ex- 
penditures for the last fiscal year shows that 53 per 
:ent went for warm-water fishermen and 47 per cent 
tor trout fishermen. 

When a new lake is built, new access areas are de- 
veloped or new species of fish are introduced, these 
ire permanent improvements in contrast to the short- 
lived benefits of a planting of legal sized trout. 

The Fish Commission has built or rebuilt 14 lakes. 
Of this number, 11 have been constructed since 1955. 
Ill of these are for warm-water fish. It is expensive 
to acquire and develop a lake site, but this is one sure 
way to add to the fishing opportunity for Pennsylvania 
:inglers. Most of these lakes have been built close to 
centers of large populations lacking fishing waters. 
Most of them have been constructed with federal aid, 
in fact, all of the Dingell-Jolmson (federal aid) funds 
which are rehated to us from the 10 per cent excise tax 
on fishing tackle, have been spent in lake building. 
Federal aid funds received from 1951 to 1963 inclusive 
total $1,440,800. This amount has been matched with 
regular Fish Commission funds for the construction of 
these lakes on a 75 per cent federal and 25 per cent 
state basis. 

Thirty-one lakes have been leased or purchased by 
the Fish Commission, 20 of them since 1955. All but 
four have been developed entirelv or largely for warm- 
water fish. 

Of 68 access sites on streams, 47 of them have been 
purchased since 1955. Forty-eight of the 68 are for 
warm-water fish. Of 14 access sites acquired on lakes, 
nine have been secured since 1955. and all of these are 
warm-water fishing lakes. 

I believe that the above is pretty good evidence that 
warm-water fishermen in this state have not been 


The question is often asked why we do not stock 
more bass, walleye, pickerel, pike and other warm-water 
nsh. Part of the answer is that these fish are consider- 
ably more expensive to raise to adult size than trout. 
They must he reared largely or entirely on natural food 
and produced in ponds rather than in troughs and race- 
ways. Trout, of course, are fed entirely in confined 
areas on artificial food, now very largely on pellets. 
Trout can be reared to a 7- to 9-inch size in about a 
year and a half at a cost of about 30 cents apiece. In 
contrast, it takes two or three years to produce a legal 
sized bass or walleye. A tremendous investment in land 
and ponds would be required to develop a hatchery 

capable of producing two and one-quarter million bass 
and walleye. 

At present we have five hatcheries where all or the 
majority of the emphasis is on warm-water fish produc- 
tion. This production accounts for approximately 40 
per cent of the fish propagation and distribution budget 
of the present program. These hatcheries are primarily 
for the production of fingerling walleye, bass, northern 
pike and muskellunge. Plantings of fry (tiny fish just 
emerged from the egg) are effective in stocking newly- 
made lakes or those from which all fish life has been 
removed by draining or by chemical means. These fry, 
however, have little or no use in stocking waters which 
already contain fish life. The little fish are so vulnerable 
that they are quickly consumed by the larger fish pres- 
ent or suffer such keen competition from naturally 
produced fry that they quickly lose out in the race 
for survival. 

In order to successfully introduce new species ol fish 
into rivers and lakes already containing fish life, wall- 
eye, bass, pike and muskellunge must be reared to the 
fingerling size. This operation is costly as illustrated 
by the cost per pound to produce these warm-water 
fingerlings. The cost varies from $13.52 to a high ol 
$93.39 per pound. 

The total number of fingerling warm-water fish pro- 
duced and planted was 286,429. Fry, including elver- 
transferred from the lower Susquehanna River, totalled 
11,360,000. This included 7,600,000 walleye. 10.000 
muskellunge, 900,000 northern pike and 100,000 large- 
mouth bass fry. 

Because of the heavy losses encountered in hatching, 
large numbers of eggs from such fish as muskellunge 
and walleye must he taken. These must be held to in- 
sure enough fish for stocking the fingerling rearing- 
ponds. Those not needed for this purpose or to start 
new lakes are released in the nearest suitable waters, 
usually those from which the breeders have been 

As indicated above, the majority of fingerlings are 
used to introduce new species into waters containing 
other fish life and where these fish will have value in 

APRIL— 1963 


improving the variety and quality of the fishing. Prob- 
ably the best example of this program is the introduc- 
tion of the muskellunge to waters outside of its natural 
range. Originally muskellunge were found only in Lake 
Erie and the waters of the Allegheny River drainage. 
During the past years these fish have been stocked in 
approximately 30 different rivers and lakes throughout 
the Commonwealth. In every instance there has been at 
least some survival of the muskellunge fingerlings. In 
a number of the waters fish of legal size, 30 inches and 
over, have been taken. This has added greatly to the 
interest and enthusiasm of fishermen. Everyone wants 
to catch a trophy fish and the muskellunge is king of 

The northern pike is a close second. We now have 
a number of waters in which these fish were stocked 
and where they have attained a weight of 10 and 12 
pounds and more. Walleye established through finger- 
ling planting have also made important additions to 
lakes where they were not originally present. Bass 
fingerlings have been used largely in stocking new 
lakes. After the first year of planting, fish of this size 
must be used to insure survival and good fishing until 
natural reproduction takes over the job. 

Introduction of these predatory species has still an- 
other value which may l)e even more important than 
establishing a new game fish. Pan fish such as bluegills, 
perch, catfish and others such as suckers, carp, etc., 
commonly reproduce too successfully, especially in lakes, 
and become stunted for lack of food. Muskellunge and 
northern pike are especially voracious fish eaters and 
may help to keep the fish population in balance. 

Another part of the warm-water fish program has 
been salvaging and planting adult warm-water fish to 
supplement natural production. These fish have largely 
come from Lake Erie, where they have been secured 
from commercial fishermen and by the operation of our 
own trap nets. We also purchase about 100,000 adult 
catfish each year from commercial fishermen operating 
on the lower Delaware River. A total of 4,025 small- 
mouth bass, largely from Lake Erie and 5,700 adult 
largemouth bass mostly from the Pymatuning Sanctuary 
were planted in selected waters last season. The num- f 
her of adult warm-water fish salvaged, including those 
produced in the few hatchery lakes available for this 
purpose, totalled 184,245. 

Although the total number of fingerling and adult 
warm-water fish stocked is small compared with the 
number of trout planted, these fish are largely used 
for permanent improvement of the fishing and not for 
put and take angling. 

Probably the best argument against statewide stock-' I 
ing of warm-water fish, except to establish them in new 
lakes where they are not now present, is the fact that 
these fish are so prolific. Even where the waters are 
very heavily fished, more than enough adults survive 
to spawn more young than these waters can grow to 
maturity. The bottleneck for warm-water fish is the 
food supply. Practical ways to increase the food supply 
in warm-water fish production in fishing waters have 


lot yet been worked out through research. It is the 
ishery scientists’ biggest problem. 

We believe that we can do the best job for warm- 
vater fishermen in Pennsylvania by acquiring and 
juilding fishing lakes especially in areas near large 
renters of population where additional fishing waters 
ire most needed. We can also add to the fishing oppor- 
:unities for warm-water anglers by acquiring access to 
:he major rivers and lakes of the state. Most of these 
vaters are open to public fishing if anglers can get to 
:hem, but more and more these waters are being posted 
igainst trespass and access to them is being denied. 
Unless the Commission continues to take vigorous ac- 
:ion to acquire sites on major rivers and develop places 
where boats can be launched and fishermen can enter, 
here will not be enough places where the public can 
rsh within the next generation. In this connection 
Project 70 provides a most important opportunity to 
Pennsylvania fishermen and boaters. Five million dol- 
ars of the 70 million bond issue which will probably 
ie on the ballot this fall will be made available to the 
iPish Commission, and it is planned to spend the major 
oart of our allotment for the purchase of fishing waters 
)r access to them. 

Still another way to insure good warm-water fishing 
s to reduce present pollution and to strictly guard 
igainst any new sources. In this work, sportsmen can 
)e particularly helpful by promptly reporting fish kills 
ind suspected sources of pollution. Reports can be 
nade to district fish wardens and to regional engineers 
)f the State Department of Health. 

During 1962 our fish wardens investigated a total 
)f 118 suspected pollution cases. Seventeen were 
prosecuted and fines of $2,650 levied. In addition, 
•voluntary contributions totalling $71,665 were made in 
53 cases, including the famous Susquehanna kill ; 48 

cases are still pending. A total of 462 cases of pollution 
were investigated during the past four years. All but 
a few of these involved warm-water fish. 

In summary, if pollution can be reduced and new 
sources of pollution prevented — if access can be secured 
to existing waters — if the present active program of 
acquiring lake sites and developing fishing lakes in 
the Commonwealth by the Fish Commission, the De- 
partment of Forests and Waters, Soil Conservation 
Service and the Army Engineers can be continued, and 
if these w 7 aters can be supplied with the fish that they 
need, Pennsylvania anglers can be assured of improved 
warm-water fishing in the future. 

But, unless additional funds can be secured through 
increased license revenue or otherwise, further curtail- 
ment in the present program of the Fish Commission 
is inevitable. If the program of 1960-61 is considered 
normal and desirable, it would require $650,000 to 
restore that program. Assuming that the proposed $2 
license increase provides approximately a million dollars 
more in revenue per year, it will be seen that about 
2/3 of this amount will be required simply to put us 
back where we were a year ago, leaving about $350,000 
a year to expand desirable activities such as stream and 
lake improvement, building additional fishing lakes on 
our own or through cooperation with the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and local district soil conservation 
directors, county commissioners and others under the 
P. L. 566 program. 

If additional funds are not secured, a 30 per cent cut 
in the trout planting program will be inevitable. Funds 
will not be available to build lakes on our own or in 
cooperation with other agencies. Six wardens who have 
been lost through death or retirement cannot be re- 
placed, and Pennsylvania will not be able to move ahead 
in an active fishery program. 

SlNCE 1934 Fishermen’s Paradise, located in Spring- 
Creek near Bellefonte, Centre County, has been a mecca 
for many anglers. Originally planned as a demonstra- 
tion of fly-fishing and of stream improvement devices, 
it later developed into an area where, at no charge other 
than a Pennsylvania fishing license, anglers could fish 
five times per year and take home one trout per trip. 
As many as 23,000 anglers utilized the area during the 
special season lasting two months. On opening day, 
which was usually about May 15, thousands of anglers 
jammed the mile-long Paradise to try their luck for 
the big trout there. An unknown number of spectators, 
photographers and reporters stood by to watch or record 
the activities. Fishermen are usually interested in catch- 
ing big fish and undoubtedly the main attraction here 
was the 12,000 or more big trout stocked at intervals 
throughout the special season by the Pennsylvania Fish 

As in any project of this kind, some were for it and 
others agin' it. To the fishermen who didn’t mind 
elbow to elbow fishing here was a chance to catch, play 
and take home a lunker trout. Obviously this was not 
a paradise for anglers who preferred a degree of privacy 
in their recreation. However, many ardent fly-fishermen 
did fish here — and many of them on a fish-for-fun 
basis. Perhaps the most valid criticism of the project 
was its cost to the Pennsylvania Fish Commission (up 
to $57,000 annually) and the fact that only a relatively 
small percentage of the licensed fishermen used the 
proj ect. 

☆ ☆ 


Faced with decreasing revenues from fishing license 
sales, it was necessary for the Pennsylvania Fish Com- 
mission to make reductions in many of its programs 
in 1962 — one of which was the closing of Fishermen’s 
Paradise. An additional reason for this step was the 
current pollution problem in Paradise and in Spring- 
Creek above which greatly reduced the kinds and num- 
bers of trout food organisms in the stream. Perhaps 
this ecological change was most noticeable in the dis- 
appearance of the shadfly hatch for which the Paradise 
was once so famous. It was reasoned, therefore, that 
the project could no longer support the heavy con- 
centration of big trout it once did without continual 
artificial feeding. However, it was believed that the 
stream could maintain a lighter load of trout. 

To retain some semblance of the old Paradise and 
at very little cost, the Commission, after considerable 
deliberation and after hearing recommendations of the 
local Chamber of Commerce, decided to convert Para- 
dise into a fish-for-fun project. Thus on April 14 , 1962 
(the opening date of the state-wide trout season) 
“Fish-for-Fun at Paradise” was inaugurated. The 
regulations covering the new project included some 
of those for special fly-fishing streams such as use ol 
artificial flies only and conventional fly-fishing tackle 
but added ( 1 ) that no trout might be killed or had in 
possession and (2) that it would be open to fishing 
the year around. Thus the major differences between 
the old Paradise and the new Fish-for-Fun Paradise 
were that under the old system licensed anglers were 
required to register in and out at a booth, were allowec 
a total of five trips per angler during the special two- 
month season and could kill one trout each trip 
whereas, under the new system the licensed angler 
could fish whenever he wished (even in January if ht 
wanted to) without the fuss of registering but he mus 
return all fish caught to the stream. 

The angler who visited the fish-for-fun project oi 
the opening day saw many changes over past years 
Gone was the great opening day crowd of fishermer 




Chief Aquatic Biologist 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

and the thousands of observers. Gone too was the booth 
where formerly all fishermen checked in, received 
identification badges and checked out when leaving 
and had any trout they killed measured and weighed. 
Gone, too, was the force of three to six men who were 
required in the booth and the additional Fish Com- 
mission employes whose services were needed to park 
cars, clean up the property and enforce the fishing- 
regulations. However, for the less than 100 who fished 
Paradise on April 14, 1962 (a far cry from the 1,404 
anglers who fished the mile of old Paradise on opening- 
day 1961), something new had been added — hot bean 
soup was served free by the Bellefonte Chamber of 

In early April, 1962, a fair population of trout was 
found in the project stream by sampling with electro- 
fishing gear and for this reason no trout were stocked 
there prior to the opening of the season. During May 
about 50 adult trout were scattered over the project 
each week. In June two plantings totaling 200 trout 
were made. On July 3, 425 trout were stocked and on 
lAugust 30, 500 trout were stocked. The purpose of 
these plantings was to replace trout migrating upstream 
and out of the project during the warm summer months 
and to provide “fresh” fish at various times in the 
hopes that these would stimulate the resident “hook- 
shy” population to take the lures and hence pep up the 
fishing. To obtain an indication of the loss of trout in 
the project due to hooking or natural mortality a screen 
was erected at the lower end of the project and re- 
mained in place for about one month during mid- 
summer. Dead fish recovered from this screen were 
five brook trout, seven brown trout, three rainbow 
trout and thirty-seven suckers. Thus it appeared that 
trout mortality, at least in the lower section of the 
project, was not appreciable. The relatively high rate 
of mortality of the suckers has been noticed for the 
past two or three years in this portion of Spring Creek 
md is possibly due to some toxic materials on the 
oottom taken in with their food. 

VPRIL — 1963 

WINTER FLY-FISHING at the Paradise. 

To determine the utilization of the fish-for-fun proj- 
ect by anglers, a method of angler counts was devised 
whereby employes at the nearby fish cultural station 
on their regular rounds made three angler counts daily : 
9:30 to 10:30 a.m., 3 :00 to 4:00 and 7 :30 to 8:30 
p.m. Results of the angler counts are shown in Table 1. 

Table 1. Summary of Angler Counts Made 
Three Times Daily for Period April 14, 1962, to March 1, 1963. 

9 : 30 - 10: 30 
Month Morning 

3 : 00 - 4:00 


7 : 30 - 8:30 


T otal 

April (April 14-30) 




























































In reference to Table 1 it should be noted that 
the columns headed “morning,” “afternoon” and 
“evening” are monthly summaries of the actual number 
of anglers fishing the project during the specified pe- 
riods. The monthly total column does not reflect the 
true total number of anglers since those who fished 


at periods other than when counts were made were not 
counted at all, and those who fished during more than 
one angler count on the same day were counted more 
than once. 

Greatest angler utilization was in May. Anglers fell 
off rapidly in September perhaps partially due to the 
fact that many did not appreciate that the fish-for-fun 

project was open after Labor Day (which marks the 
.closing of the trout season in other trout streams). 

Although the winter of 1962-1963 brought unusually 
long periods of ice cover, fly-fishermen, dressed in 
woolens, were in evidence whenever stretches of the 
project became open. Some of these anglers were just 
curious to see if trout would take the fly in winter (they 
did!), while others were seeking a release from winter 
lethargy. At any rate winter fly-fishing was started on 
a small scale in Pennsylvania. 

Comments from Anglers 

To obtain an indication of anglers’ catches and to 
learn what they thought about Paradise as a fish-for- 
fun project, cards for voluntary returns were placed in 
boxes located at each of the two major parking areas. I 
The cards were collected at intervals and categorized. 
Nine hundred thirty-two cards were turned in during 
the period of April 14 to December 31, 1962. All but 
ten of the sixty-seven Pennsylvania counties were rep- 
resented in the returns. Greatest returns came from 
three counties near the project — Centre, Clearfield and 
Blair — but the next highest returns were from two of 
the most distant counties — Allegheny and Westmore- 
land. Anglers from seventeen other states and one vis- 
itor from England filled out cards. 

From the data on the cards (summarized for period 
April 14 to December 31, 1962, only) 829 anglers fished 
a total of 4,104 hours, caught and released 7,697 trout 
and it thus required an average of 1.87 hours to catch 
a trout. Since these were voluntary returns, no attempt 
was made to expand the data further. 

Perhaps the most interesting data submitted on the 
cards were the comments of the anglers using the proj- 
ect. This was an opportunity for the anglers to go [ 
"all out” in their gripes or praises and many of them 
did. In fact, 476 of the 932 anglers who filled out the 
cards gave written comments on one or more matters 
dealing with fish-for-fun. Of the 476 returns, 315 made 
positive statements on how they liked — or didn’t like — 
fish-for-fun at Paradise. Two hundred forty-two of the i 
315 definitely favored fish-for-fun over the old Paradise 
and 73 definitely preferred the old Paradise. According 
to these figures about 77 per cent of those who ex- ( 
pressed any preference favored fish-for-fun at Paradise 
and 23 per cent did not favor it. Of those who preferred 
the old Paradise, 60 wanted it returned in the same 
form as before whereas 13 would be willing to pay from 
a “small” fee to $1.00 for each fish killed. 

Of those who were wholeheartedly in favor of fish- 
for-fun at Paradise, 41 asked that fish-for-fun streams 
be established in other counties. In a very general way 
it appears that those who reported the best catches 
favored fish-for-fun. 

During a period in the summer, trout did not take 
flies readily — either because they had become “hook 
shy" or perhaps due to the degraded biological and 
chemical characteristics of the stream. Whatever the ; 
cause, the result was reflected in such angler comments 
as “I can’t help it if the fish are smarter than I am — 
it’s still fun” ; “Why not remove the educated trout in 



Paradise — stock them in other fly-fishing streams — and 
stock fresh ones here?” and “Your fish are too sophis- 
cated. Please stock some dumb b s next time I come.” 

Other comments of interest suggested the use of barb- 
less hooks which are not required under fish-for-fun 
regulations, keeping trophy trout only, stocking more 
and bigger trout, cleaning up the pollution in Spring- 
Creek, need for more stream improvement devices, pro- 
viding a fish-for-fun stream for ladies only at Paradise, 
letting the public feed the fish, better law enforcement 
on the stream and a request to “allow women to fish 
for free (without a license) since we don’t catch many 
fish anyway.” 

One of the problems confronting anglers in Spring- 
Creek — and Paradise is no exception — is the luxuriant 
growth of aquatic weeds which occurs during spring 
and summer months. This is attributed to the fertilizing 
elements contributed by the treated sewage effluent 
and detergents in the stream. The situation became so 
bad in June that it became practically impossible to 
fish — and many were the comments from anglers. To 
alleviate the situation, hatchery personnel cut and re- 
moved the weeds manually in late June. Apparently 
this improved fishing success as numerous card com- 
ments expressed thanks for the job. 

The only conclusion that can be drawn from the re- 
sults of the first eleven months’ operation of Fish-for- 
Fun at Paradise is that of the anglers who used it and 
commented on it over three-fourths were in favor of 
it and less than one-fourth against it. One could spec- 
ulate that many who did not favor this type fishing 
didn’t visit the project last year and thus didn’t have 
opportunity to comment. It is just as true that many 
other anglers were not aware of the fish-for-fun project 
because of its newness and thus did not fish there. Cer- 
tainly the objective of the Pennsylvania Fish Commis- 
sion to retain trout fishing at Paradise at a greatly 
reduced cost was attained. 

The writer has talked with anglers who never missed 
an opening day at the old Paradise — not to fish but to 
watch the rodeo type fishing. To them it was a fisher- 
man’s “old-home day” and will be missed. On the other 
hand we talked last fall to an angler who had “dis- 
covered” fish-for-fun at Paradise just before a planned 
trip to Nova Scotia to fish for salmon. He didn’t go 
to Nova Scotia. “Why should I,” he said, “when 1 
have this kind of fishing right here at home?” 

Time alone and the habits of our anglers will tell 
whether Paradise has been lost or regained — whether 
there is more enjoyment in fishing with hundreds of 
others or with only a relatively few and whether last- 
ing memories come from taking trout home or from 
the fun of just catching trout — or as so well stated by 
one lady commenter “Thanks for showing me the beau- 
tiful fish my hubby goes fishing for but never brings 
home. It is a beautiful place and the rushing water is 
calming — guess that’s why he goes fishing — to rest.’’ 

In the meantime the Fish Commission will continue 
the project at Paradise and you are invited to fish there 
at any time — for fun. 



NEARLY A THOUSAND anglers used these boxes for making 
voluntary returns and comments. 

Pennsylvania Fish Commission, 

Harrisburg, Pa. 

Gentlemen : 

It occurred to me you might be interested in our experiences 
fishing the new “Fish-for-Fun” project on Spring Creek. I have 
two fishing companions, Dr. Claude A Gette and Rev. Carl C. 
Gray. All are ardent dry fly-fishermen and not at all interested 
in keeping fish, so the “Fish-for-Fun” project is right down 
our alley. Frankly, when it was run as a Paradise, we despised 
the place. Too many people and everyone trying to catch a big- 
one to take home. The first part of last season we fished the 
project at Young Womans Creek but about the middle of May 
we decided to try our luck on the project on Spring Creek. Our 
first day there was very successful, having caught about 40 
nice trout. Well, the result was that we fished no other streams 
all season, and have fished every month so far including Jan- 
uary. We found the trout stopped taking dry flies the latter 
end of September. Being interested to know whether or not it 
was possible to catch trout in the cold months, we tried it four 
or five times in October, using wet flies and nymphs. We also 
tried it in November and December and this month. Each trip 
was very successful and caught several hundred dandies. 

Dr. Gette and I both are retired and have plenty of time, 
however, Rev. Gray can only go one day a week. Dr. Gette and 
I made over 60 trips and each time had lots of fun. We met 
many fine gentlemen there and enjoyed exchanging flies and 
information. We also converted four or five of our friends to 
the Fish-for-Fun idea and am sure the fever will spread. We 
feel that such projects are the only solution if we expect to 
keep the fine art of fly-fishing alive for the younger genera- 
tion. We also heartily approve of the increase in fishing licenses. 
I am sure no one will believe me when I tell you we caught 
over 1,000 trout, most of them from 10 inches to 22 inches and 
that is a lot of fish and also a lot of fun. Please keep it going. 

Sincerely yours, 

George R. Griest. 

Philipsburg, Pa. 

APRIL— 1963 




Pennsylvania Federation of Sportsmen’s Clubs 

(This article appeared in the Pennsylvania Sportsman, March, 1963) 

OST conservation groups within the Commonwealth 
have approved Project 70, in principle at least. We 
agree that recreational facilities, proper land use, the 
development of green belts, and all the other benefits 
that accrue to water-resource management, flood con- 
trol, improved recreational use of water and land are 
very worth while. 

Businessmen, economists, citizens in general, and 
conservationists approve of the development of an 
adequate highway system. They see faster and more 
convenient travel, all-weather use of major highways, 
and the increased use of relatively inaccessible areas. 
The Pennsylvania Shortway is one of these systems and 
is accepted as needed and desirable. 

In some instances, however, a conflict of interest is 
bound to develop. The building of a highway system 
causes dislocations in the land and the proposed pur- 
poses of the land which are most often cited as the 
need for the highway in the first place. Builders of high- 
ways, for example, explain that vast inaccessible tracts 
of hunting land will become available to more hunters. 
Yet, they simultaneously build the highway through the 
center of an isolated area dividing it into two pieces, 
either of which is too small to provide the hunting 
advertised. Highways also bring fishermen to famous 
waters where the angler will spend his time and his 
money for lodging, lures, gasoline, food, and, of course, 
enjoy himself on such waters with the catching of many 
fine trout or bass. 

But we proceed to destroy the very water we advertise 
as a main attraction in the construction of the highway. 
This situation exists in the central part of the State 
on Big Fishing Creek. 

At this time, the section of the proposed Shortway 
that touches on the western part of Clinton County and 
the eastern edge of Centre County is planned to cross 
the mountains at Tylertown and use as its roadbed the 
Lamar Valley, through which Big Fishing Creek flows. 

I here is ever}- indication that the new highway will 
cross Big h ishing Creek several times in a five-mile 
stretch in the Lamar Narrows, with additional disrup- 
tion of the stream by cuts and fills. 

In addition to the a a a;! location of such a iiighway, 
there are dangers acc . • lying the building of such 
a roadway because of ti e necessary dynamiting. This 
might result in changes of underground waterways, with 

the possibility that underground dams and the resulting 
springs will disappear. Of course, one cannot prove 
that this will occur but neither can the engineer guaran- 
tee that it will not or cannot happen. 

What about Big Fishing Creek? Is it worth saving? 

If there were four streams of importance in Central 
Pennsylvania, they were Spruce Creek, Spring Creek, 
Big Fishing Creek and Penns Creek. Some would insist 
that Bald Eagle be added to this list and we would not 

Spruce Creek is almost entirely privately owned and 
operated through a club system. It is not generally open 
to the public. The establishment of a milk-receiving 
plant at the head of this creek has already provided a 
rather constant source of pollution and about a year 
ago was the cause of a fish kill there. 

Spring Creek, below State College, is polluted with 
detergents being the main offender and some partially 
treated sewage, excessive growth and decay of plant 
material, lowering of the dissolved oxygen and other 
factors have already turned much of this stream into a 
warm-water stream of doubtful value. 

Penns Creek is a mighty stream but changes in the 
cover along its banks, exploitation of some of it for 
cottages, increasing siltation, and the pollution of one 
of the large springs feeding it at Spring Mills begin 
to forecast trouble for this big water. 

Big Fishing Creek has been essentially unchanged 
and might, at the moment, be rated the number one 
stream in Central Pennsylvania for trout fishing. Maybe 
it should not outrank the other streams mentioned but 
the facts are that it does at this time. 

If through highway construction the springs are lost 



that feed this stream, we will lose 18 miles of some of 
the best water left for trout fishing in the Common- 
wealth. If this does not happen, then we can be certain 
that about five miles will be lost through construction 
of bridges and roadway. This can easily change the 
downstream ecology to conditions that will harbor only 
suckers, carp, sunfish, minnows and other rough fish. 
In any event, the tremendous value of this stream will 
have been sacrificed on the altar of highway construc- 

There are some who will say ... so what? 

Let me add that located on this same watershed and 
deriving its water from the same springs as the stream 
itself is the Department of Interior’s federal hatchery 
at Lamar. This is a million dollar investment and the 
program for development involves an additional $750,- 
000. This hatchery has an annual payroll of $65,000 
and produces $120,000 worth of trout each year for 
recreational consumption. All of this would be lost if 
just one blast of dynamite destroyed one underground 
spring. Is it worth the risk? 

Highway planners say this is the route that should 
be used because it is cheaper. They point out, too, that 
less salt and cinders would be used in the wintertime. 
Now it’s our turn to say ... so what? 

Would we deliberately decide to build a highway that 
might destroy a hatchery worth one million dollars and 
prevent the expenditure of another $750,000, in addi- 
tion to eliminating a product worth $120,000 each year 
and a payroll of $65,000? 

These are hatchery facts. But what about the stream ( 
Is it important that we try to save it? How good is 
it really? 

By actual stream survey, Big Fishing Creek sup- 
ports more than 200 pounds of fish per surface acre 
of water. Many so-called trout streams of Pennsylvania 
support four or five pounds of fish per acre. Trout, 
and this is a trout stream, account for 90 per cent of 
the fish population and three quarters of the pounds of 
fish present. In the stretch of water in the Narrows, 
described as that which will be destroyed by bridge 
building and roadbed construction, the estimated trout 
population was, at the end of the 1962 fishing season, 
248 legal trout per surface acre of water or 1,133 legal 
trout per mile of water. In addition to these legal-sized 
trout, another 10,000 sublegal trout were wedged in 
between the legal ones. We venture to say that there is 
no other trout stream in the Commonwealth as filled 
with trout as this stretch of water. 

A trout population of this size indicates a suitable 
habitat. Clean water of suitable temperatures, a good 
food supply, adequate winter protection, spawning areas 
(most of the holdover fish are stream bred) must all 
be there. 

Growth rate, also an indicator of the stream's quality, 
is as good on Big Fishing Creek as in any other lime- 
stone stream and much better than in freestone streams. 
For example, in age class II, brown trout run 9-9.4 
inches in length and brook trout from 8.9 to 9.3 inches. 
Trout of freestone streams in the same age class range 

from 7.2 to 7.7 inches for brown trout and 5.1 to 5.7 
inches for brook trout. 

Another indication of water quality is the kind of 
aquatic insects present. We list a partial summary of 
those in the abundant and very abundant categories. 

Corydalidae, Rhagionidae, Brachycentridae, Hvdro- 
psychidae, Heptagenidae, Baetidae. In way of expla- 
nation for the angler, the first group is closely related 
to the hellgrammite ; the second group to the small true 
or two-winged flies ; the third and fourth groups to the 
caddis flies ; and the last two are May flies. 

Some fishermen, as well as skeptics, might say that 
this is all fine but who fishes Big Fishing Creek in the 
so-called Narrows? 

On four days in 1962, from May 8 to May 12, a 
count was made of the anglers on four miles of the 
water in the Narrows. The count was a partial one on 
three of the four days and was complete on only one 
day. There were on this four miles of water on those 
four days an average of 32 fishermen per mile of water. 
Over 600 fishermen used this four-mile stretch of water 
for recreation in four days. 

It is quite impossible to assign a dollar value to a 
day of fishing but we do know that at least $60,000,000 
is spent in fresh-water angling in Pennsylvania each 
year. What is more important is the hour, the after- 
noon, or the day spent on a trout stream. The outdoor 
recreation business, including tourism, is estimated to 
be worth about $1.3 billion a year in Pennsylvania. Yet 
we might ask just what is the value of any outdoor 
recreation or riding from here to there. 

It is regrettable that it becomes necessary for any 
one person or group to have to defend the preservation 
of a natural resource as important as Big Fishing Creek. 

We are girding ourselves to spend millions on Proj- 
ect 70 to create in other places what already exists on 
Big Fishing Creek. We are spending billions to build 
a highway, presumably to deliver people from the 
rapidly forming Megopolis of the Eastern Seaboard to 
the interior of our Commonwealth to enjoy the outdoor 
recreation there and, of course, to spend their money. 
Our land-planning and land-use commissions, boards, 
conservation districts, and others are spending much 
time and energy hunting ways to make our natural 
resources pay off. It is unbelievable that we should be 
so shortsighted, so blind to the simple facts staring 
us in the face, so ignorant of this tremendous resource 
already built for us by nature at no cost to us that we 
would consider building a highway through the middle 
of it. 

What can we do about it? 

Write, go see your Pennsylvania legislator and tell 
him what you think. Write to Governor Scranton and 
the Secretary of Highways for Pennsylvania. Write to 
John L. Stanton, Division Engineer, U. S. Bureau 
of Public Roads, 131 Walnut Street, Harrisburg, Pa., 
and tell him of your disapproval. Write to Dr. Edward 
Krafts, Director, Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, Wash- 
ington 25, D. C., and ask him to support our efforts to 
save Big Fishing Creek and its recreational potential. 

\PRIL— 1963 



oj~ jBzook 'Urout 

EARLY COURTSHIP . . . the male and female swim in a cir- 
cular motion over the gravel bed with the male contacting 
the body of the female. 

male during nesf- 

of the fe- 

HEAVILY-LADEN abdominal region of the fed 
is very noticeable prior to actual spawning. 


Former Chief Fish Culturist 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

e FEMALE EXCAVATING the nest or redd . . . note the body 

vibration of female. 

ACTUAL SPAWNING position of FEMALE COVERS NEST after spawning is 

brook trout. completed. 

The Right Pitch 


A sight that is becoming more common each season 
is the high-powered runabout struggling along at a 
maximum of 12 mph. Is the cause due to a slipping 
clutch? A broken drive shaft? Or is it simply the fault 
of a shear pin broken? Although each of these three 
sources of trouble, including wrong type fuel, can cause 
immediate loss of power, the major culprit in most 
cases is the propeller. 

It is doubtful if one, out of several thousand boat 
owners picked at random, could give a detailed descrip- 
tion of a propeller’s function. This difficulty to fully 
comprehend an engine’s prop can be traced to the fact 
that the blades are subjected to such whims and vagaries 
that not one manufacturer, in the entire history of 
boating, has managed to devise either a formula or a 
propeller that will guarantee perfect all-round engine 
performance. Yet they have contributed enough plain- 
to-follow rules so as to enable even the greenest be- 
ginner a chance to reap near perfect cruising on the 
first outing. 

To gain a better insight of some troubles faced by 
an outboard manufacturer seeking the best prop for 

your boat, we must compare the propeller with the 
wheels of an automobile. A car manufacturer knows 
the “dry” weight of his product and can, with clear cut 
mathematical formulas, determine what maximum speed 
will be attained in each gear with tires of a particular 
size. Added weight of passengers is of little impor- 
tance since a car’s horsepower is many times that oi 
an outboard. 

The outboard manufacturer is defeated from the start 
First he must guess at the weight of your boat, its de- 
sign, the number of passengers you might decide tc 
carry, and the over-all work load that might be required 
of his engine. At a loss for any better method, he has 
no choice but to equip his engine with a propeller that 
will function well with an average boat operating wit! 
an average load under average conditions. In the enc 
he is only able to supply you with a blade that will dr 
its work well under ideal conditions. 

Although this type of manufacturer’s philosophy 
might, on the surface, appear like some gigantic fraud 
the newly equipped boat owner is expected to do hi: 
share of figuring if he wants to enjoy carefree boating 

~ — 2 — -r. - — 

MEASUREMENTS OF PROPELLER'S diameter is the circle scribed by the tips 

of the blade. Pitch is the distance the propeller would advance in one revolution 
if operating in a semi-solid substance, with no slippage. 



The search for the “right propeller” has been made 
easier by one of the leaders in the outboard field, the 
Kiekhaefer Corporation, who markets their product 
under the brand name Mercury. Here the outboard 
buyer has most of his problems eliminated by a handy 
catalog that lists an entire line of Quicksilver propellers. 
One section offers boaters from two to ten blades for 
each motor from 10 bp and up. The higher horsepower 
motors are sold without props, so the new owner can 
select from a large range to suit his particular needs. 
For example, the 70-hp Mark 78 has ten different 
wheels, the 60-hp Mark 75 has eight, and the 45-hp 
Mark 58 has ten. This last model gives the boat owner 
:he choice of using a 14-inch, two-bladed prop for light 
loads with speeds up to 43 mph, or an eight-inch pitch, 
three-bladed propeller for pulling up to 4,000 lbs. on 
i large cruiser. 

A large number of outboard owners are under the 
impression that an engine's propellers function much 
like that of a screw moving through wood. This is to 
be expected since a prop's circular movements do give 
diis suggestion, however erroneously it is. If this were 
true though, then the over-all dimensions of any type 
prop would contribute zero to its efficiency since the 
pitch of the blades alone, like the number of threads 
per inch on a screw’s shank, would govern the distance 
advanced by the boat for every revolution of the 

What actually occurs is the revolving propeller im- 
parts a backward motion to the water flowing through 
the blades. This reverse thrust of water created by the 
prop’s motion is in turn so resisted by the surrounding, 
relatively undisturbed water, that it exerts a forward 
'motion on the boat. A jet of water or air, forced under 
pressure through the stern of the boat would create the 
|same reaction brought about by the revolving propeller 
blades. When in motion, the propeller actually pulls the 
water from the leading edges of its blades, draws it 
‘hack, and turns it into a high-powered “jet” stream. 

It can be readily seen the diameter of the prop 
used, its pitch, the number of blades it contains, and 
its revolutions per minute, all determine at just what 
proportion the water is accelerated through the blades 
and at what speed. 

Diameter and pitch are the two main factors to bear 
in mind when selecting a propeller. Pitch is the axial 
distance that a propeller would advance in one revolu- 
tion if operated in a semi-solid substance where there 
was no slippage. If you were to take a prop having 
8" pitch and screw it into a large chunk of foam rubber, 
it would, in one turn, enter the rubber 8". Diameter 
is the circle scribed by the tips of the blades. 

A wheel marked 8J4" x llj/ 2 " means that the first 
figure is the diameter and the pitch is llj /2 inches. 
Other information will also be included such as the 
recommended safe operating RPM (5,500-5,800) for 
that type propeller, its maximum gross work load (800- 
1,300 lbs.) and the length of boat it performs best on 

1 ( 15 ^- 16 ^'). 

A RACING PROPELLER is a light, two-blade, high-pitch 
wheel designed to spin a fragile racing boat around at 
fantastic speed. Place it on an ordinary runabout and what 
happens? No speed — too much load. 

A final consideration that must be taken into account 
is blade area. The prop’s blades should have sufficient 
enough area, when placed on your type engine, to per- 
form efficiently on the water that is drawn through 
them. Performance will be disrupted, despite proper 
diameter and pitch, if the blade area is too great. As 
one blade sets the “water thrust” into motion the other 
blade, or blades of the prop, will interfere seriously 
with water acceleration. Too small of a blade area and 
the trouble is just as bad. 

The speed performance of every boat is governed 
mainly by the horsepower available. Equipping your 
engine with the correct propeller will allow it to turn 
at the recommended RPM and develop full power. To 
insure this “matching" first select a recommended trial 
prop that is suited for both your boat’s approximate 
length and its gross load. If the wheel is purchased 
from a reliable marine dealer, the chances are you re- 
ceived the correct choice. Once fitted-out though, make 
several tests for the best motor angle, using the tilt 
pin setting located on the stern bracket. 

Now make a trial run and observe boat speed with 
water speedometer. The correct propeller has been 
selected if speed attained falls within the required 
“speed range” recommended for this propeller. If the 
trial run speed is lower than specified for the prop or 
is at the low end of the range, the next lower pitch is 
the correct propeller. If the speed is higher , then the 
next higher pitch is the correct propeller. 

One rule to follow when selecting a propeller is that 
wheel with greater pitch should be used on lighter 
boats, handling lighter loads, and planing type boats. 
On heavier boats, with heavy loads, and non-planing 
types, a propeller with lower pitch is usually more 
efficient. The prop’s pitch can be compared to the trans- 
mission in an automobile. Under load, a lower gear is 
necessary (lower pitch). Under light load, high gear 
can be used (greater pitch). 

APRIL— 1963 


Sometimes It Helps to Think 

T HERE have been times in my fishing career that I 
have felt that all mysteries have been solved ; I have 
the situation well in hand. Perhaps I have struggled 
for years in search of THE method, but now I have it 
and all the hours of frustration are past. Baloney! 

. Time was that I would never dream of insulting a 
trout’s instincts by showing him an off-pattern fly. 
Give me a box full of Quill Gordon’s, Cahills, and 
Ginger Quills and I could catch more than my share. 
Last season, I took an amazing number of supposedly 
smart brown trout on a No. 12 Fore-and-Aft Coach- 
man, a fly that resembles, in good part, a remnant of 
carpet sweeper lint. The first fish was accidental — I had 
exhausted my imagination on an absolutely impossible 
hatch of flies and tied this THING on for lack of a 
better idea. The succeeding fish came as a result of 
sheer stubbornness on my part, a refusal to recognize 
the obvious. 

When I started fishing for trout, Dad taught me a 
fair amount about streamer fly use. When did you use 
one last? I broke down two years ago and swept a 
riffle clean of browns and rainbows on a No. 10 white 
marabou streamer, this dredged from the very bottom 
of my wet fly kit. 

Three years back, I went to Angustura Lake, an 
amazing body of water in Sonora State, Mexico. There, 
legend held, a man could fill the boat with black bass 
(largemouth) in short order. A small one was held to 
be anything less than six pounds. 

With me on this junket, I had a supply of livestock. 
In a live bucket in the plane (I baby-sat the bloody 
thing all the way down from Texas) was at least a 
year’s supply of waterdogs, the large fresh-water sala- 
mander. Bass adore them and while their appearance 
is horrendous, their effect is supposed to be akin to 
cataclysmic. So it said there in fine print. I slung 
waterdogs on medium weight spinning gear until my 
arm grew weary and took one bass of about three 
pounds in three days. Then I looked through my tackle 
kit. In the bottom was one of the artificial rubber 
worms with a casting head. I had received it in the 
mail just before leaving on this trip and slung it in the 
box without another thought. 

I fished that worm for two more days before it was 
forcibly removed from me by a bass far larger than I 
like to ponder about. By then, it was tattered and worn 
from constant exposure to irate bass who kept chomp- 
ing it in their jaws with carefree abandon. I caught 
fish galore until I lost it. Then, I went home. 

I had a man whose writings we all have read in the 
major outdoor publications tell me in good faith that 
he would never be caught DEAD fishing with a nymph 



— better use worms than that. He catches fish today, 
still innocent of the fact that a nymph, properly fished 
and placed, is the deadliest, toughest method of trout 
fishing ever devised. 

When we stop and ponder on our reasons for going 
fishing, we can devise some wondrous fables. It helps 
us relax, takes us away from the cares of the world 
and makes new men of us all. It allows us to share in 
nature’s bounty and observe wildlife in its natural 
state. We lyricize on the beauty and the splendor of a 
spring day or a summer sunset, but one thing remains 
irrefutable— WE LIKE TO CATCH FISH ! Let one 
day of all this pastoral contentment pass without a I 
strike and the whole trip turns into a bust. No one 
paints a prettier picture than a successful angler. Ir 
short, we haven’t varied through the eons much frorr 
our forebears who used to clobber prehistoric specie 1 
with a flint spear to survive. 

In this business of being an outdoor editor, writer 
columnist and soothsayer of sorts, I have been askec 
some truly amazing questions. Two from a youngstei 
of five, back to back, still rank in my favorite list oi 
unanswerables — “Why is a fox?’’ and “How deep i; 
the boat?” But in that column of questions I cai 
answer, praises be, comes one from my favorite editoi 
and yours, George Forrest of the PENNSYLVANIA 
ANGLER. George went right to the heart of the mat- 
ter. “Tell our readers how they can catch more trou 
during the hours they spend on the streams in oui , 
state.” Let’s take a look at this in depth. 

Trout fishing, when it is boiled right down to th< 
base metal, is nothing more than a sequence of appliecl 
methods. If you use the right method or its sub 
species, you succeed when others fail. I will assum 
you are a fly-fisherman, I haven’t the space to handi- 
spinning here. So, if we are to deal with base metals ’ 
let’s take number one, the rod. 

Fish With Balanced Tackle 

I know personally five people who can cast a fly 10! 
feet — that’s all. I have heard many an angler tell o 
long casts, but when the measurement device come 
out, these hundred-footers shrink to their proper 60 
odd feet. It’s not a particle important, so forget it 
Learn to cast with deadly accuracy, under all condi 
tions, so that you can hit Momma’s dinner plate at 3 
feet 8 out of 10 tries and you will catch trout galore. 


Balanced tackle, that lovely counterbalance of rod, 
eel and line that makes casting an effortless pleasure, 
s not all that hard to come by. First, a simple formula 
—your reel (fully loaded) should weigh 1)4 more 
han your rod. If you use a four-ounce rod, your reel 
nd line should weigh six ounces — no more, no less. 

Your line should be double taper, not triple taper 
nd not level. The average four-ounce trout stick will 
ake an HEH line nicely. Some require an HDH, but 
tot many. How do you find out? You load up the reel 
>f your choice and you cast with it! Does it fit? Fine! 
'low cut off all but 22 inches of the forward taper (the 
d part, not the E) and you will have a line that will 
turn over” when you throw a cast. 

V ear Wading Equipment That Fits the Water 

I had, at last count, six separate sets of waders and 
me set of wading stockings. I do not own a set of hip 
jioots — I’d sooner wear roller skates in a trout stream. 
All right, maybe I have too many pairs, but making a 
iving in a trade does demand equipment. I’ll bet Mickey 
vlantle has more than one fielder’s glove. 

It makes little sense to venture forth on BIG Pine 
Creek in wading stockings or hip boots. Makes about 
is much sense to go fish Cedar Run in chest-high 
Ivaders. Like hunting mice with an elephant gun, you 
an overdo a thing. 

Waders are the answer to reaching fish and water 
'mu never have been able to cast into before. They are 
llso the answer to a regular bath if you get a bit gay 
n them. But before you sally forth and buy all man- 
ler of wading gear, keep a few good things in mind. 

(1) Ge-t a pair that has PLENTY of leg, crotch and 
.eat room. Now, you’ll be able to crawl under fences 
n them and step off high banks. 

(2) Avoid as if a plague these creations called boot- 
oot waders. For one thing, they wind up as nothing 
nore than high hip boots and are every bit as un- 
■omfortable. Secondly, they always wind up leaking 
where the boot foot joins the wader. 

\PRIL— 1963 

(3) Buy a set of stocking foot waders with a foot 
big enough to hold you, a light pair of socks and a 
heavy pair of over socks. 

(4) Now, buy a set of wading shoes, those big 
enough to hold all the above mentioned plus a heavy 
set of wading stockings. Buy felt if you must, but hob- 
nailed leathers are SO MUCH better. 

One more thing before we pass on — learn to wade ! 
Always stay loose in the water, with your knees slightly 
flexed. Never move one foot until you have the other 
one firmly anchored on the bottom. Follow these simple 
rules and you should stay moderately dry this season. 

Now, let’s deal with the obvious. 

Methods and When to Use Them 

( 1 ) Dry Fly 

You fish a dry fly when you see insects in the air or 
on the water. You also fish dry fly when your best 
friend is watching, when a car is observing you from 
the road or when you haven’t much else better to do. 
However pretty this method is, it does catch fish if 
used correctly. Here are a few side benefits. 

(a) Skittering — - 

I use this when I have seen fish moving to a hatch 
I cannot identify to save myself. Take off the 5X tippet 
and cut back to 3X. Tie on a bushy No. 10 or No. 12 
fly ; a spider, a variant, a palmer-tied pattern, even a 
buzz fly will work. Fish this quartering downstream 
from you, casting across the feeding lane and just as 
the fly starts to “drag,” twitching it in short skitter^ 
across the surface. When a fish takes it, he will assas- 
sinate it with all the delicacy of a 10-ton truck, so keep 
your tip moderately high to cushion the shock. 

(b) Drop-drifting — 

Don’t try to wade into position for every fish you 
cast a dry fly at — you’ll wear yourself out. If he rises 
below you, lengthen line and cast over him in the air. 
When you have him measured and ten feet to boot, 
throw a cast that you stop about six feet this side of 
him. Let it drift over him and then, as your line 
straightens, give him the final bit — skitter it back up 
over him. Man, it's like downtown when they strike ! 

(c) Drowning a fly — 

When is a dry fly a wet fly? When you get careless, 
that’s when. The next time you see a fish feeding on 
drifting drowned flies (the rise is a bulge under the 
surface with a boil rather than a splash), twitch your 
fly under the surface and let it drift dead over him. 
It works ! 

(2) Wet Fly 

There is one awful lot of water in a trout stream 
that does not hold trout. Why fish it? The next time 
you sally forth with wet fly in hand, try selective spot 
fishing. Llere’s what to do. 

Take a look at the stretch you are going to fish. In 
it you will see three or four obvious hidey-holes for 
trout. Take each one of these as a separate thing. Wade 
into the water until you are directly ABOVE the spot 
you have picked out. Stay at least 25 feet away from 
it so that you won’t scare the poor trout in residence 
out of his wits. 


Cast directly upstream from you — that’s right, UP- 
STREAM ! Let the cast drift down by you, sinking as 
it goes, so that by the time it arrives at THE SPOT, 
it will be on the bottom. Now, raise your rod tip and 
lift the flies in several, decisive 18" lifts, right up 
smack past his trouty nose. He’ll take it, believe me ! 
(3) Nymphs 

The same would apply to nymph fishing. I like a 
nymph deep and positive below me. I like to know that 
the bug is coming off the bottom like all good bugs do 
and that the first sight Junior has of it is right on his 
dinner plate. If I do raise him, and he comes short, 1 
do this. Cast the same way and let the nymph swing 
down past him absolutely dead. Just as it passes him, 
lift and start it for the surface. If he doesn’t take it 
then, go find another fish ! 



Here are two flies that will put fish in your creel from open- 
ing day until the finale of trout season. In fact, if you fish only 
these two you could come up with a pretty good year. For one 
thing you will not be wasting valuable time changing flies. Your 
lure will be in the water and, as we all know, that is where 
the fish are caught. 

The first nymph which is an early season type is tied as such : 

Tail — Three bronze mallard fibers. Each fiber should be sep- 
arated and lacquered. Separate the fibers after lacquer- 
ing. This will prevent them from being glued together 

Body — Brown mink-strip off the guard hairs and taper the 
body from the tail to the eye of the hook. Leave room 
behind the eye of the hook for the hackle and additional 
thread windings. 

Wing Pad — Made from the same material as the tail. Cut off 
approximately R of material and lacquer and let set 
for ten minutes. Tie in the material with the dull side 
on top and extending to the rear of the hook. After 
hackling, pull the wing pad forward and tie off at the 
eye of the hook. By pulling the pad forward you will 
now have the glossy side up. 

Hackle — Brown partridge. Only one turn. 

Hook — Either No. 12 or No. 13 3X long shank. 

Our other fly is the old favorite, the Light Cahill Nymph. 
Since the ginger flies appear later in the season this is a good 
representation of this class of fly. 

The dressing would go as such : 

Tail — Ginger hackle fibers, about five of them. Let them 
extend well beyond the bend of the hook. 

Body — Cream fur from the red fox. Again strip off any guard 

Wing Pad — Lemon wood duck flank feather. Tie the feather 
on parallel with the top of the hook. The butt of the 
feather will be tied right behind the eye of the hook. 
Next trim with scissors to produce diamond shape. 

Hackle — One turn of ginger hackle. Use soft webby type of 

The first fly is the early season type and will probably pro- 
duce when fished near the bottom of the stream. If you have 
a sinking line use it by all means. If you aren’t so fortunate 

Now- — IV hen io Go Fishing 

Over the past 35 years, the Knights, first Uad and i 
now me, have been perfecting a series of times known 
to the public as the Solunar Tables. We can tell you, 
and here seriously, when to expect fish and game to be 
on the prod and ready to take your lure. We have 
spent more hours than I like to look back on perfecting 
this table and today we can state that we have it done 
to a point where we can say that you will average out 
in the 90 per cent bracket as far as their accuracy is 
concerned. Far from being a license to steal, the SOLU- 
NAR TABLES are published in 7 foreign languages 
in 1 1 foreign editions as well as being syndicated on the 
sports pages of 141 newspapers in the United States. 

That’s about all I can answer today, Mr. Editor. I 
hope that your readers leave me a few fish this season! 

you will have to add BB shots or lead wrap arounds. Tie them 
in above your leader’s knots. 

In casting throw your lure either directly upstream or 
quartered up and across stream. Since the streams are generally 
high in the spring the former method may not be practicable 
as your fly will sweep back to you in such a short span of time 
that it is virtually impossible to strip in the excess line and 
still maintain control of your lure. Keep your line taut at all 
times. If your line acts strangely or you feel a bump, lift your 
rod quickly in a strike. Nymphs are difficult to fish and strike 
signals hard to detect. So, if either of these conditions exist, 
assume a strike. 

The Light Cahill Nymph can be fished nearer the surface 
with good success. As the season wears on the trout will forage 
greater distances and their range in terms of stream level will 
be from top to bottom. 

If you fish shallow streams keep a good floating line on your 
rod. There is no need to sink your fly any great distance. You 
will pick up a lot of nymph activity in the surface film and 
just below the surface. In particular, you will find the turbulent, 
white water areas most productive of nymphal life. 

Remember to use a good, quick-tapered leader. It should be 
no shorter than nine feet and as the going gets more difficult 
lengthen out as far as necessary and in keeping with com- 
fortable casting. For early season work use leaders of 3X 
and 4X. Later, range through the 5X and 6X leaders. You 
will have to use your own judgment on leaders. As a rule go 
long and go fine. You may miss more this way but you will 
definitely pick up more strikes and correspondingly more fish. 

Keep in mind that you, the angler, are the most important 
factor in successful nymph fishing. Approach your hot spots 
with caution. Be a careful wader. Don’t disturb your pool with 
a long initial cast. Work in close first, gradually lengthening 
your casts. 

Be mindful where your fly is in the water. It may be riding 
too high or too low. Experiment at different depths. The secret 
to successful fishing is to present your lure in a place and 
water level where the fish are feeding. 

Being a successful nymph fisherman requires patience and 
keen observation. Many anglers feel that it is the ultimate in 
fly-fishing. Day in and day out there is no more productive 
method for taking trout. Take these two nymphs and put them 
in your fly box. When April rolls around and it is time to 
dust off the fishing gear take out these two flies and go to 
your favorite stream. You may be in for a big surprise. 



/four f0 fc? the Best Action From Your 

Sfeitwiaa ^ute*. 


When lure manufacturers first began to demonstrate their 
(products at the Sportsman Shows, lures were pulled around 
ind around in circular tanks to illustrate their action. This 
i.vas not only a good sales gimmick, but highly educational too, 
or the customer could see the colors and the type of lure, but 
iiost important he could watch the lure go through its antics 
fight before his eyes. By slowing down or speeding up the rota- 
don of the lures, he could note at just what point the action 
was best. Of course fishing conditions vary from one minute to 

i the next and no set and fast rules can be laid down to fit all 
:ircumstances. This is one reason we have so many plugs and 
lures with so many different types of action, so this very fact 
argues against a sameness of retrieve when we put the lures to 

I ’ work on the fish. Many lures are so well designed that we 
should not interfere with the built-in attraction by varying 
our retrieve or jerking the lure during its course, yet others 
require we do just the opposite. Many are designed for deep 
running but in most cases, the speed required to put them down 
any distance makes them work too fast in the water, thereby 
[cancelling out a great deal of their appealing action. It is 
[sometimes better to weight them to begin with by additional 
dead well ahead on the leader. 

About the only lure that relies solely on the angler’s manip- 
ulation is the popping plug. It is designed to push the water 
or a water bubble ahead of it as it is retrieved. In order to 
make it attractive, we pull and snap it, let it rest and then 
make it live and moving. A straight retrieve you can see, gives 
it little action, but you’d be surprised how many anglers miss 
this point. I was bass fishing not long ago with a fellow who 
complains at his lack of luck with the popper on smallmouth 
bass. After seeing him retrieve the popper just once, I realized 
why. A little coaching that night changed his mind about 
poppers and he lugged home a bass that I wish I had been 
fortunate enough to snag. 

There is only one way to get the most action and killing re- 
sults from your spinning lures and that is to fish them at the 
correct speed. The speed that brings out the lust of the fish. 
We do not definitely know whether fish strike a lure from 
.hunger, annoyance or any of a million combinations of both. 
We do know, however, that certain actions at times will bring 
a bass fifty feet to a lure ... a trout from out of a cavernous 
hole under a falls or a big striper into the white water from 
the open sea. So, the boys who dream up the creations that 
catch us first at the tackle counter have first gone through a 
long, laborious process of trial and error with models of all 

kinds, sizes and weights. 1 hey strive for a certain type action 
they hope will look enticing to the fish and when they arrive 
at the particular twist, dive or wobble, they then go into pro- 
duction. A few fish are taken by the inventor. Models are dis- 
tributed to their friends and associates in the field. The lure 
takes fish and then comes the broadside of acclimations. You 
or I buy the lure ... I fish it slow, maybe you fish it fast. 
Maybe neither of us catches a fish on it. Then one day we see 
an angler using the lure and murdering the fish. Why? Acci- 
dent maybe, but when you begin to ask questions, watch others 
fish and see one angler taking fish while the man next to him, 
using the same lure is hitless after hours of trial, you begin to 

Trouble is that most fresh- water anglers fish too fast. We 
seem to be in love with the tackle and its very smoothness 
encourages us to reel in quickly so that we can cast out again. 
I’ve found myself doing it and have stood and watched many 
an angler, not fishing, but just casting and reeling, giving little 
or no thought to the lure’s action. 

The Jitterbug plug is a case in point, for here as with any 
surface plug, the ruckus it causes on the water is obvious. Ever 
notice the speed of retrieve you use with this plug? How many 
times have you had fish strike short while using it? Did you 
know that the Jitterbug fished so that it barely wobbles can be 
the most killing of its many actions? Here is a plug that will 
take almost any game fish, black bass, striper, salmon, trout 
and even barracuda! But retrieve the Jitterbug fast and a great 
percentage of the action is lost, plus the fact that the fish has 
to really want it to go racing after it. Remember that surface 
plugs like this attract by the surface commotion, yet by the 
same token, this same disturbance can put down more fish than 
you nngnt expect . . . simply because it is cast too often over a 
given area and retrieved too fast. This is a plug that you can't 
retrieve too slowly ! 

Take any of the metal underwater spoons and wobblers such 
as grace the tackle counters by the hundreds. Same rule ap- 
plies here. Retrieve any one of them too fast and the attraction 
is lost to the fish. There is a very definite point in all of them 
when the action is at its best and the trout fisherman who 
fishes these lures across and downstream too fast is simply 
scaring the trout. After they see the lure whisk by them a few 
times they either become bored or scare down to a deep hiding 
place. Look at the spinner blade lure as you drag it through 
the water, when the blade is working too fast, it loses a great 
deal of its shimmer but when it lops over irregularly in a slow 

APRIL— 1963 


retrieve, it gives forth lifelike sparkles. Certainly the spinning 
lures with the blades that revolve out from a shank should be 
fished as slow as possible, for when the blade spreads wide, the 
attraction is almost nil. 

All this is not idle theory. I’ve tested retrieve speed on all 
types of game fish and watched their reactions to lures. You 
would be surprised how many times I have seen them run 
from, rather than to, a lure fished too fast. That same lure 
worked slower would bring them back out again and eventu- 
ally produce a strike. Another point in favor of the slow re- 
trieve is that you are bound to cast less over a given area, 
thereby working the water to the best possible advantage. 

This attention to speed of retrieve is the secret of success 
with streamer flies and I know one streamer expert who pays 
little or no care to the color or even the shape and length of 
his flies. He puts his faith in their action alone and can take 
fish right from under your nose. It took me years to learn his 
secret and this is it. He studies the water, the holding spots 
therein, the snags, the shelving riffles. He plans his cast, work- 
ing the fly fast in certain spots, slower in others and varies the 
action of the fly where it is needed. He can pull trout this way, 
regardless of pattern. 

In streamer fishing with the spinning rod, weighted streamers 
are necessary or if your lures are not, the line will have to be, 
if you are planning to cast any distance. In the case of weighted 
streamers, evenly weighted the length of the shank, a great 
part of the motion must be put there by manipulation of the 
rod tip. The fly itself is very dead and so you must put the 
life into it and do this with the same techniques used by the 
fly-fishermen . . . jerk the rod tip up and down, which will 
cause the fly to rise and fall. Additional action can be gained 
by hauling the line, or stripping it in as is done in fly-fishing. 
The spinning rod, being shorter than most fly rods isn’t quite 
as sensitive, so any action you give has to be quite hard in order 
for it to register. This is one reason why so many anglers 
pooh-pooh the weighted streamer in spinning for trout espe- 

For salt-water species you don’t have to be so particular. 
The best weighted streamer of course is one that is weighted 
in the head, or immediately ahead of the fly, for this helps you 
to bob the fly up and down in the current. Weight placed a 
foot or so ahead of the fly is used when the current is swift, 
for the fly then has the chance to wobble free in the current 
and this action in itself is usually enough to bring a rise. 

In all cases of fishing shallow water, use a light weight lure 
or fly rather than retrieve too fast in order to clear the rocks. 
A fast retrieve is always less effective. Prove this any time by 
holding a Colorado spinner in the current, dropping it down 
occasionally and then bringing it back. After it has been there 
a little while the fish will come. Had you simply drawn it 
across the water a couple of times you might not have con- 
nected. The slow retrieve is also very effective over hard 
fished waters where the fish are constantly being put down by 
the speed boys. 

Study that action of your lure and to do this, let out about ten 
feet of line and submerge the rod tip so that the line is not at an 
angle. Now, you will see the lure at work. Pull it up, let it 
fall, varying the pressure and speed until you see it act its 
stuff. Now you know its appeals and it is up to you to stick 
with them. Lure colors, action variances, weights and the waters 
they are fished in are important, but speed is the cue to the 
best the maker can put into them. 

Lure action in salt-water angling is of another horse alto- 
gether. Here your conditions are almost entirely reversed to 
that of most fresh-water situations. The game fish you seek like 
the mackerel, striped bass, bluefish and weakfish are school fish 
that come in from the deep to feed on the bait schools. 

LITTLE SANDY creek in Venango County at worm fishing 
time. In clear water worm-fishing, control the bait as care- 
fully as you do an artificial fly. 

The only way to attract them is to present your lure near the 
fringe of the bait school, making it dart quickly to send off its 
attractor flashes. Once one fish goes for the lure, there are 
others not far behind. Feeding is competitive in their society 
and when several fish start for a lure the fastest and the big- 
gest usually wins out. This is the reason for the great popularity 
of artificial lure fishing for game fish. You cast out and make 
that lure move fast, if it is a surface plug, popping it vigorously 
and then skipping it across the water. If it is an underwater 
plug or spoon, vary the retrieve from a fast pull to a sudden 
but short stop, then speed it on its way again. Remember that 
these game fish use their noses following a chum slick or the 
wasted blood of mashed up bait. Your lure has no fish or blood 
smell, so it must make up for this lack, in action. Many of 
our bucktail and streamer fly patterns and specially the mari- 
bous in the larger sizes are great producers weighted. Make 
’em live and move and change lures constantly while working a 
school, for you'll find that the fish will soon tire of the same 
lure and though it might have attracted them once, they soon 
pass by when they find it to be a fraud. The two typical excep- 
tions to these generalities about salt-water lure action are 
found in bone fishing over the flats and barracuda fishing, when 
these latter are basking in the shallows or along a beach. 

The approach must be as careful as that used when trout 
fishing, for the fish are “out in the open” with no shade or 
deep water to run to in case of fright. The lure should never be 
cast directly to them or over them, but rather well ahead of 
their resting position or well ahead of their path of movement. 
In the case of bonefish particularly, the lure is left motionless 
and at most moved but a little. The smaller barracuda, brave 
as he is, can be scared off by too vigorous a retrieve, yet can 
be attracted to the lure like nails to a magnet when it is popped 
a bit, then rested to be popped again. They make no bones 
about it when they are interested. Just one long javelin-like 
strike and they’ve got the bait in their toothy maws. Their 
battle in shallow water is really something that will raise the 
hair on the back of your neck. 



Worms for Early 
Bird Trout 


Can you think of anything more enticing for the early bird 
rout than a nicely presented angleworm? When streams are 
•unning high and muddy, trout are on the lookout for worms 
is well as aquatic forms which have been dislodged by the 
leavy current. The fish are poised in shallow currents between 
md in back of rocks or at the edge of eddies waiting for 
•ome what may. Why disappoint them? 

Art Alexander is one of the most fanatical fly-fishermen that 
[ know of, but he will use worms when conditions warrant it. 
Some of my precious memories include boyhood sessions with a 
ivorm baited hook on a slack line as it tumbled through the 
•iffles, paused in an eddy or sank in quiet water at the head of 
a pool. However, seldom did it get beyond the riffles. Usually 
here would be an arrowy flash from back of a rock and a 
jrookie would nail it. The thrill of that moment has diminished 
>ut little. 

On the morning of an opening day on Little Sandy Creek in 
V r enango County a brief but torrential rain changed what was 
i crystalline stream into a muddy mess. “We’ll have to wait it 
■ Dut,” grumbled Art as he dumped his duffle at streamside and 
■nulled out his pipe. 

“Go ahead and wait,” I remarked, “but I'm giving it a whirl 
fight here,” I added, nodding toward a nearby eddy. 

“You’ve got worms?” he inquired with a hint of suspicion. 
“I sure have,” I grinned as I pulled a neat, well ventilated 
in from my creel. “Enough worms for both of us.” 

We assembled our outfits while my companion still grumbled 
ibout what I presumed were the stream conditions. Then, he 
>icked up his tackle and announced that he was taking a turn 

“Don’t you want some worms?” 

“Don’t need ’em,” came his laconic reply as he strode off. 
Even before my taciturn companion was out of sight in a 
hicket of alders I had a trout, a nice eleven-inch brown. I 
urbed the urge to yell my success. I’d show him a real catch 
tlvhen we got together for lunch. 

The water was loaded with mud, a brown silty mud, its very 
iltiness undoubtedly responsible for Little Sandy’s reputation 
is a fast clearing stream. However, like hundreds of other 
rout streams throughout the state it will yield trout during the 
j irst hour or two of its murkiness ; the trout feeding avidly on 
he rich fare swept downstream before they retired to areas 
nore to their liking. 

The eddy I fished was small and located at the very edge of 
vhat are normally shallow riffles. Now, the latter were all but 
■ffaced by the sullen flood. The eddy, an aquatic whirling 
lervish at normal levels, had slowed down to a sluggish but 
nexorably powerful pace. 

The trout were feeding all along the banks, gathering up the 
asty and abundant foods which they had been denied for so 
ong. I stood some fifteen feet above the eddy and permitted the 
vorm to work its way down along the fairly featureless bank. 

If a fish took it before it was sucked into the eddy I would feel 
that familiar tug-tug. The hook was not set until I had slowly 
counted to three. Then, with an upward snap of the wrist I’d 
let him have it. If the worm didn’t connect as it tumbled down- 
stream it seldom failed to get a fishy reception when it reached 
the eddy. Invariably the fish would seize the bait and dart 
across the powerful current to settle behind a protective rock in 
the riffles. In that short dash they nearly always hooked them- 

My outfit was simplicity itself. I used a regular 8;L-foot 
bamboo trout rod with a fairly stiff action. The reel was regula- 
tion holding a bait casting line. Usually, I switched an eleven- 
pound test line which I have used for a season or so from my 
multiplying job to the single action windlass. The line's pli- 
ability makes it easy to control the bait, the worm moving as 
naturally as though it had no strings attached to it. Frankly, the 
action of the bait seems to matter little to the early season 
trout. Their objective is food and they don’t look a gift horse in 
the mouth. 

Most trout fishermen have their own preferences for sizes and 
types of hooks. The size of a hook depends largely on how you 
bait it. If you string your worm in tight little loops you will 
probably choose a number 1 or 1/0. The same sizes are suitable 
for a loosely looped worm. Just make certain that there is 
plenty of room between the point and the shank. Some prefer 
snelled hooks attached directly to the line and then there are 
those who invariably use a short leader, say, around three feet 
or less. Try baiting your hook as follows : select a medium size 
garden worm and string it right up through its middle without 
loops, of course, leaving about a quarter of its length hanging 
from the end of the hook. Hooks with barbed shanks are ideally 
suited for this. Try this method and be surprised. 

Many fishermen like to use the three-hook gang on which to 
string the worm. When using it strike as soon as the fish hits. 
Singularly, I’ve had but little luck with the soft, plastic worms 
in murky water, it being quite obvious that the sense of smell 
plays some part in locating the bait. 

Using worms, both the real thing and the artificial, in clear 
water streams later in the year is considered an art. The im- 
portant thing in clear water worm-fishing as in fly-fishing is to 
have absolute control of your line. There is nothing leisurely 
about a striking fish in clear water. As a rule it will streak 
out of a hiding place and take a swipe at the bait. If you are 
on the ball your chances of hooking it are good. It is essential 
to reach out as far as you can with both rod and line. Ob- 
viously, you can’t cast the worm as you do a fly, but an Syi- 
foot rod combined with as much line plus the length of your 
casting arm will put out your bait a respectful distance. This, 
of course, with an underhand swing. Keep well back and hidden 
if possible. In fact, some consider it better technique to make a 
short cast and let the current do most of the carrying. 

On that particular opener on the Little Sandy when I quit 
fishing at approximately noon, I had hooked and landed ten 
legal fish of which I kept four, all brownies from nine to eleven 
inches. By the time I had a brisk fire under the coffee pot my 
companion appeared on the scene. 

His greeting? After he squirted a long streak of tobacco 
juice to add to the stream’s already heavy burden, he asked. 
“Well, how ju do?” 

“Four browns. And you?” 

“Four browns — but, look at this one.” This, as he extracted 
a beautiful 16-incher from his creel. 

I turned to get a better look. "On what?" 

“I had these with me all the time,” he grinned, pulling a tin 
tobacco can from a pocket of his fishing jacket. 

fPRIL — 1963 


Dr. Albert S. Hazzard Retires 

Dr. Albert S. Hazzard, Assistant Executive Director 
of the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, has retired ef- 
fective April 1. 1963. Since his appointment on De- 
cember 1, 1955, Dr. Hazzard has directed the Com- 
mission's land and water management activities includ- 
ing the biological services, fish rearing, distribution and 
engineering construction and maintenance. He led the 
research that resulted in the vigorous stream and lake 
improvement work in Pennsylvania. 

In the Commission program he helped organize and 
develop the regional fish management program ; repre- 
sented the Commission in developing plans with the 
U. S. Soil Conservation Service for multi-purpose lakes 
under Public Law 566. Dr. Hazzard served on the ad- 
visory committee of the International Great Lakes 
Fishery Commission and acted as advisor on fisheries 
from Pennsylvania for the Great Lakes Commission. 
He served on a staff headed by Dr. Maurice Goddard, 
Secretary, Pennsylvania Department of Forests and 
Waters during the development of the Delaware River 
Basin Comprehensive Survey. He also represented the 
Fish Commission on various conservation committees 
with the state and nationally. 

Before coming to Pennsylvania and while here, Dr. 
Hazzard has been active in promoting public trout fish- 
ing for sport often referred to throughout the world 
as the “ Fish-for-Fun” project. He believed that reduc- 
ing the kill through higher size limits and restrictions 
to artificial lures was the most effective way to better 
trout fishing. Fie was a strong advocate of stream im- 
provement and was convinced that warm-water fisher- 
men could best he served via the control of pollution, 
soil conservation, securing public access to fishing 
waters and building fishing lakes rather than by any 
state-wide program of fish stocking. 

Born in Buchanan, N. Y., on July 30. 1901, Hazzard 
- graduated from high school in Hancock, N. Y., 
to >k his A.B. degree with honors at Cornell University 
i 192!, and obtained his Ph.D. degree at Cornell in 
was an instructor in zoology at Cornell from 
1931. He was a member and leader of the 
of the biological survey of the New York 
oartment, 1926-1930. He was employed 
latic biologist by the U. S. Bureau of 
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
investigations in the western 
'31-1935. In addition to direct- 
c 'sheries Research, he served as 
ology in the University of 
Resources, and as a private 
rs. In the latter capacity 

m char 

inter-mov . 
ing the 
a research 
Michigan S 
consultant i; 


he served the Izaak Walton League of America in a 
study in the Adirondacks, and as a special consultant 
to the Wildlife Resources Board of the State of Cali- 

Dr. Hazzard is the author of 70 technical and popular 
articles relating to fresh-water sports fisheries, is a 
member of the American Fisheries Society, one of the 
oldest scientific organizations in the country, served as 
its president in 1950-1951. While in Michigan he was 
active in the Science Research Club of the University 
of Michigan and the president of the club in 1955. He 
is also a member of the International Association of 
Fish, Game and Conservation Commission. He is a 
member of Sigma Xi and Gamma Alpha honorary sci- 
entific fraternities. He was a member of the Harrisburg 
Torch Club and was president of the club in 1961-62. 

Dr. Hazzard married the former Florence Woolsey 
of Hancock, N. Y., and they have five children. He and 
Mrs. Hazzard plan to enjoy their retirement on a farm 
near Hancock, N. Y. Several trout streams on the farm 
will, no doubt, receive the undivided attention of a fine 
scholar, gentleman and fisherman. 


Retiring Fish Commission Employes 


Leo J. McCabe, who was employed April 1, 1924, 
on an hourly basis until his appointment June 10, 1957, 
has served as a Special Fish Warden, laborer and 
equipment operator over his many years with the Fish 
Commission. He was horn on January 5, 1900, and 
was educated in Pleasant Mount schools. Mr. McCabe 
is single and will reside at Pleasant Mount, Wayne 
County. His hobbies of hunting, fishing, working at 
odd jobs around home and traveling will keep him 

.PRIL— 1963 


Stanley J. Fiedler was appointed to the Propagation 
Division of the Pennsylvania Fish Commission on 
March 1, 1957, as a Fish Culturist Assistant. He was 
born February 16, 1898, at Woodward, Centre County, 
land was educated in public schools in that vicinity. He 
is married to the former Dorthea Witney and they have 
fix children. Mr. Fiedler plans to hunt and fish after 

mission, assigned to the Division of Fishery Manage- 

He is a graduate of the Christiana High School and 
the Scott Senior High at Coatesville, where he pursued 
a college preparatory course. Following his discharge 
from the Army Air Force in 1946, Simes was associated 
with the U. S. F'ish and Wildlife Service in Boston, 
Mass. In 1953 he was a unit leader in fishery manage- 
ment for the Conservation Commission of West Vir- 
ginia, stationed in Charlestown, W. Va. 

A graduate of the Pennsylvania State College, he also 
studied fish management at Oregon State College, 
Corvallis, Ore. 

On April 16, 1956, Mr. Simes was appointed fishery 
manager for the South Central Region of the Pennsyl- 
vania Fish Commission, with offices at 201 Ridge Road, 
Huntingdon, Pa. 

Mr. Simes resigned his position with the Fish Com- 
mission on February 28, 1963, to accept a position in 
private industry. 

Curtis Simes Resigns 


Mr. Simes was born on December 23, 1923, in 
Christiana, Lancaster County, Pa. On May 1, 1956, he 
'ecame associated with the Pennsylvania Fish Com- 

Ross Leffler Elected National 
Wildlife Federation President 

Ross L. Leffler of New Florence, Pa.. Assistant Sec- 
retary of the Interior for Fish and Wildlife in the 
Eisenhower Administration, was elected president of 
the National Wildlife Federation, at the organization's 
annual meeting. 

Mr. Leffler, a Federation regional director since 1961, 
succeeds Dr. Paul A. Flerbert of East Lansing, Mich., 
who had served as head of the Federation — the world’s 
largest conservation organization — since his election in 
March 1961. 

Lehigh Club Gets New 
Membership Chairman 

The long search for a qualified membership chairman 
by the Lehigh County Fish and Game Protective Assoc., 
Inc., is at an end. The club has secured the services of 
long-time member and writer A1 Lobach who has more 
than 20 years’ experience as a writer. Lobach is pres- 
ently a Deputy Game Protector and has served as Game 
Committee chairman for the club. The group also named 
Roy Lerch of Coopersburg to the Executive committee 
to fill out Bill Moyer’s term. 

Gliji cMene 


Official Publication of the Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

” Pennsylvania's Finest Fishing Magazine " 

Enclosed is $ for my (New) (Renewal) 

1 year (12 issues) $2.00 

Includes One (1) Free Map County of Your Choice 

3 years (36 issues) $5.00 

Includes Full Set — 46 — Fishing Maps Free 

Please send to: 


Address .. 


Make check or money order 


Cash sent at your own risk. 

- ie to the Pennsylvania 




Two additional fish rearing cooperatives were added to Elk 
County during the past fall, bringing the number to four, as 
follows : Hi-La Sportsmen’s Club, St. Marys Sportsmen’s Club, 
Bennetts Valley High School Outdoor Club and the Elk County 
Anglers Club of Ridgway. The Elk County Anglers Club re- 
ceived 4,000 sub-legal brown trout from the Fish Commission 
to be reared at the United Natural Gas Company’s Island Run 
pumping station. The boys at the station developed a “feed-mix” 
in the following manner: Take fish pellets, add hot water, drain 
off the water, then make a mash compound adding ground 
venison, mix well, then feed to the trout. I watched this 
process, the feeding and was amazed to see the fish fight for 
the “mixer.” These fish were in very good condition. With the 
two new cooperatives in operation, a total of 20,000 brook, 
brown and rainbow trout will be raised by the four clubs to be 
released in the open fishing waters of Elk County this year.— 
District Warden Bernard D. Ambrose (Elk). 


In March 1961, Edward Gray, Meadville, caught an 8-inch 
walleye in French Creek at the mouth of Conneaut Marsh. Gray 
tagged the fish and released it. In November 1962 this fish was 
caught about three miles upstream by a lady angler from 
Meadville. She reported the fish was 15G inches long. — Dis- 
trict Warden Raymond Hoover (Crawford). 


While making an investigation with Deputy Kirby on January 
13, we saw a flock of about 200 robins in a heavily wooded 
area. Spring’s on the way! — District Warden J. Richard 

Abplanalp (Mercer-Lawrence). 


Chapman Dam in Warren County has become a popular 
place for winter ice fishing. During January many nice trout 
were caught through the ice, mostly brook trout, 10 to 12 inches 
in size. A nice rainbow, in the 17-inch class, was reported 
caught there. — District Warden Kenneth G. Corey (Warren). 


A bait stand at the foot of State Street, Erie, Pa., sponsors 
a contest for the largest perch caught through the ice. The 
biggest last to be reported was a 14%-inch yellow perch weigh- 
ing one pound, thirteen ounces taken by John Kalbfleisch at 
Eaton Reservoir near North East. — District Warden Norman 
E. Ely (Erie). 


Deputy Game Protector Perry Heath and I checked four ice 
fishermen at frozen Quaker Lake, Susquehanna County. They 
were seated around a card table playing cards while waiting fori 
a bite. Using a cold deck, no doubt! — District Warden Walter 
G. Lazusky (Lackawanna). 


I recently checked a man by the name of Bickauskas from 
Scranton while ice fishing at Chapman Lake (Lackawanna). 
He belongs to a Scranton fishing club and the members | 
of this group enter fish caught in New York State as wpll as 
those taken from this area. A prize is given for the largest 
fish caught of each species. Bickauskas won the smallmoutl 
bass prize in 1961 with an 18RFi n ch bass and took the 196/ 
contest with a 16J4-inch bass both caught in Chapman Lake.— 
District Warden Walter G. Lazusky (Lackawanna). 




Pennsylvania Waters-Highway Maps 
Of Every County in the State 
Except Philadelphia 

(while they last) 

— 46 — 


(Formerly sold at $18.95 per set) 

With Every Three-Year 
Subscription to the 


MAY 1963 



Albert M. Day 
Executive Director 

Warren W. Singer 
Assistant to Executive Director 

Paul F. O’Brien 
Administrative Officer 

Paul J. Sauer 



Aquatic Biology 

!ordon Trembley Chief 

Fish Culture 

HOWARD L. Fox Superintendent 

Real Estate and Engineering 

yril G. Regan . Chief 

.DWARD Miller Asst. Chief 

Laiv Enforcement 

William W. Britton Chief 

Conservation Education-Public Relations 
Iiussei.l S. Orr Chief 



. Carlyle Sheldon Warden Supervisor 

212 E. Main St., Conneautville, Pa., 

Phone: 3033 


(inter C. Jones Warden Supervisor 

. D. 2, Somerset, Pa. Phone: 6913 


j . Clair Fleecer Warden Supervisor 

px 64, Honesdale, Pa. Phone: 253-3724 

erry Rader Fishery Manager 

|. D. 3, Honesdale, Pa. Phone: 253-2033 


3hn S. Ogden Warden Supervisor 

130 Ruxton Rd., York, Pa. Phone: 2-3474 

Petiti&iflo-ania AncjAeb 

Published Monthly by the 

William W. Scranton, Governor 



Maynard Bogart, President .. ... . . . Danville 

Joseph M. Critchfield, Vice President Confluence 

Gerard J. Adams Hawley Albert R. Hinkle, Jr. Clearfield 

Wallace C. Dean Meadville R. Stanley Smith Waynesburg 

John W. Grenoble ..... Carlisle Raymond M. Williams .... East Bangor 

MAY, 1963 

VOL. 32, NO. 5 



Keen Buss, Fishery Biologist, Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

6 THE SCALES OF FISH — David Gunston 

8 SUSQUEHANNA SHAD— J. Herbert Walker 




18 MOUNT YOUR TROPHY HEADS— James T. Valentine 

Sheldon, Northwest Regional Warden Supervisor, Pennsylvania Fish Commission 


22 THE NICOTINE FLY— William Reed 

23 WHEN NOT TO FISH — James Hayes 

23 YOU ASKED ABOUT IT — W. W. Britton, Chief Enforcement Officer, Penn- 
sylvania Fish Commission 

Cover photograph by Grant Heilman 


ohn I. Buck Warden Supervisor 

• O. Box 5, Lock Haven, Pa., 

Phone: 748-7162 

>an Heyl . Fishery Manager 

D. 1, Spring Mills, Pa., 

Phone: Center Hall Empire 4-1065 


Iabold Corbin Warden Supervisor 

21 13th St., Huntingdon, Pa., 

Phone: Mitchell 3-0355 

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The origin and history of 



IN RECENT years, the rainbow, lake, brown and 
brook trout are accepted species to the Pennsylvania 
trout fisherman. One rarely thinks, except possibly when 
in a meditative mood on his favorite trout stream, about 
the origin of these species. Rarely does one realize 
the cost, labor and time involved to establish these 
strains in the wild or adapt them so that they could 
be reared in a hatchery. In the case of the rainbow 
and lake trout many hopes and dreams were dashed 
before they found their place in the Pennsylvania fauna. 

At trout fishing time it seems very apropos to go 
back in history and dig out some of the more interest- 
ing aspects of the origin of these four species. Perhaps 
it may even help to make opening day a little more 
enjoyable when one knows that these fish just didn’t 
happen, but were put there by dreams that certain 
dedicated men had almost 100 years ago. 


of Pennsylvania 



Fishery Biologist 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission 
Benner Spring Fish Research Station 


It CAN be said that the rainbow trout had an inter- 
mittent history in Pennsylvania. The first plantings 
were made with the same high hopes as were the plant- 
ings of Pacific salmon during this same period. Orig- 
inally designated as the California mountain trout or 
the McCloud River trout, enthusiasm knew no bounds 
when it was first introduced. A passage from 1879-1880 
Pennsylvania Report of State Commission of Fisheries , 
best illustrates the reaction to this new species : 

“Perhaps no newly discovered fish has awakened sc ! 
much genuine interest as the California brook trout, 
not in the sense of never having been known exactly, 
but its adaptability to fresh-water streams of eastern 
United States. It promises far better and more lasting 
results than the meteoric grayling. The McCloud 
River, in California, where they are found in great 
abundance, possesses a temperature analogous to our 
Susquehanna, Juniata and its tributaries. Its general 
average is about seventy degrees, but in some localities 
rises as high as eighty degrees.” 

Words were followed by action for in that same re- 
port there was a notation that this species was intro- 
duced into Pennsylvania by the State Commission and 
planted in the Susquehanna River. 

In the 1883-1884 reports, the California Mountain 
Trout was referred to as the rainbow trout. In those 
years, 23,900 were planted. During this time a contro- 



versy started, as it does with any exotic species, which, 
to some extent, is carried on to the present time. The 
1886 report summarized the feeling toward this new 
species : 

“It was claimed for the rainbow trout that it was 
pf much more rapid growth than the native brook trout, 
and in point of vigor and strength far superior to it. 
In the first particular — namely more rapid growth — 
:he claim has been sustained, but the sportsmen almost 
unanimously refuse to concede the latter, and with 
acts strongly in favor of that position.” 

In the years following 1886, the original interest 
|)egan to wane. By 1889-91, there was reason to doubt 
he value of this fish. The report for those years had 
ost its fire, doubt began to set in and the statements 
made were not complimentary for this one-time glamour 

“In Pennsylvania the rainbow has been rather ex- 
ensively introduced but with such imperfect results in 
most cases that the Fish Commission has practically 
pven up its distribution.” 

This was practically the death knell for the early 
dantings of rainbow trout in Pennsylvania. By 1900, 
moduction of this species in the hatchery was greatly 
educed. By 1914, entries ceased for rainbow trout in 
he official report. 

However, the possibilities for this species were too 
jreat to allow them to lie dormant. After World War 
., when Mr. Diebler was Commissioner, another at- 
empt was made to start these fish in Pennsylvania 
vaters. The introduction again failed and it was be- 
ieved that the reason for the failure was because this 
)articular strain of rainbows had originated from the 
:old, snow-fed streams of California. This form was 
certainly not adaptable to the streams of Pennsylvania. 

At least this was the belief, and the rainbow settled 
back into obscurity again. 

In 1933, an event took place which again raised high 
hopes for the rainbow trout in Pennsylvania. Earl 
Kline, an ardent fisherman from Centre County, 
obtained some fingerling rainbows from the federal gov- 
ernment and planted them in the tributaries of Spring 
Creek. By the following spring, they had grown to 10 
or 12 inches and had spread over a good portion of 
the stream. The trout reached 15 inches by the end 
of the summer and fishing was the best in the history 
of the stream. 

Again hopes were raised and in the mid-’30’s the 
Fish Commission decided to try rainbows again. This 
time the techniques were changed. According to 
C. R. Buller, former Chief Fish Culturist, a domestic 
stock from a private hatchery in New England was 
blended with a strain from a federal hatchery at Wythe- 
ville, Va. The resulting strain was more adaptable 
to the hatchery conditions and most important of all, 
the techniques of the stocking program were changed 
from planting fingerlings to planting the larger 

Only in isolated instances such as Falling Springs in 
Franklin County and in Koon Lake in Bedford County 
did the rainbows establish themselves and reproduce 
but by the late ’30’s the fast growing, larger rainbows 
provided a good put-and-take fish. 

After 80 years the rainbow trout has found its place 
in the Pennsylvania fisheries but in a quite different 
situation than the original fisheries men had antic- 
ipated. Today this species is found to do best, not in 
the warmer rivers, but in deep, cool trout lakes and 
as a put-and-take species in many of our better trout 
streams which are low in natural acids. 


C ONTRARY to popular opinion the lake trout was 
not native to the inland waters of the Commonwealth. 
In a “Species Account of the Fishes of Pennsylvania’’ 
by E. D. Cope in 1879-80, lake trout were listed as 
inhabiting Lake Erie, no inland lakes were mentioned. 
In the 1889-91 report of the Pennsylvania State Com- 
missioners of Fisheries, Tarleton H. Bean of the United 
States Fisheries Commission lists the range of the lake 
trout to be the Great Lakes region and the lakes of 
New York. No mention was made of this species in 

Of the three lakes in Pennsylvania which apparently 
have a sustaining population of lake trout, none ap- 
parently had a native lake trout population. According 
to the records, they Avere planted in Lake Giles, on the 
Blooming Grove Club in Pike County, in 1894, and in 
Crystal Lake in Lackawanna County just prior to 1897. 
A list of fishes published for Harvey’s Lake in 1897 
did not include lake trout. Between 1897 and the late 
’20’s some lake trout were undoubtedly planted in 
Harvey’s Lake. In the early 1930’s the Fish Commis- 
sion planted lake trout in this lake but by 1935 the 
stocking was discontinued. In 1951, following a biolog- 
ical survey of the lake, lake trout stocking Avas again 

Lack of stocking is not the reason for so few lakes 
containing this species in the Commonwealth. It is 
obviously a lack of good lake trout environment. Going 
back to the year ( 1873) the Commissioners of Fisheries 
was established, one finds the production of lake trout 
high on the agenda. From 1873-75, lake trout were pur- 
chased from Seth Green, a pioneer fish culturist in New 
ork, and planted in lakes throughout the Common- 
wealth. At that early date it was noted that the results 
were not up to expectations. Soon after the purchase of 
the Western Hatchery at Corry, lake trout, then called 

LARGEST RAINBOW trout to die in captivity was a female 
fish held by, left to right, John Bair and Milford Lonberger, 
Fish Commission employes at the Pleasant Gap hatchery. She 
was 31 V 2 inches long, weighed 19 V 2 pounds with a girth of 20V2 
inches. The "Old Gal" died of natural causes at an unknown 

salmon trout, were produced in larger numbers than 
were the native brook trout. Between the years of 1890- 
92 over one million lake trout of various sizes were 
planted in Lake Erie and the deeper, natural lakes. 
Since these plantings did not live up to expectations,: 
the production decreased until 1935 when it was tem- 
porarily abandoned until 1951. At the present time lake 
trout stocking is restricted to Conneaut Lake, Craw-' 
ford County; Crystal Lake, Lackarvanna County ; 
Harvey’s Lake, Luzerne County ; and Winola Lake, 
Wyoming County. The total plantings in 1962 (con- 
sisting of 18,000 fingerlings) originated from eggs taken 
from lake trout from Seneca Lake, New York. 



T HE brook trout is the only species of trout native 
to the inland waters of Pennsylvania. It was, and still 
is, found in the very smallest of headwater streams and 
down into the larger drainages until the water becomes 
too warm or affected adversely by human activity. Be- 
cause it is the native species of Pennsylvania it has 
always been held in high esteem with few of the com- 
plaints heard about introduced species. Because of its 
high esthetic and angling qualities, brook trout were 
the primary species produced at the first state hatchery 
at Donegal Springs soon after its purchase in 1873. By 
1877 the output had reached 154,000, an enormous 
number for the time. 

As the hatcheries grew in size and production in- 
creased, new strains were sought which were better 
adapted to hatchery production. There are two stories 
as to the origin of the present hatchery strain in Penn- 

One account has it that General Trexler, at the Allen- 
town Hatchery, received a shipment of trout from a 
Canadian hatchery in 1916 that did so well he gave a 
supply of these fish to the Pennsylvania Fish Com- 
mission. The other story is that the present hatchery 
strain is a blend of strains received from the old, 
established commercial hatcheries. Probably the present 
strain is a blend of both the Canadian and Pennsyl- 
vania commercial strains. 

Due to plantings by government agencies and sports- 
men from stocks which originated in many parts of the 
east, it is very doubtful whether any of the original 
brook trout forms remain in our streams. To the aver- 
age fisherman, however, the brook trout is still one of 
the most prized game species regardless of origin. 


If ALL the desirable exotic species planted in Penn- 
sylvania would be as successful as the brown trout, this 
state would have more than its share of new species. 
The brown trout were brought to this country from 
Germany by VonBehr in 1883. By 1886, the German 
trout, or VonBehr’s trout, as they were often called, 
were introduced into the Commonwealth. Even the 
eggs of this species proved hardy as indicated by the 
1886 report : 

“Through the kindness of Professor Spencer F. Baird 
of the United States Fish Commission, we have re- 
ceived 10,000 German trout eggs direct from Germany. 
Repacked at the Cold Spring Harbor Hatchery, they 
arrived at the Western Hatchery with only 65 dead 

By 1888, 700 yearlings were released and by 1888-91 
this species had become well established in Pennsyl- 
vania. The success of the brown trout was not without 
its problems nor without the complaints which follow 
each new introduction. By 1894, some derogatory re- 
ports were received complaining about the brown trout 
damaging the brook trout fisheries. In some states this 
is still a common criticism but in Pennsylvania the 
brown trout had thrived and reproduced in waters 
which were no longer suitable for the brook trout. 

Through all the controversy, the brown trout con- 
tinued to inhabit and reproduce in many of our streams 
and today it is generally accepted as one of the im- 
portant trout species. 

The introduction of brown trout to Pennsylvania’s 
streams was heartily welcomed and hailed by an ever 
growing fraternity of fly-fishermen, particularly the dry 
fly artist. 


MAY— 1963 



The scales of a fish are the present-day remnants of 
the heavy, enameled “armor-plate” which the earliest 
known fossil fish wore. As in the course of their evolu- 
tion fish became more active and speedier, this con- 
tinuous mail-like covering was less necessary and had 
to become more flexible. This was accomplished by 
breaking it up into small sections. In time, fish also 
developed more powerful teeth and jaws, so that the 
need for thick external protection grew less. Even so, 
a few species with these heavy scales still exist, like 
the sturgeon and the alligator garfish, whose scales are 
horny enough to blunt an axe. 

Nevertheless, the chief function of fish scales is still 
protection, which is noticeably evident in those fish like 
the porcupine fish and the trunk fish which have stiff 
or spiny points to their scales. And at least one fish, 
the sturgeon fish, actually has defensive scales modi- 
fied into the deadly offensive weapons of its two tail 
scales extended like sharp knives sheathed in skin but 
ready to flick into action when necessary. All fish have 
a layer of skin over the scales, usually thin and trans- 
parent so as to be almost invisible, though occasionally, 
as with the brook trout, it is fairly heavy and makes the 
scales hard to see. In the eels the skin is so dense that 
the scales are entirely hidden. Only rarely is a fish’s 
skin unprotected by scales, and then it is usually ossi- 
fied, as in the sea horse. The catfish family, uncommon 
in Europe, has no scales or ossified skin. 

All fish scales are actually dead material, being the 
chemical products of the skin’s activity. They may be 
formed in either of two ways. In the sharks and rays 
the skin is blown out into minute papillae, the outer 
layer becoming enamel-hard by the depositing of chalk, 
rather like the formation of teeth in animals and human 
beings. In most other fish the scales are formed as 
simple plates in the inner layer of the skin, or dermis. 
They do not protrude and are mostly circular or ovoid 
in shape. These may be further classified into two dis- 
tinct forms — the ctenoid, or wavy-edged spiny scales, 
on such fish as perch and bass, making their bodies 
rough to the touch and the more usual evenly-curved 
cycloid, or smooth scales, found in soft-rayed fish like 
the salmon, carp, trout and herring. But there is no 
fundamental difference between ctenoid and cycloid 
scales, for they sometimes both occur on the same fish. 

For example, the dab, a flounder-like fish, has prickly 
ctenoid scales on its dark upper surface, and smooth 
cycloid scales on the underside. 

When a fish hatches from the egg it is quite scale- 
less or naked. One or two species, such as the catfish, 
remain that way throughout their life, but the majority 
develop their scales before they are much older, minute 
plates appearing in the skin and soon forming into a 
complete covering. Coarse fish have their scale covering 
when they are between y 2 and 1 inch long, whereas 
salmon and trout are usually from 1 to 2 inches long. 
A fish’s total number of scales is determined early in 
its life, no new ones appearing later except to replace 
any lost accidentally. 

Regularly at the appointed age of the baby fish, the 
little scale nuclei are formed under the skin, of such 
a size that by just touching each other, they just about 
cover the fish. Each scale plate is made up of two 
layers, a flexible, fibrous lower layer, and an upper 
brittle layer formed by the deposit of clear bony den- 
tine. The lower layer forms in sheets across the under- 
side of each scale, but the upper layer grows only at 
its edge, so that whilst its diameter may increase, its 
thickness never does so. Thus also a scale is always 
thickest immediately under its original scale plate. The 
dentine is deposited in ridges and furrows often ir- 

The forward end of each scale lies embedded in the 
dermis, or inner layer of skin, and the free afterend 
so develops that it covers the front end of the scale 
behind it, rather like tiles on a roof. This means that 
the free end of a scale is the only visible portion, 
though it is very much smaller than the complete scale. 

As a fish grows, it must continue to be covered in 
this overlapping fashion. This is not done by increas- 
ing the number of scales but by each individual scale 
growing to keep up with that small portion of the 
creature’s body which it covered originally. Such 
growth is achieved by adding new rings of dentine 
around the edge, somewhat similar to the way a tree 
grows. Where this new material is added to the after- 
end of the scale, it shows in irregular and poorly 
marked accretions but fortunately the larger portion 
has clearly defined rings on it throughout the life of 
its owner. 



Fish scale as seen through a microscope. 

Yet although these facts have long been known, it 
s only within about the last sixty years that we have 
liscovered just how much an examination of these 
;cale rings can tell us about the fish. Whereas a tree 
idds only one ring per year, a fish scale may add many 
'ings annually, but this ring growth varies according 
o the seasons, the food supply and the activities of 
he fish to a considerable extent. So much so, in fact, 
hat a trained observer examining say a salmon scale 
inder a low-power microscope can tell not only its 
ige, but also how long it has spent in the sea, how 
nany times it has spawned, even, if it has not yet 
pawned, what its length was at the end of each year 
d its life. In fact, no other living creature carries on 
ts person such complete and detailed autobiographical 

The discovery of just how fish scale rings may be 
nterpreted in this way came from the English and 
Norwegian researchers, Johnston and Dahl, working 
ndependently round the turn of the century. Briefly, 
Ijt is simply that in summer, when the water is warm 
nd food supplies plentiful, a fish feeds well and 
;rows rapidly. This means that the scales have to grow 
uickly to keep the fish covered, so the rings are there- 
ore widely separated. In cold weather, however, when 
ood is scare, the fish lives more sluggishly, eats less, 

and grows slowly if at all. This results in a slow rate 
of scale growth, the rings lie close together, and these 
make a dark band, termed the annual check, appear. 
By simply counting the number of annual checks the 
fish’s age can be ascertained. In addition, with migra- 
tory fish like salmon, the summer rate of growth in the 
sea is very great, with a proportionate wide spacing 
between the bands, which stand out in contrast to the 
earlier years of its life spent in fresh water. Further, 
during its spawning period a salmon or trout tempo- 
rarily stops eating and lives upon its accumulated fat. 
This causes an unmistakable wavy line to appear on 
the scale rings. With salmon, the spawning drain on 
its body reserves cuts deeply into the edges of the 
scales. Some rings may be lost completely, and there 
always appears the heavy, unmistakable “spawning- 
mark,” which cuts across the earlier rings, dividing 
them from the new. 

Of course, other factors like the blurring, scarring 
and regenerations of scales affects such readings, but 
the main principles hold good for all fish and are of 
inestimable value to fishery workers. 

Fish scales are therefore revealing as well as highlv 
adaptable features, performing their rather odd task 
for their highly active, streamlined owners, whilst re- 
taining their basic role as an external skeleton. 

IAY— 1963 




One of the last contributions to the Pennsylvania Angler by the late 

Mr. Walker. 


Over one hundred and fifty years ago the Susquehanna run 
of shad was the greatest in America. The superiority of the 
shad fishing here ivas the major cause of the Pennamite War, 
a bloody, ugly struggle between Connecticut and Pennsylvania 
for the control of the upper Susquehanna Valley lands. Even 
after decline, the river yielded 47,000 fish averaging six pounds 
between Columbia and Safe Harbor. 

Each Springtime during my youthful years along 
the West Branch of the Susquehanna river, a few 
“shanty boats” went downstream past the little home 
town bound for the shad fishing waters on the lower 
reaches of the main waterway. 

That was better than half a century ago. 

Those “shanty boats” are gone for two reasons — 
oldtime shad fishermen who lived up-river from my 
home town have all passed away, and, if they were 
here, their boats could not gel over the four gigantic 
power dams far down the main Susquehanna. These 
dams have also halted the migrations of this wonderful 
fish upstream during the spawning season and down- 
stream again when the annual biological urge had been 

When, in the early days, the migrations of shad up- 
stream dwindled to a mere trickle these “shanty boats” 
carried anglers to the fish. One of the reasons why the 
shad migrations far upstream dwindled was because 
of the construction of wooden dams across the rivers 
primarily to provide water levels for the canals that 
followed the streams. 

But the great, high piles of concrete today, known 
as power dams, far down the Susquehanna have done 
far more than wooden dams ever did to bring a quick 
end to shad fishing in the North and West branches of 
the Susquehanna river. These dams spelled the doom 
of shad fishing upstream. It is interesting to read about 
old-time shad fishing days when new vigorous efforts 
are now being made to provide passage for shad via 
fishways in the Susquehanna river dams. 

History records there were commercial shad fisheries 
on the Susquehanna river as far north as Lock Haven 
on the West Branch and Wilkes-Barre on the North 

And to go much farther back into history one can 
read these fish were so plentiful in Indian and early 
settler days — before dams of any kind were built in the 
streams — that they were caught in large numbers not 
only to supplement hoi- hold larders but were even 
used as fertilizer. The settlers soon learned from the 
Indians that placing one dead fish in every hill of corn 
produced a better crop. 

Off Selinsgrove, James Silverwood, who was known 
as the “King of the Seven Islands” — operated a large 

shad fishery. Three miles below where the wooded* 
Muncy dam was constructed there was another famous!' 
shad fishery. It is recorded that one haul there by al 
seine brought up 2,600 shad. In the book “On the | 
Frontier With Col. Antes” — for whom Antes Fort not* 
far from Jersey Shore was named — frequently men- 1 
lions the great shad fisheries. 

Thomas Budd, writing in 1685, said : “There are ft 
plenty of Fish called Shads . . . the inhabitants usually I 
catch great quantities which they salt up and pack ir 1 
Barrels for Winter Provisions.” The statement waJi 
made in a book he wrote titled, “Good Order Estab- I 
lished in Pennsylvania and New Jersey.” 

Gilbert H. Fowler, in his “History of Wilkes-Barre 
and the Wyoming Valley,” wrote: “The premier fooc 
fish was shad. The Susquehanna shad constituted the 
principal food along the Susquehanna. No farmer wae 
without a barrel of shad for the year-around. . . . The 
common price was three and four cents each. ... At 
the Webb Fishery I have known eleven and twelve 
thousand shad to be taken at one haul. . . . Shad were 
considered the cheapest and best food of all.” 

S. W. Fletcher, author of “Pennsylvania Agricul 
ture and Country Life,” quotes from the Annals 0 
Luzerne County, published by Stewart Pierce in 1860 
“From about the tenth of April to the tenth of June 
almost every man, woman and child within twent} 
miles of the Susquehanna feasted and fattened or 
fresh shad, and every family salted down from one tc’ 
three barrels for use during the remainder of the year 
. . . At Stewart’s Fishery, one of about a dozen ir. 
Luzerne County, 10,000 shad were taken at a single 
haul. The seine could not be drawn to the shore anc 
the shad were scooped in boats, thence loaded into 
wagons and drawn away.” 

In Henry Blackman Plumb’s “History of Flanovei 
Township and the Wyoming Valley,” a resident 0 
Wyoming Valley recalls: “Seines were used by some 
but shad could be caught by anyone with hook anc' 
line. They needed no bait — only just throw in and pul 
out and you would have shad on your hook nearly 
every time. These were large fish hooks — they had 
three hooks and a barb on each.” 

Fletcher, mentioned previously, wrote : “After abou 
1830 construction of canals and dams began to inter 
fere with the free movement of shad upstream and the 
catch dwindled. . . . They were taken in considerable 
numbers, however, until about 1870.” 

It should be pointed out here that the dams con- 
structed on the North and West Branches of the Sus- 
quehanna river were to provide water supplies for the 
canals. These dams were provided with “chutes” ir 
mid-stream so that timber rafts could move down the 
waterway without difficulty. Tip through these “chutes,’ 



NETTING SHAD along the Susquehanna River nearly 50 years 
ago. Catch appears to be very poor in this instance. Veteran 
fishermen declared over-fishing in lower river was cause of 
fade-out of shad in the early 1900's. Shad runs were decreasing 
prior to dam construction in the river. 

when the waters were high in Springtime, the shad 
could migrate because at these “chutes” the water 
levels at this time of the year were practically the 
same above as below. The construction of solid con- 
crete dams at Safe Harbor and other sites on the main 
river about 1929 doomed the migration of these fish 

Carl Carmer, in his wonderful book, “The Susque- 
hanna,” published by Rinehart & Co., wrote : 

“Gay was a ‘play day’ to celebrate the end of Spring 
plowing and planting. The settlers began their holiday 
by building a willow-and-brush fence across the chan- 
nel between the mainland and one of the larger islands. 
The channel on the other side was effectively blocked, 
at least to fish, by three boys who rode horses back 
and forth making as much disturbance in the current 
as possible. Many of the community’s citizens gathered 
three miles above the fence and at a given signal entered 
the water, stretching a crudely woven brush net from 
shore to shore. Here they began to ‘drive the river,’ 
pushing the net ahead of them, splashing, swimming, 
wading and shouting. 

“Countless shad which had been moving up-river 
to spawn turned about and swam away from the frol- 
icking pioneers. Diverted by the three young horsemen 
into the channel blocked by the willow fence, they 
were soon crowded into the improvised pen where 
they made wild dashes against the legs of advancing 
fishermen and in frantic efforts to escape leaped high 
into the air. 

“Now the entire population — men, women and chil- 
dren — began the hilarious sport of seizing the big crea- 
tures by hand and throwing them high on the river’s 
bank. Exhausted at the end of the day, they found that 

OLD-TIME PHOTO shows shad fisherman weighing a few 
which were caught along the Lancaster-York County shore. 

their catch numbered eighteen hundred shad. Each 
boy and girl of the village received five, each woman 
thirty and the men divided the vast remainder equally 
among - themselves. Happily then the settlers trudged 
back to their homes through the dogwood-haunted 
dusk. No one need worry about going hungry for 
months to come. There would be salted shad in plenty 
along that wide curve of the Susquehanna known as 
Great Bend.” 

Old-timers knew when the shad run began. When 
the white blossoms of the shad bush — botanists know 
it as service berry or Juneberry appeared on the moun- 
tainsides it was shad fishing time. This tall shrub or 
small tree, with its white blossoms and red, berrylike, 
edible fruit was the harbinger of good davs on the 

With hook and line and with seines and nets of every 
description and size, settlers and fishermen treked to 
the streams. Here was fishing the like of which we 
may never again see in the Land of William Penn. 

The nationally famed Bell & Holmes report spon- 
sored by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission has opened 
new and exciting possibilities of establishing workable 
fishways in the Susquehanna River dams. Engineering 
and biological experts from Pennsylvania, Maryland 
and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service are currently 
working on the project. 

MAY— 1963 


Big Trout and the Streamer 


The streamer and I first became acquainted some 20 odd 
years ago along the stream of Jassid fame, the Letort, a south- 
ern Pennsylvania limestone stream. For some reason the trout 
were coming slow that April day. I had been using wet flies, 
and angleworms with limited success. Presently along came an 
April shower, or rather a downpour. I rummaged through my 
fly box and finally spotted a soggy coachman streamer which 
I had filched from my dad the night before. It took only a few 
casts before a scrappy rainbow belted the fly, and marred the 
surface of the rain-splattered water with his acrobatics as he 
protested his capture. Although I’m sure it wasn’t so, it seemed 
as if every pocket produced a strike. Since that day I’ve carried 
a box full of streamers on every trip I’ve ever made in quest 
of trout. 

Streamers are designed generally to represent the many 
types of bait fish which inhabit trout waters, the dace, the 
shiner and the muddler. As a trout grows larger, he generally 
wants a good mouthful when he feeds, hence a preference for 
minnows of some sort. That doesn’t mean that a large trout 
can’t be taken on a nymph, or dry fly. Even very large trout 
at times can be seen sucking tiny flies from the surface of a 
stream. But by and large the big trout is apt to be enticed more 
often by a fly representing a minnow than by flies representing 
other forms of trout feed. I’m not suggesting that you fish 
streamers over fish rising to shad flies for instance or other 
times when the trout are feeding selectively on one insect form 
or another. They do sometimes work at that time, too. 

How could I ever forget the big brown in the upper Yellow 
Breeches Creek a few seasons ago? The trout really were 
taking the streamer that morning. We fished the Letort a few 
hours at daybreak that morning, before we headed for the 
Breeches. “Howdy” Hoffman and I. I see by my scribbled 
records that the streamers took 6 trout and raised 9 more on 
the Letort. The Yellow Breeches is fished hard at the place 
we started, and that morning was no exception. After hooking 
and releasing seven small trout I creeled an eating-size rainbow. 
The second cast to that pocket of water brought out a rainbow 
of some sixteen to eighteen inches, which twisted off the barb- 
less hook. The remarkable part of that episode was the fact 
that a spectator fisherman said, “You must be about the 
twentieth fisherman that fished through there, and none of the 
others caught a thing.” I was persuaded to “cast a few” into 
the pool this fisherman was trying. It took only one cast to 
raise and land a sixteen-inch brown right under the nose of the 
flabbergasted angler. I fished downstream until I came to the 
long pool that Howdy was fishing with nymphs. “A good one 
has been swirling just above me,” Howdy said. “Give him a 
try." I made half a dozen casts, the pool was disturbed by a 
king-size swirl, and I was fast to a heavy trout. I got below 
this trout and minutes later led a brown of nearly four pounds 
into shallow water and beached him. A closer examination of 
the fish revealed that she was crammed full of nymphs, even 
had her mouth full of them, yet it took a streamer to entice her. 
I was using a number 12 white marabou that day, still my all- 
time favorite pattern of streamer. 

I went back to the Yellow Breeches a week later and took a 
three-pound brown from the same pool again on a white mara- 
bou, this time using the natural drift. Caught this one after a 

die-hard angler had fished the pool consistently for three hours 
using worms, minnows, and an assortment of hardware. 

Tackle for streamer fishing need not differ from conventional 
fly-fishing tackle. Most experts recommend a fly rod at least 
& l / 2 feet long with matching torpedo-taper line, but that tackle 
seems too specialized for general fishing. The majority of 
fishermen today don’t go out with the idea of using only one 
type of fly or lure for an entire day. A shorter, lighter rod is 
easier on the arm and will cast a streamer nearly as efficiently; 
as the longer rod. The greatest disadvantage of the shorter rod 
is when wading deep and casting far. As a rule I prefer shorter, 
casts relying on a sneaky approach to get me in position for 
an effective cast to a hot spot. The long cast has its place, but 
generally a trout is more difficult to hook on a long cast, so I 
prefer the short cast as the standby, with only the occasional 
long casts. 

In this day of the shooting head line with a monofilament, 
running line, the shorter rod is as effective, for the average 
fisherman, as the long rod. 

The first time I ever fished New York’s Salmon River I was 
using a 7l4-foot rod. This stream is a fairly large one, but I 
had no trouble fishing most of it with the light rod. On one or 
two occasions I had to cast 75 feet, but the double line haul sent 
the fly to that distance with no trouble. I was again using a 
white marabou, catching a trout here and there. I came to the 
mouth of a feeder stream and took five brook trout all of which 
were released. A deep, enticing-looking hole seemed worthy of 
numerous casts. Perhaps fifteen casts were made before there 
was any action. Then a rainbow as long as my arm took the 
marabou like a hawk lighting on a chicken, jumped three times, 
then tore downstream. There was no stopping that baby and 
the leader snapped when the end of the backing was in sight. 

But, back to fundamentals of streamer fishing. As in most 
fly-fishing the short to medium length cast will be the standby 
with long casts more the exception than the rule. 

Methods of fishing the streamer are varied and there is no 
one “best” way. A good streamer fisherman has many methods 
at his disposal, and uses each as the conditions change. 

Start your streamer fishing by casting diagonally down and 
across stream, twitching the rod tip to impart more action to 
the fly. Follow the fly with your rod half raised, so that the 
rod will “take” the strike. Generally, a very slight raising of 
the rod will set a well sharpened hook. If no strike is forth- 
coming as the fly straightens out below you, pause before making 
the retrieve. Give the fly a few twitches to tantalize any watch- 
ing fish and then slowly bring the fly back toward you in a 
series of short jerks and pauses, ready at all times for a quick 

On open streams, where the bottom is not covered by water 
weeds and grasses I like to fish my streamer as I would a 
nymph. This is short cast fishing at its finest. I try to cast 
above the spot where I suspect a trout to be and allow the fly 
to drift naturally downstream, keeping alert at all times for 
the telltale twitch of the line as a trout takes. In some instances 
you can watch the fly instead of the line, and see the trout as 
he sucks in the streamer. I start this drift fishing with only 
the weight of the hook to submerge the fly. If the trout are not 
real active and the shallow drifting fly will not bring them up, 










I add a small piece of strip lead to the leader. I then want just 
enough weight to take the fly close to, but not on the bottom. 
Occasionally the fly will stop on the bottom, and a slight twitch 
of the rod tip will start it moving again. 

I feel that ninety per cent of the time the streamer is retrieved 
too fast and taken from the water too quickly. I’m as guilty 
of this as the next angler. Generally the streamer should be 
fished slowly and brought as far back toward the fisherman as 
possible before the fly is lifted for another cast. On many 
occasions I’ve lifted the fly from the water because I felt that 
it was far enough past the spot where a trout should hit, only 
to have a big fish show his back out of the water looking for 
a fly that wasn’t there. Once at dusk, while fishing the Letort 
with a streamer, I brought the fly nearly to my feet before 
taking it from the water. As it left the water a monstrous 
brown trout glided up on the moss with half his back out of 
water. That old boy with the hook jaw laid there a few seconds 
with his eyes barely submerged before he rolled and floundered 
back to deep water. How big? You’d think I was lying if I 
gave my estimate. And that hasn’t been the only time. More than 
once I’ve pulled the fly away from a big fish (not knowing he 
was there) only to have the fish swirl and roll all over the 
surface like he was actually hooked on the end of a line. That's 
an unforgettable experience. A big trout usually takes longer 
to make up his mind about hitting a streamer, so fish slowly, 
and fish each cast to the limit. 

There are hundreds of patterns of streamers on the market, 
some good, some lousy, but the angler needs only a few patterns 
in his box to be a success. The trouble with too many fishermen 
is that they rely too much on pattern and not enough on 
method. For instance my all-time favorite pattern for years 
has been the white marabou. I’ve seen lots of marabous 
added to fly boxes because a fisherman had seen me land a big 
trout with one. But the same fishermen try the marabou a few 
times, catch nothing and right away call me a liar and claim 
I didn’t actually catch the fish on a marabou but some “secret" 
pattern. Those fishermen will read an article about a certain 
pattern and fall all over themselves trying to obtain some. 

After I made my first catch on streamers I feverishly tied 
so many different colors and patterns of streamers that I couldn’t 
hope to give each a fair trial. The past few years I’ve whittled 
my streamer patterns to possibly a dozen and that’s still too 
many. I have a favorite few which I use nearly all the time, 
trying something new with tongue in cheek, before I condone 
or condemn it. 

As you have gathered by now, tops on my list is the white 
marabou. Until recent years these “feather dusters’’ were listed 
as attractor flies, for locating fish but not for catching. Chief 
reason for that was because (recommended) sizes were 4 and 6 
and on Eastern trout streams a marabou that size is just too 
big for 99 per cent of the trout. Even large trout will roll and 
show themselves for a marabou that size but won’t take it. 
Often when I started using sizes 8, 10 and 12 I not only at- 
tracted more trout but hooked more too. My best size is 10 on 
a 3X or 4X long hook tied thus : Silver tinsel body with a 
silver wire ribbing, red throat, white marabou wings, black 
head with painted eyes. I’ve been sitting here thinking of some 
of my marabou-caught trout and I can picture some of the big 
ones taken from most of the waters I’ve fished in various states. 

Second on my list of streamers is a dace pattern for clear 
water. Hook size 10 and 12, body gold tinsel ribbed with gold 
wire. Throat a wisp of red or orange hackles. Wings : first a 
thin hank of yellow bucktail topped with a pair of golden 
badger hackle feathers, tied so they flare. This gives a breather 
action to the fly. Top this off by painting eyes on the head 
of the fly. 

Third on my list is not one but a group of bucktail flies, 

that also represent the black-nosed dace to some extent. These 
are the brown and white, brown and yellow and black and white 
and white bucktails. The darker color tied in top with the lighter 
color underneath or just touching the body. Bodies can be 
either gold or silver tinsel, throat a wisp of red hackle. Paint 
eyes on the fly head. For slightly discolored water I sometimes 
use the Mickey Finn streamer. 

Last on my list is the big Fledermaus with a full muskrat 
fur body ribbed with gold wire (to hold it together better) and 
a slim gray squirrel wing. This is my late evening and night 
fly, tied full on size 4, 6, and 8 hooks. 

Some of the better commercial patterns are as follows : Gray 
Ghost, Black Ghost, Black Marabou, Yellow Marabou, Dark 
Tiger, Light Tiger, and Coachman. 

Best advice I can give though is this : Limit yourself to two 
or three patterns and learn to fish them correctly. After you’ve 
learned to fish them correctly you’ll have plenty of time to 
start looking for that “secret” pattern that will catch trout day 
in and day out, rain or shine. Frankly I don’t think you'll 
ever find it. 

Reading left to right top to bottom : 

Top Row: Dace pattern No. 1 — Body: gold tinsel ribbed gold 
wire. Wing : small bunch yellow bucktail topped with two 
golden badger hackles. Throat : red feather. Yellow Marabou — 
Body: gold tinsel ribbed gold wire. Wing: pale yellow marabou 
topped with three strands peacock herl. Throat : red feather. 

Second Row: White Marabou — Body: silver tinsel ribbed 
silver wire. Wing : white marabou topped three strands peacock 
herl. Throat : small wisp red or orange feather. Dace pattern 
No. 2 — Body: silver tinsel ribbed silver wire. Wing: small 
bunch white bucktail topped with two white badger hackles tied 
to flare. Throat : red feather. 

Third Row: Fledermaus (large for late evening fishing) — 
Body : muskrat fur tied very full. Wing : gray squirrel tied 
sparse. White Marabou (large)— -Tied as above except fuller 
body of silver tinsel. 

Bottom Row : Dark Tiger — Body : yellow chenille. Wing : 
brown bucktail. Tail: barred wood duck feather. Throat: red. 
Eyes: jungle cock. Fledermaus (small) — Tied as above except 
body not tied as full. 

MAY— 1963 



RECREATIONAL BOATING offers the opportunity to get away 
from it all, whether it be for a few hours or a few weeks. 
Last year, one out of every five Americans went boating. The 
figure is expected to be even higher in 1963. 

Last year about one out of every five Americans 
went boating. That’s a pretty sizable percentage when 
you stop to think about it. The swing to recreational 
boating didn’t really start until after WWII and it’s 
now a better than $ 2 j /2 billion per year industry. 
What’s behind it all? The Evinrude Motors people set 
out to find the answers and came up with some interest- 
ing facts. 

They were interested, of course, in why people buy 
outboard motors. Here’s what the study revealed. It’s 
almost a toss-up when the two most mentioned reasons 
—fishing and all-purpose boating — are compared. Next 
came water skiing. Over 20 per cent of the motors sold 
are bought specifically for skiing use. Least important, 
according to the study, are motors for use in racing. 

About a quarter of the motors sold by the Milwaukee 
manufacturer are delivered to first-time outboard buy- 
ers. Based on total sales figures for the entire industry, 
the Evinrude statisticians estimate that in 1962 almost 
100,000 Americans bought their first outboard motors. 
I he remainder of the outboard market is made up of 
repeat customers — people who have bought two or 

more motors over a period of years. 

How long do people keep outboard motors before 
trading them for new models? It varies but averages 
about three and a half years. Few outboards are actu- 
ally worn out in that time; it’s just that people want 
new features or in many cases, larger motors. 

Eighty-eight per cent of the people who bought new 
Evinrude outboards last year planned to use them on 
their own boats. The other twelve per cent were mainly 
fishermen who rent boats but use their own motors. 

What type of boat do beginning boatmen usually 
buy? Most popular is a runabout in the 14-15 foot cate- 
gory. It’s usually powered with an outboard of from 
18 to 40 hp. Such a combination makes an ideal all- 
purpose rig. It can be used for fishing, water skiing, 
skin diving, cruising in sheltered waters or for any num- 
ber of other water activities. Prices for a rig of this 
type will vary considerably but start at less than $1,000. 

If you’ve been toying with the idea of getting into 
boating, go ahead, give it a try. You and the other 
hundred thousand people who jump in this year will 
find that the water’s fine. 

Care of the Hull 


What is “dry rot’’ ? 

Actually the meaning itself is false since it is im- 
possible for wood to rot when dry. Perhaps the term 
I may have originated in the long ago past when ancient 
mariners discovered dry, crumbled wood after the rot 
[bad done its work. 

The problem now is how the modern outboard owner 
jof today can prevent this same condition from ruining 
his own boat. To understand dry rot, it should first be 
understood that it is caused by a fungus-like substance 
that feeds on the cellulose contained in all wood. It's 
a. plant, somewhat like a mushroom, and it thrives 
nest in dark, damp crevices where the temperature is 
mild. This fungus remains inactive in cold weather ; 
lit will not develop in either dry or oxygenless water- 
logged wood ; it must have fresh water if it is to spread 
1 lat all — salt water actually kills fungus plants. 

Dry rot is seldom found in the dinghy, pram or small 
rowboat when reasonable care is taken. Simply giving 
ihese small type rigs a thorough drying out after each 
day’s run is enough precaution in preventing the fungus 
from gaining a foothold. Should it appear, however, 
it is usually localized and can be easily remedied. 

It’s the larger runabouts on up to the cruiser and 
jpig houseboat sizes that often are plagued with se- 
[rious rot problems. These bigger boats are equipped 
: with many deck joints, thicker timbers, cabin linings, 
Compartments, and bulkheads which encourage leakage 
and slow drying out. 

Every boat should be checked over regularly for 
fungus signs. It is not necessary to inspect the bottom 
iblanking since this area is usually the last place for 
the disease to start. But it is important to closely check 
tracks, open seams, screw holes, windshields, cabin 
■oofs, cockpit floors and similar openings where rain 
and dew seep in and remain for any period. 

Should dry rot appear, then there is only one method 
af cure: Tear every particle of the infected wood-out. 
iven to leave one small spot is enough to eventually 
lestroy the entire boat, for the disease spreads like 
vildfire. Painting over dry rot will not rid the wood 
af the disease. Instead, it helps to spread the fungus 
mderneath the shelter of the paint. 

If it should become necessary to remove any plank- 
ng, then start the job with a sharp ice pick and pry 
aut all plastic wood or wood fill covering the screws. 
Afterwards replace all fittings with those made of brass, 
since in time iron or galvanized screws will rust away, 
leads will break off and loose planks or warping will 
■esult. Fungus infected planks must be pried free, but 
i certain amount of care should be taken to loosen 
hem in such a manner that ribs and frames are not 
lamaged. The best method is to first cut a number of 
small wooden wedges. Lay these aside until needed. 

WITH PROPER CARE a hull will remain sleek and trim for 

many seasons. 

Once the screws have been removed, dig away a small 
section of the permanent bond-type glue between the 
plank to be removed and the frame or other plank 
members to which the infected one is joined. 

Now drive in the first of the small wooden wedges. 
This should be done gently, with light taps of the ham- 
mer, until all the wedges needed are driven in around 
the infected plank. Never force or attempt to pull the 
plank out since the original glue will prove stronger 
than the plank fibers holding the wood together, just 
keep tapping in each wedge deeper along the entire 
length of the plank, until the gradually increased pres- 
sure forces it out. 

Before replacing with a new plank, select one that 
is straight-grained without bird’s-eye distortions, spirals, 
or curls. Straight-grained planks offer greater strength. 

It is almost impossible for even the best professional 
shipwright to obtain a perfect “marrying” of plank on 
frame. But there is a way of doing the job almost to 
perfection. First take some linen strippings, slightly 
wider than the frames or battens to which the new 
plank is to be secured, and dip them in glue. When 
ready, place the strippings, sandwich-like, between the 
plank and frame. This will add to the watertight integ- 
rity of the hull by cushioning and filling any slight de- 
fect that may exist in the frame or plank. 

To remove any chance of splitting the new plank, 
avoid drawing up too tightly on any single screw until 
all screws are in place. Then gradually tighten each 
screw in turn. 

There are several types of caulking compounds on 
the market. One type is used for bottom planking and 
the other is designed specifically for top seams. It is 
always wise to consult your marine dealer to be sure 
of obtaining the correct compound for the location you 
plan to caulk. 

When ready to paint, keep in mind that the best job 
is the one done slowly. Never rush a refinishing job. 
Many light coats of either paint or varnish will look 
neater and adhere much longer than a single heavy coat. 

4 AY — 1963 


Those Outboard Horses 

You paid around $25 to $33 apiece for the “horses” 
in your new outboard motor and if you are an average 
boat owner, you retired some of them to pasture mid- 
way through the boating season. Right now some of 
the horsepower beneath your powerhead is consuming 
fuel and not doing any work. 

One boating expert estimated that Pennsylvania 
outboarders alone are feeding 4,000,000 horses that 
were built into their engines and that are now on the 
sick list. Your boat will go farther on a gallon of fuel 
when you put all your horses back to work. 

Out of 100 boat engines picked at random from 
public moorings in Pennsylvania, 73 were improved 
from 3 to 15 per cent by a good tune up, and the other 
27, including some new motors, were improved from 
16 to 50 per cent. 

One of the major causes of poor engine efficiency 
is “lead poisoning.” Most veteran outboarders are 
familiar with the symptoms of this engine disease, 
which can cost time, pleasure, money and decrease of 
horsepower. Few, however, know that the cause is 
gasoline which contains lead compounds. Unlike the 
high-compression four-cycle automobile engine, the two- 
cycle outboard motor has low octane requirements. 
When “regular” or “premium” grade of automotive 
gasoline is substituted for marine white gas, then the 
owner can expect immediate loss of power and in most 
cases, an expensive engine teardown. 

What happens is the high lead content of car fuel 
builds up sufficient deposits on both the spark plugs 
electrodes and insulator tip. Since the accumulated lead 
deposits are electrical conductors, they quickly short 
out the spark plug. This then prevents ignition of the 
fuel-air mixture, which in turn leads to wet-fouling due 
to accumulation of unburned fuel on the electrodes. 

The projecting lead spots or flakes deposited on 
spark plugs become incandescent, ignite the fuel-air 
charge before the spark occurs, and cause pre-ignition 
which results in loss of horsepower and serious engine 
damage. Obstruction of the exhaust ports also occurs 
when leaded gasoline is used. 

No boat owner can expect peak engine efficiency if 
the spark plugs are of the wrong grade for the con- 
ditions under which they are used, or worse, if the gap 
is set wrong. The motor’s service manual (supplied with 
every new motor) specifies the type spark plug and gap 
setting best suited for that particular motor. However, 
in the final analysis, the proper range spark plug is 
the one which performs properly in your motor under 
the conditions it is most used. For example, many ex- 
perienced outboard owners will, on arrival at their 
favorite trolling grounds, change to a warmer set of 
plugs during the actual trolling period and then replace 
these plugs with an average range set for the run 
home at higher speed. This consideration for the 
motor’s work-load keeps the engine’s horsepower on an 
even keel. 



The best way of performing a spark plug check i; 
to take the boat out on a timed test-run ; but keep the 
running conditions as close to those under which the 
engine will normally be used. Afterwards, check the 
core section of the spark plug. If it’s black, sooty o; 
moist, the plug is too cold. If the porcelain core ap 
pears to be burned, gray-white or blistered, then the) 
are running too hot and you should switch to a coolei 
plug. If they are chocolate brown, put them back be 
cause that’s the way they should look. Check your fue 
tank before making the test. It should be made with ; , 
fuel mixture not too rich or overly lean. 

Keeping the spark plug’s electrode gapped at th< 
correct setting is a key factor in maintaining youi 
engine’s horsepower. Recommended spark plug gap 
will vary from model to model, but yours should b< 
rigidly kept by that specified in your service manual 
The range is between .025" and .035". Racing engine 
should be set at .020". 

Neglecting to properly lubricate the engine, partic 
ularly the lower unit, is another major fault that quickly 
leads to loss of much horsepower. In short, fault) 
lubrication will eventually force the gears to figh 
against one another in an effort to turn. Inadequah 
engine lubrication will also cause bearings to wea? < 
rapidly, bushings to deteriorate (and perhaps seize 
and oil seals, which normally prevent crankcase com 
pression loss, will be ruined. 

There is no set standard for lubricating each mode 
or make of outboard motor. As a rule though, motor I 
run in fresh water should have their gearcase drained 
flushed and refilled every 50 hours. All other point 
such as throttle shaft bearings, starter pinion gear shaf 
and magneto linkage should be oiled every 60 days. Ii 
salt water the gearcase should be serviced every 25-5* 
hours and the other points lubricated every 30 days. 

Most outboard owners enjoy tuning up their owj 
motors. It not only gives them a personal feeling, bu 
also the knowledge of a job well done. Frequent moto 
checks, whether done in the home garage or by som 
competent marine dealer, will keep your engine’s horse 
power where it belongs — under the powerhead. 



LOADING IS A CINCH with this new automatic, electric 
hoister that loads any boat up to 4,000 pounds onto a trailer 
with a flick of a string. 

Spring Fitting-Out Check List 
For Outboard Boats 

Thinking about getting your outboard boat ready for the 
season? Here’s a check list of things to do before slipping it 
into the water. 

1. Clean-up — Tilt the bow up, remove the drain plug and hose 
down both the interior and exterior of the boat. Warm water 
and a mild detergent will remove most of the winter grime. Fol- 
low the manufacturer’s instructions when applying wax or polish. 

2. Hardware — Clean all bright metal hardware and then pro- 
tect it with a coat of good wax. Be sure all screws and bolts 
are tight. 

3. Steering System — Check cables and pulleys for wear. See 
that the cables are adjusted to the proper tension. 

4. Electrical System — Start the season with a fully charged 
battery. Check running lights to be sure the bulbs haven't 
burned out. Inspect all electrical wiring. 

5. Safety Equipment — Carefully inspect life preservers and 
cushions for condition and to see that they are Coast Guard 
approved. A first aid kit and a few flares are worth-while addi- 
tions to every boat. 

6. Other Equipment — Anchor and mooring lines should be 
jinspected for signs of wear or rot. Don’t take a chance on losing 
your anchor because of a faulty piece of line. Boats not equipped 
with oars should carry a paddle. Check all accessories to be 
sure they are properly attached and in good working order. 

7. Trailer — Check tire pressures. Pull the wheels to inspect 
and repack the wheel bearings. Lubricate the rollers and cou- 
pling mechanism. Check the lights and wiring. 

This check list applies to outboard boats of all types. In 
some cases it may be necessary to go quite a bit further. Wood 
boats may require calking and painting and should be checked 
for signs of dry rot. Fiberglas boats can also be painted but 
this should be done after consulting a qualified marine dealer. 
Aluminum boats should be inspected for loose or popped rivets. 

Equip Boat Right 

The law requires that all boats carry at least a minimum of 
equipment. However, the wise boatman will take it upon him- 
self to have an anchor, paddle, extra line and other useful equip- 
ment aboard at all times. 

Anchor Line Tip 

To anchor a boat properly, you will need a line 6 to 8 times 
as long as the depth of the water. If the line is not long enough, 
a vertical rather than horizontal pull will be exerted and the 
anchor will not hold to the bottom as well. 

New Battery-Operated Power 
Winch for Easy Loading 

The new Powerwinch is simply bolted to the trailer, 
where the hand operated winch generally goes, cable- 
hooked to the bow of the boat and, with a pull on the 
string which operates a spring-loaded switch, the boat 
eases onto the trailer all by itself. 

Operating from a car battery, it is easily attached 
to any auto battery by one wire and to the car body 
with another wire which acts as a ground. The new 
winch may eliminate back sprains, slipped discs or pos- 
sible strain on the heart. It is so simple to install, ac- 
cording to the maker, even a woman, who finds it 
difficult to attach a vacuum cleaner to a socket, can 
handle the job without taxing brain or brawn. 

An ail season device, it can be used for getting a car 
from mud or snow, pulling a loaded trailer to a car or 
toting a big game carcass for the hunter. 

Trailer Safety Tip 

Stand to one side when winching a boat onto a trailer. If the 
taut cable should snap or the hook straighten while you are 
standing in front of the trailer you may be hit by the lashing 

Leveling Out 

To level out the ride of an outboard boat, set the angle ad- 
justment on the motor. To bring the bow up, tilt the motor away 
from the transom. To overcome “Bow bounce,” set the motor 
in toward the transom. 

MAY— 1963 


Fish Commission Spring Meeting 

The Pennsylvania Fish Commission (at their April 1, 
1963, meeting at Harrisburg) voted to cut propagation 
of trout to be produced for release in 1964 by forty 
per cent. 

The action was taken by the Commission following 
a careful study by the fish committee of the Commis- 
sion and members of the propagation and research 

According to Albert M. Day, executive director, the 
decision to cut back the 1964 production was made 
necessary by reduced income available to the Fish Com- 
mission for the 1963-64 fiscal year. 

More than 1,730,000 trout are scheduled to be re- 
leased in Commonwealth fishing waters prior to the 
April 13 opening of the 1963 trout fishing season. The 
in-season releases are expected to total nearly 1,000,000. 
These releases include approximately 450,000 trout to 
be distributed in Pennsylvania waters by Federal hatch- 
eries under the cooperative program initiated in 1962. 

Federation Endorses Commission's 
Increased Revenue Proposals 

The Pennsylvania Federation of Sportsmen’s Clubs 
endorsed three plans to help the Fish Commission raise 
revenue during the Federation meeting held at Harris- 
burg March 30. 

The Federation voted, without floor discussion, to en- 
dorse the Commission’s plan to increase its license fees 
by $2; to ask for a General Fund appropriation for the 
replacement of the Upper Spring Creek hatchery, lost 
through pollution ; and to recommend transfer of marine 
fuel tax revenues to the Fish Commission. 

About 200 people from 57 counties attended the 
regular spring meeting of the Federation. 

Governor Scranton became the first Pennsylvania 
chief executive to address the Federation in 26 years. 

The Federation also voted to support the Fish Com- 
mission’s boating bill ; to support the proposals of a 
Federation subcommittee for immediate construction of 
Susquehanna River fishways ; to oppose consolidation 
of the Fish and Game Commissions ; to seek legisla- 
tion to raise from 12 to 18 inches the minimum legal 
size of striped bass, and to urge the Fish Commission 
to seek Federal cooperation in providing fish passages 
in the Tocks Island Dam on the Delaware River. 

The reduction in the number of trout to be produced 
by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission is not expected 
to affect the number of Federal trout to be made avail- 
able for distribution. 

The Commission director stated that since August, 
1961, the Commission has made drastic reductions in 
operating costs in all major lines of activity in an at- 
tempt to bring expenditures in line with declining- 
income. He said that every possible effort has been 
made to avoid the cutback in the propagation program. 

Day said the hatchery division complement of per- 
sonnel. which totaled 180 in 1961, has already been 
cut to 134. He also said that in an attempt to keep up 
production of trout, replacement of equipment, major 
repairs to hatcheries and other necessary maintenance 
work has been held to an absolute minimum. 

He said every attempt will be made to restore the 
production schedule in 1965 if additional funds are 
made available to the Commission. 

National Fisheries Center Approved 

A national Fisheries Center to be constructed in the 
District of Columbia at a cost of nearly $10 million has 
been given final approval. Tentative plans include salt- 
water and fresh-water community circular pools, each 
80 feet in diameter by 14 feet deep, to be viewed from 
three levels. Six additional community pools, both salt- 
and fresh-water, are planned, each to be 56 feet across 
by 10 feet deep, to be viewed from two levels. About 
160 individual tanks are contemplated for salt- and ' 
fresh-water specimens in their natural surroundings. 

A 400-foot trout stream will discharge into an 80- 
foot bass bayou and rain forest setting. A tropical 
community pool 32 feet across and 8 feet deep will be 
designed for two-level viewing. The entire complex is i : 
expected to accommodate some 1 ,300 species of fish and ; 
associated aquatic life. 

The National Fisheries Center and Aquarium is ex- 
pected to attract about eight million annual visitors. 

In addition to its educational aspects, the unit is to be 
a functioning research center for fisheries investiga- 
tions. An admission charge of about 60 cents for adults i 
and 30 cents for children is expected to defray construe- j 
tion costs and provide an annual operating budget of 
$800,000 per year. When preliminary surveys are com- 
pleted, construction is expected to take about 2^> years. 



Land and Water 
Conservation Fund Bill 

The Senate Interior and Insular Affairs Committee held a 
hearing recently on S. 859, a bill to create a Land and Water 
Conservation Fund Bill. 

The Outboard Boating Club of America was among those 
groups which presented testimony at this hearing. 

In general, the objectives of the bill were endorsed, partic- 
ularly as they reflected the recommendations of the Outdoor 
Recreation Resources Review Commission. 

The OBC testimony emphasized that the boater obviously 
will receive greater benefit use from this Federal marine fuel 
tax (estimated by OBC at $35 million annually) as part of 
the proposed Conservation Fund than he now obtains from its 
deposit in the highway fund. At the same time, however, it 
was noted these same fuel tax monies could produce far greater 
results if established as part of an earmarked matching fund 
comparable to the D-J and P-R programs. Supplementary oral 
testimony was directed mainly to this point. These oral com- 
ments also emphasized that many of the boating agencies in 
the states looked to their own state marine fuel taxes and 
possible Federal matching funds as a key source of financing 
future programs 

The hearing began with an unusual joint appearance of 
Secretaries Udall and Freeman. Both were questioned critically 
by committee members of both parties. It became clear the 
committee was anxious that many of the aspects of the pro- 
posed program which were left open in the bill be tied down 
in more specific detail. There also seemed to be a difference 
of opinion within the committee as to whether an acquisition 
program such as contemplated by the bill should be financed 
out of general appropriation — as basically recommended by the 
Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission — or whether 
special sources of revenue should be utilized as the bill proposed. 

Another line of questioning was whether it was appropriate 
to charge special entrance fees at various kinds of Federal 
installation (such as the bill proposes — though none of the 
details are given), or whether there would be too much resent- 

Pennsylvania Game Commission photo by D. L. Batcheler 

Wildlife Week Proclamation in presence of state conservation 
agency heads and officials of the Pennsylvania Federation of 
Sportsmen's Clubs. Seated at Governor's right is Seth L. 
Myers, Pennsylvania State Chairman, National Wildlife Week; 
at left is Carl White, president of Pennsylvania Federation of 
Sportsmen's Clubs. Standing, left to right, are: C. E. Palmer, 
treasurer, Pennsylvania Federation of Sportsmen's Clubs; Dr. 
Maurice K. Goddard, Secretary, Department of Forests and 
Waters; Dr. Charles Wilbar, Secretary, Pennsylvania Depart- 
ment of Health; M. J. Golden, Executive Director, Pennsyl- 
vania Game Commission; and Albert M. Day, Executive Di- 
rector, Pennsylvania Fish Commission. 

ment to this since most of these areas have traditionally been 
open to all without charge. 

Most of the witnesses testifying indicated that while they 
favored a major acquisition program at this time, there were 
a number of needed refinements. These particularly included 
increasing the amounts of money available to the states, a more 
favorable matching formula from the states’ standpoint, and 
much greater emphasis on development of existing public lands. 

Identical legislation has been introduced in the House of 
Representatives (H.R. 3846, etc.) where it has also been as- 
signed to the Interior Committee. It is not known when the 
Senate Interior Committee will act on the bill although it ap- 
pears that action will not be as early as previously had been 
anticipated. In the interim, it appears the Senate Interior Com- 
mittee would be interested in the views of those who might 
care to submit them. Senator Henry Jackson (D.-Wash.) is 
Chairman of the committee. 

Keep America Beautiful 
To Meet in Washington 

A national conference on litter prevention will be sponsored 
by Keep America Beautiful at the Shoreham Hotel, Washing- 
ton, D. C., June 23-25. Government officials, civic leaders, and 
representatives of labor, industry and service organizations will 
participate in the meeting, which is expected to attract about 
500 persons from all over the country. 

MAY— 1963 


Mount Your Trophy Heads 


MOUNT YOUR OWN trophy heads if you insist on a "Do-lt- 
Yourseif" project, if you have the time and patience, a mini- 
mum of tools and material will do a good job. 

If you are an ardent fisherman and have fished Pennsylvania’s 
bountiful waters hard enough, long enough, and often enough, 
you have undoubtedly, at one time or another, caught a “braggin’ 
size” fish. By a “braggin’ size” fish I don’t necessarily mean a 
world’s record — or anything close to it, but rather a musky in 
the twenty-pound class, a seven-or eight-pound walleye, or pos- 
sibly a five-pound largemouth. 

These are fish catches that don’t happen every day to the 
average fisherman (or even to those who feel they’re a cut above 
the average), but perhaps once every few years when Lady 
Luck chooses to cast a favorable smile in his direction. 

When it does happen, in most cases, the pleasant memory of 
these lunkers is doomed to remain locked in the mind of the 
lucky angler forever. As we all well know, talking about the 
“big one” you caught several years ago will stir about as much 
enthusiasm among fellow anglers as the “one that got away.” 

Without question we would all like to have a fifty-inch musky, 
hanging in its entirety, on the den wall, but when we figure 
the taxidermist’s fee connected with such a project, we quickly 
lose interest. After all, how many “average” fishermen can af- 
ford to lay out seventy-five to one hundred dollars for a mount- 
ing job. 

With this in mind I would like to share with you a very 
simple and inexpensive method of preserving some of your 
trophies. The total time involved should be less than two hours ; 
the cost should not exceed one dollar. This seems a reasonable 
sacrifice in order to be able to look up on the wall and see the 
head of the “big one” that didn’t get away. 

The few materials necessary for the job are as follows: a 
sharp knife, supply of thumb tacks, cardboard box, box of table 
salt, wooden mounting board, upholstery tacks, two dark green 
transparent marbles, putty, and some clear varnish. 


1. Sever head from fish’s body by cutting directly behind the 
gill covers. Remove eyes from sockets, cut and scrape excessive 
meat from area where backbone was connected to neck. Wash 
entire head in clear luke-warm water to remove slime covering. 

2. Salt back of head and neck, place head on cardboard box, 
spread gill covers and secure in this position with thumb tacks. 
Prop mouth open to widest possible position and insert stick to 
hold it while drying. 

3. Sprinkle heavy coating of salt over entire head making sure 
all surface area is covered. (By salting while the head is very 
wet the salt will cling without difficulty.) Place salted head in 
the sun to dry for about one week to ten days. (Allow about two 
to three weeks if head is dried in warm indoor area.) 


1. After the head has been exposed to the sun and all moisture 
removed, brush off the salt. (An old toothbrush will be helpful 
in this process.) Wash head lightly in water to remove all ex- 
cess salt residue. 

2. After head is completely dry, varnish inside and out. (Spar 
Varnish does an excellent job.) 

3. To set the eyes, fill the eye sockets about two-thirds full of 
putty, and while still soft press marbles into place. Remove ex- 
cess putty with toothpick or similar instrument. A second coat 
of varnish will give your trophy head a lasting finish. 

4. Position the head on the mounting board and secure with 
upholstery tacks. Your trophy is now finished and ready to 
hang on the wall. 

BILL VORISEK of Linesville, Pa., inspects his craftsman- 
ship on two muskellunge caught by Ernie Baker. Few taxi- 
dermists specialize in mounting fish. 



Fish Stories Never Die— They Just Get Larger 


Northwest Regional Warden Supervisor 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

How many times have you located a large trout, bass or 
nusky in one of your favorite streams, fished for him both 
light and day, used live bait, artificial bait of all kinds and in 
act every known method in your bag of fishing tricks, only to 
ie rewarded with a short strike which caused you to lose him 
■n the first jump? How many of your fishing buddies have 
ou told, in a secretive manner, about the big one that got away 
nd did you notice the smirk on their faces when you extended 
our hands, to describe the length of the monster? Did you tell 
hem where the fish lived? Heck no, you were restless every 
,ninute until you could get the opportunity to go back and try 
lim again, all by yourself. If you are like most of the fishing 
raternity, you keep after him, when the barometer is up, when 
t is down, when the stream is high and when the stream is low 
nd finally old ironsides makes a mistake. THE STRIKE; 
.•hat a thrill, THE BATTLE ; savage and full of fight and at 
1 st your trophy is in the net and helpless. 

Unfortunately many stories end here, but more and more 
rdent fishermen realize the pleasure of having the last laugh 
nd when their buddies drop in, for an evening of fishing yarns, 
hey merely gaze up at the wall and say: “THAT WAS THE 

One fisherman who comes to my mind most vividly is Ernie 
laker, of Saegertown, Pa., Crawford County. All summer long, 
frnie is seen along French Creek, in the vicinity of Saegertown 
nd Cambridge Springs. Usually, Mrs. Baker is with him and 
s we pass the time of day, Ernie tells us that he is out after 
few bass, or walleyes, but we know him well, quickly notice 
hat those keen eyes are always on the alert for a large swirl or 
long dark shadow drifting by, under the nearby overhanging 
ree or bank. Ernie is a musky fisherman, first, last and always. 
True, he catches his bass and walleyes each summer but when 
he leaves fall and the heavy frosts arrive you will note a special 
winkle in Ernie’s eyes. Why not? Musky season has arrived 
i the Northwest Region. Mrs. Baker no longer accompanies 
im. The light tackle is replaced with heavy rod, thirty-pound 
ne, and in the bait bucket will be found large chubs or suckers 
/hich would make a good fish dinner, for most of us, but Ernie 
> thinking of that big one he saw swirl in August. When you ask 
im just where the big ones are living, you get a friendly smile, 
re told that it is a nice day, and nothing more. (This is the 
ode of the Musky Fishermen’s Fraternity and I hope it never 

The fall of 1962 was no exception for Ernie Baker, as almost 

I aily he was seen along French Creek, and then it happened, 
irnie walked into the hardware store, at Cambridge Springs, 
arrying one of those once in a lifetime trophies, fifty inches 
nd thirty pounds of fighting musky but there the story did not 
nd. Three days later, Ernie was displaying a walleye he had 
aught that day and five days later he again entered the hard- 
ware store and displayed another monster musky over fifty 
iches long and weighing more than thirty-two pounds. These 
re not the only large fish Ernie has caught in his many years 
f fishing, but old Lady Luck really smiled on him last fall. 
After catching the last fish, Ernie and his friends were ad- 

1AY— 1963 


ONE OF THE BEST MUSKY fishermen in Pennsylvania is 
W. Ernest "Ernie" Baker of Saegertown, Pa. Ernie is right 
proud of these big musky twins he caught in French Creek last 
fall. One fish weighed 30 pounds, the ether — 28 pounds. These 
mounted specimens are fine trophies in any sportsman's den. 

miring its beauty, as French Creek fish are very silvery in color 
with very few pronounced, bar markings (so characteristic of 
muskies living in weedy lakes), and in Ernie’s mind an idea 
was forming. Why not have both fish mounted so that when the 
fish stories become complicated in the future he could point 
with pride to the wall and say : “There are two that didn’t 
get away.” 

After inquiring as to the whereabouts of a good taxidermist, 
he was directed to William Vorisek, of R. D. 3, Linesville, Pa., 
a licensed taxidermist who takes great pride in working with 
fish. There are many taxidermists who do excellent work on 
animal heads but few who specialize in fish. Bill is one of the 

He uses the spray method of finishing trophies instead of the 
hand painted method which is rapidly becoming obsolete. Bill, 
being an ardent hunter and fisherman himself, takes great pride 
seeking to make each fish exactly the same as it looked in real 
life. He can take a badly worn trophy, re-spray it, replace fins 
and tail and make it look beautiful. A true craftsman, and the 
cost is not great. Large bass and pan fish can be made into 
lamps, wall mounts, desk mounts, etc., and will always add a 
ray of sunshine on those long winter days when we sit around 
the house with our fishing buddies, and, if we are like Ernie 
Baker, proudly look up on the wall and say . . . “THE BIG 



The following item appeared in the Lock Haven Express 
60 years ago (1903) column: “A flood in Bald Eagle Creek 
overflowed the fields near Fiemington and George McGregor 
discovered a big carp floundering around in a field below the 
bridge. He killed the big fish by striking it on the head with a 
club. It weighed 12 pounds. There was fine sport fishing for 
suckers in the Bald Eagle Creek after the big flood and some 
big catches were made at Fiemington." — Nortbcentral Regional 
Warden Supervisor John Buck. 


While assisting District Warden James F. Yoder at the 

Luzerne County Sportsmen’s Show I talked to a little boy about 
six years of age. I asked him if his daddy took him fishing, 
what his name was and where he lived. I do not recall now 
what his name was but where he lived is not hard to remember. 
His answer to the question as to where he lived was . . . 
“HOME!" — District Warden Stephen A. Shabbick (Wyoming. 


Bill Southerton, a northern Wayne County bait dealer, told 
me that he had put a large number of big golden shiners in a 
vat to keep them for some anglers who planned to fish the St. 
Lawrence River. On the morning of one of our coldest nights 
he found the water supply in his bait vat had been cut off. He 
went to his pipe and found a snapping turtle had stuck his head 
in it and couldn’t back out. Bill gave the snapper a heave-ho up 
on the bank and screened the pipe vent. Who needs a turtle cork? 
— District Warden Harland F. Reynolds (Wayne). 


When stocking Raccoon Park Lake (Beaver) on the 18th of 
February last, we had to chop through 20 inches of ice to find 
water in which to stock the trout. — District Warden Clinton E. 
I man (Butler and Beaver). 


On Bear Creek Reservoir, volunteers cut through 28)4 
inches of ice to stock Federal trout. On a two-day trout stocking 
project on Pohopoco Creek, sportsmen cut holes in the ice up 
to 24 inches. — District Warden Frederick W. Ohlson (Carbon). 


I always figured fishermen and duck hunters didn’t let 
weather interfere with their sport but it looks like fishermen 
are softening up a bit. One Saturday, Game Protector Kriefski 
and I were on patrol looking for fishermen on the many lakes in 
this area but because of miserable weather . . . rain, wind and 
extreme cold, we found very few of the hardy breed. We visited 
the new Paper Birch Ski Run at Wallenpaupack and were sur- 
prised to see men, women and children of all ages cold and 
soaking wet skiing in this mangy weather seemingly not mind- 
ing it a bit. — District Warden Joseph E. Bartley (Pike). 


In company with Robert Rankin and Howard Doud, Galeton, 
Pa., officers in the Potter County Anglers Club, we traveled to 
Pleasant Mount and Bellefonte fish hatcheries. A tour was made 
at each installation. Both men were impressed with the tour 
and now plan to build their own hatch house and experiment 
with the hatching and rearing of their own trout. — District 
Warden Kenneth Aley (Potter). 

LELAND CLOGS, District Warden, Tioga County, Pennsyl 
vania Fish Commission, shows Girl Scouts Barbara Browr 
(left) and Sue Kesterke how to handle the larger trout tha 
hopped out of the buckets. 

Girl Scouts Help Trout 
Stocking Despite Snow 

Walking through three-foot snow drifts, climbing 
barbed wire fences and sliding down 20 creek banks 
were all taken in stride by the Girl Scouts of Daggetl 
who assisted area sportsmen in stocking 1,375 trou 
in Tioga County streams recently. 

The Pennsylvania Fish Commission furnished 70C 
brook trout which were planted in Bailey Creek, nortl 
of Mansfield, 675 brown trout in Seeley Creek in th( 
Mosherville-Daggett areas. 

On February 9, I assisted with an ice fishing demonstration 
at Pinchot State Park Lake (York). Over 350 persons attendee 
the project and showed great interest in this type of angling 
relatively new for this section of the state. Following the demon 
stration, many new ice anglers appeared on our southern tie: 
lakes. It was felt that such demonstrations should be extendec 
to conventional types of angling in season. From observation: 
on our lakes and streams I have seen fishermen using equip 
ment and methods highly unlikely to take fish, creating mam 
discouraged fishermen. Instructions in the proper use of equip 
ment, baits and know-how can help many an angler become ;| 
successful angler. — Southcentral Regional Warden Supervise 
Harold Corbin. 


The Erie Winter Carnival was very successful with fisherme: 
receiving $1,000 in prizes while fishing in competition on Presqu 
Isle Bay February 2-9. A 24-inch northern pike won the to; 
prize. Runner-up was a 15-inch perch which weighed 11 pounds 
12 ounces. — District Warden Norman Ely (Erie). 



Retiring Fish Commission Employe 


Willard T. Ralston was appointed to the Fish Com- 
mission on March 16, 1934 and served as a laborer and 
equipment operator until his recent retirement. He was 
born on October 5, 1905, at State College, Centre 
County, Pennsylvania and was educated in local 
schools. He is married to the former Helen Julia 
Bohn. Mr. Ralston, well known to sportsmen in the 
Huntsdale Hatchery area, has no specific plans for his 
retirement years. 

Appearing in the Wayne Independent, a Honesdale, Pa., 
newspaper, “Fifty Years Ago” column was this item : “The 
Groton, Conn., milk receiving plant was sure farmers were 
watering down their milk as when one of the milk can lids 
was removed on the platform, a ten-inch brook trout was found 
swimming around in the can.” — District Warden Harland F. 
Reynolds (Wayne). 


Some streams of the Warren County area have fourteen 
nches of ice cover and the tools for trout stocking these waters 
irobably will include snowshoes and ice augers. One of the local 
jame Protectors measured 31 inches of snow on top of a turkey 
| eeder back in the brush. One sportsman remarked that maybe 
ve will have a good tracking snow for the first day of trout 
eason! — District Warden Kenneth G. Corey (Warren). 


At a recent meeting of the Georgetown Conservation Club 
leld at Wilkes-Barre, the club president, pondering over the 
ost of one pound of trout delivered to Commonwealth waters, 
emarked . . . “When you stop to figure it out, after you’ve 
aught your first pound, you’ve had your investment returned 
. . your fishing license is really a bargain.” My comment . . . 
even fishermen are beginning to notice it !” — District Warden 
lames F. Yoder (Luzerne). 

Ice fishing has been good on French Creek this winter. 
Lonald Cummings and Plarold Pealman reported spearing eight 
arp, the largest weighing 23 pounds, with a total weight of 
02 pounds. They also had a dozen nice suckers. — District 
tfarden Raymond Hoover (Crawford). 

1AY— 1963 

Harvey Nehf Memorial 
Dedication on May 19 

A Memorial to the late Harvey Nehf, former Dis- 
trict \\ arden, Pennsylvania Fish Commission, will he 
dedicated Sunday, May 19, 1963. The Memorial, in 
the form of a Wishing Well, was constructed bv the 
Lehigh County Federation of Sportsmen’s Clubs and 
is located north of the concrete ponds at the Le-Hi 
trout hatchery in the Lehigh Parkway. 

Funds for the Memorial were furnished bv the 
county clubs. Much of the material used was donated 
by interested firms and individuals, with the landscap- 
ing arranged and planted by a relative of Mr. Nehf. 
Rain date is set for Sundav, Mav 26. 

Penn State Club Outing May 11 

The Pennsylvania State Fish and Game Associa- 
tion will hold their annual outing on Saturday, May 
11 at Cedar Hollow, Paoli, Pa. Fishing, casting, trap 
shooting, water boiling, clam bar and other refresh- 
ments will feature the all-male outing. The club’s youth 
group elected the following officers for 1963 : Lee 
Schmolke, president; John Sexton, vice president; 
Nick Matulk, secretary and Russ Mancer, treasurer. 

SUCKER FISHERMEN at Shawnee Lake, Bedford County 
with a nice catch from near the concrete bridge on Route 
96 south of Shawnee. District Fish Warden, Williams Mcllnay, 
rear, third from left, said the parking lot at the lake has 
teen jammed in recent weeks. 

The trouble with most people these days is that they leant to 
reach the Promised Land without going through the wilderness. 

There is a line on the ocean where you lose a day when you 
cross it. There’s a line on most highivays where you can do 
even better. 

Boredom is our chief occupational disease. A highly recom- 
mended treatment is fishing. 

WINNERS in Harrisburg Hunters and Anglers 25th annual 
Big Fish Contest, 1962. Front row, kneeling, left to right: Jon 
Harry Durham, Jay Alan Lenker, George Hinkle and David 
Miller. Second row, seated, left to right: Harold A. Hock, 
Richard Charles, Dr. Albert S. Hazzard, Lois Evans and John 
Bistline. Third row, standing, left to right: Nicholos A. Lam- 
manido, Carl Byrd, R. N. Daugherty, F. P. Mosley, Michael 
Wagenseller, Don Bailey, S. H. Klinger, Ralph Little and 
Francis Good. 

Fish are entered at Shenk & Tittle, Harrisburg, for 
the contest, length decides the winners. First and sec- 
ond of each species are awarded prizes and each entry 
has a chance for a special prize from a drawing. Top 
winner of the 1962 contest was John R. Egan. The 
prizes this year were awarded on February 5, 1963, by 
John Bistline, contest chairman, assisted by Dr. Albert 
S. Hazzard, former assistant executive director, Penn- 
sylvania Fish Commission. Prizes consist of trophies, 
certificates, fishing tackle, memberships or cash for sec- 
ond placers. 

Queen City Sportsmen's 
Trout Rearing Committee 


It gives this committe great pleasure to issue the following 
report : 

Trout stocked in Little Lehigh and Jordan Creeks for annual 
fishing contests : 

12" to 16" — 10,000 
16" to 25" — 570 

Trout stocked in Little Lehigh, Jordan, Cedar Creeks and 
the Lehigh River for public stocking : 

12" to 16" — 5,800 

Included in the above figure are 800 brook trout which were 
stocked prior to the opening of the trout season. 

Excess fingerling trout distributed to sportsmen’s clubs for 
stocking in feeder streams : 

Approximately : 10,000 

Present inventory in nursery ponds for stocking in the year 

Over 10" — 16,640 
Under 10" — 17,500 

The above figures do not include 12,886 steelhead trout being 
raised in the nursery ponds in cooperation with the Lehigh 
County Fish & Game Protective Association and the Pennsyl- 
vania Fish Commission. Some of these fish are due for release 
this late winter or early spring. 

The following is a report of the number of hours put in by 
interested sportsmen on the work needed to make this operation 
a success: 

Days of Work Women Men Number of hours 
89 2 254 1,120 

We wish to thank the officials of the City of Allentown for 
the fine cooperation. Also the Pennsylvania Fish Commission 
for the fingerling trout furnished by them. And also to all the 
people who donated of their time, money, and equipment so 
that this project was once again a success in the past year. 

Tom Beidler, Secretary 

How to Tie 


While fly tying this past winter, I searched among my ma- 
terial anxiously seeking material that would successfully dupli- 
cate the color of the caddis larva. Any angler, who has examined 
this prize trout food, knows the larva has a whitish-grav 
underbody and a cinnamon-tan colored back with dark brown 
legs and feelers. The caddis builds a shell of bark, twigs, sand, 
etc., about his body for protection. However, trout eat case and 
all, as examining a trout’s stomach will attest. 

Duplicating the larva with case is difficult and unnecessary, 
considering the nymph is what the trout wants in the first place. 
So, I was concentrating on finding the perfectly colored ma- 
terial to imitate the body of the caddis. I couldn’t find any and 
while pondering the dilemma, lit up a cigarette. Puffing away, 
I happened to notice the stained filter on the cigarette. Eureka ! 
There was my caddis-colored material. 

Tying the nymph, wet fly, and dry fly of the caddis fly, using 
the cigarette filter material as the body, is relatively simple. 
Take the tying thread to the bend of the hook, and using the 
process known as “dubbin” dub the filter material to the hook, 
half-hitch and cement. Bring the material to the position where 

you tie on the hackle. On a nymph, no wings are used so tie in 
a fiery brown soft hackle bringing the hackles under the body 
representing the caddis’s legs. A few hackles can be tied down 
over the hook eye to represent the antennas if desired. Tie the 
fly off and cement and there you have a striking resemblance to 
the natural insect. On wet flies and dry flies, I tie in wood 
duck flank feathers ; on wet flies, I “roll” the feather together 
and tie on ; dry flies, I tie the material in the position called 
upright divided dry-fly wing. Hook sizes 10 to 16 with size 
14 being the average size of the caddis nymph. 

For a lack of a better name, I dubbed this fly: the Nicotine i 
Fly. One outstanding aspect of this fly is, if you’re hooked to 
the cigarette weed like me, you shall never run out of material, 
provided of course you use filter cigarettes. The nicotine odor? 
Don’t worry about it. The nicotine smell could be an added 
inducement in having the trout hit the fly. After all, nicotine 
is an important ingredient in fish scents widely used by anglers 
today. The nicotine fly not only has the look of the caddis but 
has the smell to boot ! 

— William Reed 





Several months ago, I was talking to a man who is widely 
recognized as one of the most accomplished anglers in Penn- 

“All right,” I said. “Here is the problem. You have just 
arrived at a stream or a lake. You immediately observe that 
I the fish are not feeding. No one is catching fish. The water 
looks absolutely dead. What do you do?” 

“Very simple,” he said. “I either don’t fish at all, or I fish 
only long enough to confirm that they aren’t hitting. Then I 
drive to another stream or lake, or I wait until the fish begin 
feeding. But I don’t waste much time when the odds are 
against me.” 

Having wasted, I should estimate, half a lifetime of trying 
to catch fish when they refuse to hit, that advice was as 
valuable a bit of information as I have ever received. 

Theoretically, a truly expert fisherman is a fellow who can 
take fish when everyone else is getting skunked. Some men can 
do this — up to a point. Often it’s a matter of going with the 
right lure, or placing- casts in spots the other anglers are 

Yet even the greatest of the experts admit there are times 
when the best idea of all is to either sit in the shade or seek 
your sport elsewhere. They know their own limitations. They 
snow when not to fish. 

i Take the recently-released hatchery brown trout as an ex- 
ample. This fish is accustomed to feeding when fed. He looks 
:o the surface for his food. After he has observed a hundred 
:addis nymphs and flies drifting past his nose, he gradually 
gets the idea. Once on the prowl he is an active feeder. He will 
learn to keep his eye peeled for occasional morsels, the same as 
ris streambred brethren. 

i Until he catches on, though, the recently-released hatchery 
orownie spends the between-hatch periods sulking alongside a 
t Submerged rock. The idea is to leave him sulk. Seek your sport 
elsewhere and come back when he’s in a feeding mood. 

This is not to say that you should ever leave a stream or a 
ake without wetting a line simply because you see no signs 
of feeding activity. Let the fish themselves tell you whether 
jr not they will take a lure. 

Give yourself a half hour or so of casting. And experiment 
with various baits and lures. If your efforts are unrewarded, 
fither call it quits for an hour or try your luck elsewhere, 
in the long haul, you will conserve energy and take more fish 
)y not bucking the odds. — JIM HAYES 


'UH-OH ... I forgot to tell him the motor is in the back!" 

dAY — 1963 



Chief Enforcement Officer, Pennsylvania Fish Comission 

The following questions were asked through our mail hag cor- 
respondence. If you have a specific question or problem relating 
to fish laws and regulations, send them by card or letter to 
Editor, Pennsylvania Angler, Pennsylvania Fish Commission, 
Harrisburg , Pa. 


If a stream is posted against trespass or fishing, is it legal to 
wade the stream as long as I do not get out of the water on 
the farmer’s land?" 


If the landowner owns both banks of the stream and has it 
posted against trespassing you cannot legally wade, fish, boat 
or swim in the water. If he owns only one bank and his prop- 
erty line extends to the middle of the stream, and has trespass 
signs up on his property and the other half of the stream is 
open to trespass or fishing, you could wade the other side, or 
walk the other bank and fish the stream. 


I have my stream posted against fishing and own both banks of 
the stream and some people stand on a highway bridge and fish 
from there into the water on my property. Is it legal for them 
to do that? 


An informal opinion was received from the Attorney General's 
Office in 1952 concerning this problem. It states: "A bridge on 
a highway is part of the highway and a highway is an ease- 
ment for the public to travel over and may not be used for any 
other purpose." Therefore, such fishing is not legal and the 
person so fishing may be prosecuted by the landowner for 


I have my land posted against fishing, but in spite of it some 
people continue to come on my property and fish. They also 
throw empty beer cans, paper and other debris along the stream. 
Can’t a fish warden arrest these people for LITTERBUGGING 
on my property ? 


Your only recourse would be for you to have these people ar- 
rested for trespassing on posted property. Fish wardens do 
not enforce the trespass law and neither could they enforce 
the litterbug law on posted property. The law states the litter- 
bug law may only apply on lands and waters open to public 


Is it true that permission from the landowner or tenant must 
first be secured before it is legal to fish on private property on 
Sunday? When was this law enacted? 


It is true. Sunday fishing on privately owned land may only be 
done if such permission has first been granted. Fish Wardens 
are requested to arrest fishermen for this practice if the land 
is posted against fishing and the fisherman has not obtained 
permission. No such permission is required if fishing is done 
on State, Federal or Municipally owned property. 


eleven year-old Donald 
Lee, caught this fine 6- 
pound, 7-ounce bass on 
live bait on a tip-up at 
Little Elk Lake. The fish 
was 22 inches in length. 

this 8-pound, 25-inch 
largemouth bass at Lake 
Sheridan last February. 
Charles Mikulski of Fac- 
toryville caught the big 
fish on a shiner. 

BIG BLUE CAT, 10 pounds, 27 inches, caught by 
Lloyd C. Zeiders, Jr., Mifflintown, Pa., at Carter's 
Hole on the Juniata River west of Mifflintown. The 
catfish nailed a minnow on a 10-lb. spinning line. 

NICE WALLEYE taken from the Delaware River 
near Narrowsburg (Wayne) last fall by left, Frank 
Tokash, and right, Julius Tokash, of Olyphant, Pa. 
The fish, almost triplets, weighed 7 lbs., were 27 
inches long and caught on lamprey eels. 

FORTY-FIVE inch muskellunge 
that weighed 25 pounds, was taken 
by Van Miller, Waterford, at Lake 
LeBoeuf on a sucker minnow last 
fall. The fish was hooked near the 
lake inlet and put up a good fight 
on a 12-lb. test line. 

—Waterford Leader photo 

Clip. cMe.'ie. 


Official Publication of the Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

OUTDOOR VETERAN, 75-year-old Al Heath of Brookville, 
Pa., with a nice catch of trout taken last summer in Jefferson 
County waters. Mr. Heath has been a great outdoorsman over 
most of his life and for many years a member of the Fish 
Committee of the Brookville Sportsmen's Club and a good 

"Pennsylvania's Finest Fishing Magazine” 

Enclosed is $ for my (New) (Renewal) 

Please send to: 




Make check or money order payable to the Pennsylvania 
Fish Commission 


Cash sent at your own risk. STAMPS NOT ACCEPTABLE. 

MUSKELLUNGE taken at York Haven on the Susquehanna 
River (York) by Edward Weigle, York, Pa. It was a 41-inch, 
16-lb. musky angler Weigle took after dark last fall on a 
Heddon Firetai! sonic plug. 




can possibly be this 


about the 


if you or your 
fishing friends 


The facts . . . just the plain 
common-sense facts on how to 
catch fish in Pennsylvania’s 
waters and, . . . you RESENT 
wading through pages and 
pages of ADVERTISE- 
MENTS to get at the funda- 
mental facts 



For Pennsyl 

vania Boaters — there’s an illustrated / informative 
section especially designed for you. 



JUNE 1963 


^ /inale/i 

— in this issue — 



Sa^e 3&zU*u? 7(/ee& — flune 30- fluty 6. t*?63 

***** HOUSE BILL 889 

rSmootii Jbail'uiq j-ox < ±J~ > znniij Loarua 


Pennsylvania boatmen will be able to use their boats in other states up to go days 
under the provisions of House Bill 889. 

I his bill proposes to amend the Commonwealth’s basic boating law so that it will 
conform to the Federal boating law, commonly known as the Bonner Act. At the 
present time Pennsylvania is one of only eight states whose boating laws do not com- 
ply with the Federal law. 

Under the new law, licensing would be changed from motors to hulls. Fees pro- 
posed are $3 for motorboats 16 ft. and less, and $5 for motorboats more than 16 ft. 
in length. Rowboats and sailboats are not included. 

The bill would also resolve the complicated problem of administration on the tidal 
waters of the Delaware River. On April 9, the Navigation Commission for the Dela- 
ware River and its navigable tributaries approved this bill by adopting the following 
resolution : 

“The Navigation Commission for the Delaware River and its Navigable Tributaries 
hereby goes on record as favoring the provisions set forth in HOUSE BILL, NUM- 
BER 889. It is unanimously agreed by the members of this Commission that the re- 
quirements regarding licensing and regulation of pleasure motorboats operating on 
the Delaware River and its navigable tributaries can best be served by the provisions 
contained in the above referenced House Bill.” 

The Fish Commission has administered the Pennsylvania boating law since its en- 
actment in 1931. At present the warden staff of the Commission enforces the boating 
law in conjunction with regular Fish Commission duties. Boatmen and fishermen use the 
same waters. In fact, 80 per cent or more of Pennsylvania boats are used primarily for 
fishing. 1 he enforcement of laws and regulations governing boating and fishing by a 
single agency and one warden force provides economy and efficiency of administration. 

This bill has the full support of the Pennsylvania Federation of Sportsmen’s Clubs. 

The Pennsylvania Fish Commission urges the early approval of this bill. This would 
make it possible for Pennsylvania boatmen and tourists to take advantage of the reci- 
procity benefits of this measure at the earliest possible date. 

— Albert M. Day 
Executive Director 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission 


Pennsylvania Any ten. 

Published Monthlv bv the 


Albert M. Day 
Executive Director 

Robert J. Bielo 
Assistant Executive Director 

Warren W. Singer 
Assistant to Executive Director 

I Paul F. O’Brien 

Administrative Officer 

Paul J. Sauer 



Aquatic Biology 

Gordon Trembley Chief 

Fish Culture 

Howard L. Fox Superintendent 

Real Estate and Engineering 

Cyril G. Regan Chief 

Edward Miller Asst. Chief 

Lazv Enforcement 

William W. Britton Chief 

Conservation Education-Public Relations 
Russell S. Orr Chief 



S. Carlyle Sheldon Warden Supervisor 

1212 E. Main St., Conneautville, Pa., 

Phone: 3033 


Min ter C. Jones Warden Supervisor 

R. D. 2, Somerset, Pa. Phone: 6913 


H. Clair Fleecer Warden Supervisor 

351 Terrace St., Honesdale, Pa., 

Phone: 253-3724 

Terry Rader Fishery Manager 

R. D. 3, Honesdale, Pa. Phone: 253-2033 


John S. Ogden Warden Supervisor 

1130 Ruxton Rd., York, Pa. _. Phone: 2-3474 


William W. Scranton, Governor 



Maynard Bogart, President Danville 

Joseph M. Critchfield, Vice President Confluence 

Gerard J. Adams Hawley Albert R. Hinkle, Jr. .... 

Wallace C. Dean Meadville R. Stanley Smith 

John W. Grenoble Carlisle Raymond M. Williams ... 

East Banger 

JUNE, 1963 

VOL. 32, NO. 6 












17 WHEN THE SHAD FLIES HATCH — Albert G. Shimmel 

18 POP A WORM FOR BASS— Don Shiner 





23 Y'OU ASKED ABOUT IT — W. W. Britton, Chief Enforcement Officer, Penn- 
sylvania Fish Commission 

Cover photo courtesy Evinrude Motors 
Back cover by Don Shiner 


John I. Buck Warden Supervisor 

P. O. Box 5, Lock Haven, Pa., 

Phone: 748-7162 

Dan Heyl Fishery Manager 

R. D. 1, Spring Mills, Pa., 

Phone: Center Hall Empire 4-1065 


Habold Corbin Warden Supervisor 

521 13th St., Huntingdon, Pa., 

Phone: Mitchell 3-0355 

POSTMASTER : All 3579 forms to be returned to Times and News Publishing Co 
Gettysburg, Pa. 

The PENNSYLVANIA ANGLER is published monthly by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission. 
South Office Building, Harrisburg, Pa. Subscription: One year— S2.00; three years— So. 00, 25 cents 
per single copy. Send check or money order payable to Pennsylvania Fish Commission. DO NOT 
SEND STAMPS. Individuals sending cash do so at their own risk. Change of address should reach 
us promptly. Furnish both old and new addresses. Second Class Postage paid at Harrisburg, Pa.. 
and at additional mailing offices. 

Neither Publisher nor Editor will assume responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts or illustrations 
while in their possession or in transit. Permission to reprint will be given provided we receive 
marked copies and credit is given material or illustrations. Communications pertaining to manuscripts, 
material or illustrations should be addressed to the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, Harrisburg, Pa. 
NOTICE: Subscriptions received and processed after the 10th of each month will begin with the 
second month following. 

'Saatiufy &uicU fo "PemttofCwaaia ‘TVate/ib 


North, East, South or West. 

It doesn’t matter if your home address happens to be 
Tusseyville, Oakville or way up in Westfield, natural water- 
ways to cruise for the fun loving, pleasure boating family, 
are at the most only a two or three hour drive away. 

Pennsylvania is fortunate in having several major rivers, 
all fairly well situated to serve residents from all sections of 
the Commonwealth, as well as that huge expanse of water 
to the northwest, Lake Erie, as centers of boating activity. 

However having natural waterways is not enough. You’ve 
got to provide access to these areas. This just doesn’t mean 
grading a small section of shore line, to facilitate backing a 
boat trailer into the water, but also involves the establishment 
of parking facilities, picnic areas and, in some instances, sani- 
tary facilities. 

As a result, over the past years, millions have been poured 
into the "recreational hopper” to emerge as adequate launch- 
ing sites in just about every one of the 67 counties. Those 
counties not fortunate enough to be included in this program 
are, however, only a short drive away. 

Most of the launching areas in use today have been estab- 
lished by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission which is con- 
stantly seeking more land, to buy or lease, for additional access 
points. Many others, along with public park programs, have 
been constructed by the Department of Forests and Waters. 

In line with its policy of keeping the recreational interests 
of the public in mind, Pennsylvania Power & Light Co. main- 
tains several such sites; while Philadelphia and Erie are doing 
their share to meet the demands of the boating public. Boat 
clubs throughout the state and private individuals account for 
the remainder of the boat launching areas, some limited to 
boat club members only and others operated on a commercial 

To provide a thumbnail sketch of what the state has to 
offer unfold the road map and take an imaginary trip clock- 
wise from some community in south central Pennsylvania. 
For example let’s head west on Rt. 30, or the Pennsylvania 
Turnpike, from Chambersburg. 

Within a few hours you’ve reached the outskirts of Pitts- 
burgh where you can turn north to Oakmont and the Al- 
legheny, south to the Monongahela or continue west to the 
Ohio River. Perhaps you would prefer the Beaver River, out 
of New Brighton, or head north on Rt. 8 to Pymatuning 
(keep in mind the horsepower restrictions here) or to nearby 
Conneaut Lake. 

Once you’ve reached this point you’re not far from Erie 
where city owned ramps, plus commercial marinas, can ac- 
commodate any size craft. Erie, along with the Presque Isle 
State Park, is veiled in a historic naval atmosphere of partic- 
ular interest to the avid boatman and has accommodations 
galore for the entire family. 

Plans are underway for expanding the Presque Isle small 
boat marina to well over double its present capacity of 500 
boats and additional plans have been approved, the Tourist 
and Convention Bureau of Greater Erie revealed, for the 
private development of a small boat and yacht facility in the 
west basin of the public dock. 

Continuing the imaginary journey you can head south on 
Rt. 8 to Union City, then eastward on Rt. 6 to the Allegheny 
with access points at Irvine and Warren; then south through 
Kane and the Bendigo State Park with the nearby Clarion 
River’s east dam. 

Not many miles distant is the Sinnemahoning State Park 
and the George B. Stevenson dam, and southeast of here is 
Jersey Shore and Williamsport where you can spend a few 
hours on the west branch of the Susquehanna River. Once 
past Harvey’s Lake, off Rt. 415, you soon reach the Susque- 
hanna’s north branch with access areas ranging from Tunk- 
hannock up through North Towanda to Sayre. 

Once through Susquehanna and Wayne Counties, the lake 
country of Pennsylvania, you reach Equinunk, the northern- 
most access area on the Delaware River. Incidentally, from 
this point south, there are numerous access areas to the river 
at such places as Milford, Yardley, Bushkill, Martin’s Creek, 
Philadelphia, on to Essington and Prospect Park. 

Not far south of Equinunk is Lake Wallenpaupack, one 
of the finest boating, bathing, fishing and camping areas in 
the east. Privately owned marinas line the shore in addition 
to four well equipped camp sites maintained by PP & L. 

To the west is Wapwallopen, on the Susquehanna River; 
and south is the Schuylkill River with three sites owned and 
operated by the Dept, of Forests and Waters, plus several 
other public and commercially operated marinas, all within 
a short distance from Reading. 

The last leg of the trip finds you at Harrisburg with its 
well used public bathing beach and launching ramp on Allen’s 
Park, a Susquehanna River island between the Market and 
Walnut Streets bridges; while to the south, between Lancaster 
and York Counties, are some fine stretches of water for cruis- 
ing in the vicinity of the Safe Harbor, Holtwood and Con- 
owingo, Md., power dams. 

In between the points mentioned are to be found many, 
many more boat launching facilities which are located on a 
county-by-county basis in the following listing. It is hoped 
that the list is as thorough and up to date as is physically 

To facilitate matters the following symbols were used to 
designate the facilities offered at each area: S — surfaced ramp; 
B — beach type; P — parking available; GO — gasoline and oil; 
C — charge; N — no charge; PFC — Pennsylvania Fish CommiS' 





Penna. Fish Commission West Fairview Access 


No suitable pleasure boating waters. 


ALLEGHENY RIVER — Tarentum, foot of Lock Street. Taren- 
|:um Boat Club lot available for overnight parking. (S-P-GO-N) 

Arnold, at foot of 18th Street. High embankment makes launching 
i difficult, parking limited. (B-C) 

Springdale, foot of Butler Street. Fair. (B-N) 

Logan’s Ferry, 2 miles south of New Kensington. (B-P-C) 

Oakmont Yacht Club, foot of California Avenue. Limited to club 
nembers. (S-P-GO-C) 

Aspinwall, Highland Boating and Flying Base, 14 mile north of 
Aspinwall, on Rt. 28. Marine crane available. (S-P-GO-C) 

Aspinwall, Hideaway Harbor, off Rt. 28. (H-P-GO-C) 

Sharpsburg, off Rt. 28 after Highland Park Bridge. (B-P-N) 
Pittsburgh Boat Club, 300 River Avenue East. Foot of 9th Street 
Bridge. (B-P-GO-C) 

MONONGAHELA RIVER — Pittsburgh. Parking lot off Blvd. 
af Allies, evenings and Sundays only. (S-P-N) 

Lock No. 3, two miles south of Elizabeth. (B-P-N) 

OHIO RIVER -McKees Rocks. Sutey marina on the back channel 
tt Brunot Island, downstream from Charriers Creek. No parking 
. facilities. (S-GO-N) 

U. S. Corps of Engineers, Pittsburgh 19, has booklet describing 
facilities on the Ohio, from Pittsburgh to Cairo, 111. Fee 25 cents 


ALLEGHENY RIVER— Kittanning, on Rt. 422. (S-P-GO-N) 

Gttanning boat and dock area, one mile north of Rt. 422. North end 
)f Kittanning. (B-P-GO-C) 

Mosgrove, 5 mile north of Kittanning, off L. R. 03068. (B-P-N) 
East Brady, Cogley’s launching area, off Rt. 68, at west side of 
aridge. (B-P-GO-C) 

CROOKED CREEK STATE PARK — 350 acres, 6 miles 

torth of Vandergrift on Rt. 66. Picnicking, swimming and camping. 

MAHONING DAM 4 miles north of Dayton, off Rt. 839. 


BEAVER RIVER — West Bridgewater, '/2 mile from mouth of 
:he Ohio River. Two sites. (B-GO-C) 

New Brighton, Rt. 51. (B-GO-C) 

Eastvale, Rt. 588. Beaver Falls Boat Club. Ramp — electric hoist 
ivailable for members of any boat club. (S-H-P-GO-N) 



It. 26. (B-P-N) 

>UNE— 1963 


SCHUYLKILL RIVER — Kernsville pool, Dept, of Forests and 
Waters project. North of Hamburg, off Rt. 122. No gas or oil 
service on site but at adjacent facilities. (S-P-N) 

Felix pool, DF&W project. North of Reading, near Tuckerton, off 
Rt. 183. Facilities similar to those offered at Kernsville pool. 

Berks Boat Club, 214 miles north of Reading, off Rt. 122. (B-P-C) 
Kauffman’s landing, 214 miles north of Reading, off Rt. 122. 

Schuylkill Recreation Center, 214 miles north of Reading, off Rt 
122. (S-P-GO-C) 

Reading boat works, 2 miles north of Reading, Rt. 183. (S-P-GO-C) 
Hamburg, 2 miles south off Rt. 122, Penna. Fish Commission ramp. 


No suitable pleasure boating waters. 



access, 2 miles northeast of Sayre on L.R. 08077. Penna. Fish Com- 
mission project. 

Terrytown access, at Terrytown on Rt. 187. PFC. 

Wysox access, 2 miles south of Towanda on L.R. 08107. PFC. 
Athens river bridge (B-N); and Holland’s landing. (B-C) 
Sheshequin landing, south of Milan, on Rts. 220 and 309. (B-N) 
Ulster river bridge, south of Sheshequin. (B-N) 

Eagle Eye, 2 miles north of Towanda, east side of river. (B-N) 
Standing Stone landing, at Standing Stone bridge, about 6 miles 
south of Towanda, on Rt. 187. (B-N) 

Hornets Ferry landing, 5 miles north of Wyalusing, off Rts. 6 and 
309, east side of river. (B-N) 

Dibbles landing, 2 miles south of Wyalusing, off Rts. 6 and 309, 
east side of river. (B-N) 

Sugar Run landing, south of Wyalusing, Rt. 6. (B-N) 

Bradford County Outboard Motor Club, Rt. 187. (B-GO-C) 



Several road end and beach areas for launching small craft. 

Tullytown, Warner’s Cove. Access areas posted as private property 
of the Warner Co. With permission small craft can be launched at 
Warner’s Cove from several gravel and sand beach areas. 

Edgerly, Bristol Yacht Club. Private ramp for club members. 
Bridgewater and Croydon (Neshaminy Creek) : Seyfert & Wright 
Boat Yard; Snug Harbor Marina; Neshaminy Marina. Facilities are 
commercially operated with service charge of $1 to $ 2 . 

Andalusia, adjacent to Mud Island. Bill & Bob’s marina. Stone 
and dirt ramp, plus travel lift. Charge $ 2 . 

Upper Black Eddy, PFC access at Upper Black Eddy. 

Yardley PFC access at Yardley Borough. 

Bristol PFC access ramp in Bristol Borough. 

Neshaminy State Park marina under design by the Dept, of 
Forests and Waters and scheduled for completion in 1964. Located 
northeast of Cornwells Heights it will provide surfaced launching 
ramp, gas and oil, parking. A charge for its use has not been 

Anchor Boat Club, Bristol, railway ramp and winch but limited 
to club members. (P-GO) 

Ridgewater yard, Cornwells Heights on Totem Road, Rt. 13. 

Bradley boat basin, mouth of Neshaminy Creek, mile off Rt. 
09001, at Croyden. (S-P-GO-C) 

Croyden boat yard, at Croyden. Tractor available. (S-P-GO-C) 
Penn Yacht Club, Cornwells Heights, off Rt. 09001. (S-GO-C) 
Other commercial boat liveries include: Sunny Side boat yard, 
845 Totem Rd., Cornwells Heights; Schulte boat yard, 3514 "A 
St., Philadelphia; Keystone boat works, Sharon Hill; Bucks County 
Yacht Club, Croyden R. 1. 

Willowbrook marina. Concrete ramp, fuel. Charge $2. 



No suitable pleasure boating waters. 


Prince Gallitzin State Park, a Dept, of Forests and Waters project 
under construction and expected to be completed in 1964. Located 
just west of Frugality, off Rt. 53, area will include surfaced launch- 
ing ramp, gas and oil service, parking lot. Charge not yet established. 



ING STATE PARK — Located about 30 miles northwest of 
Renovo, on Rt. 872. Boating, fishing and picnicking facilities. 


LAKE HARMONY l 10 acre lake, popular sailing and motor- 
boat area. At Split Rock, east of Hickory Run State Park and Pa. 
Turnpike Northeast Ext. North of Rt. 903. However to control boat- 
ing for the benefit of lakeside property owners the Lake Harmony 
Assn, last year decided that a permit be required for launching. Signs 
indicating no public launching permitted are posted on roads leading 
to the lake. 


No suitable pleasure boating waters. 


No suitable pleasure boating waters. 


CLARION RIVER, PINEY DAM —Clarion, at Toby Creek 
bridge, Rts. 322 and 68. (S-P-GO-C) 

Clarion River PFC access area on State Game Land No. 74 at 
Mill Creek. 



100 yards below the Market Street Bridge. (S-P-GO-N) Boating 
restricted to immediate area. 


ven. Private facilities maintained by Lock Haven Boat Club. At 
present boating limited due to repairs underway at the Lock Haven 



Boat Club, at Espy, off Rt. 11. Parking facilities for 50 cars 

Bloomsburg airport landing, off Rt. 11, parking for 100 cars 

Catawissa landing, at Catawissa, off Rt. 42. (B-P-GO-N) 


CONNEAUT LAKE —West of Meadville, on Rt. 6. Fish Com 
mission access area at northwest corner of lake, off Rt. 618. (B-P-N) 
Stream fed and labelled "Pennsylvania’s Perfect Playground,” Con 
neaut Lake is approximately three miles long and a mile or twc 
wide with a depth of about 90 feet. Good fishing on weekdays foi 
muskie, bass, walleye, northern pike and pan fish but boating traffic | 
is heavy on weekends. Along the shore line are such commercial ac 
cess areas as Reimann’s, Conneaut Lake Navigation Co., Klingensmith 
Boyles, Mastadon, Nye’s, Midway boat sales and Shore Acres motel 
Most provide (S-P-GO-C). 

Several other lakes and streams in Crawford County offer excellent 
boating particularly for the fisherman since there are restrictions or 
the horsepower of outboard motors. They include: 

PYMATUNING RESERVOIR — Located on the Pennsyl 

vania-Ohio state line this body of water is primarily a wildlife refugi 
area although fishing is permitted in certain areas with a 6 hp out 
board limit. Launching permits are required. There are numerous 
launching areas along the 70 miles of shore line with major acces: 
areas at: Espyville, on Rt. 285 (GO-P) ; and at Jamestown, at soutf 
end of lake, Rts. 58 and 322. (B-GO-P-N) 

Drakes Mill Dam PFC access, 2 miles northwest of Cambridge 
Springs on Rt. 99. 

CANADOHTA LAKE — (10 hp limit) — West side of lake arc j 
Macresson beach (B-P-GO-N); Hawthorne beach, public park (P-P 
GO-N); Lloyd’s store, below Cold Springs Park (B-P-GO-N); Nortl 
End public landing (B-P-N). Canadohta Lake PFC access, 1 mill 
north of Lincolnville on Legislative Route 20139. 


offer excellent fishing opportunities but the use of outboard motor: 
is limited to 5 hp. Detailed locations of access sites are contained it 
the Pennsylvania Fish Commission's publication "Fishing and Boating 
in Pennsylvania.” 

i In 


SUSQUEHANNA RIVER — West Fairview, off Rt. 11. PF( 

access area at the Conodoquinet Creek. (S-P-N) 

Harrisburg marine supplies, southwest end of Walnut Street bridge 
Wormleysburg. Has railway ramp plus (S-P-GO-C) 

Harrisburg seaplane base, Wormleysburg. S.W. end of Walnu 
St. Bridge, north side. (S-LP-GO-C) 


I 5 

SUSQUEHANNA RIVER Harrisburg to Millersburg — Rive 

conditions not quite suitable for outboard boating. Shallow areas anc 
rocky bottom make this stretch more suitable for air boats and smal 
fishing craft. Access areas, in addition to the Harrisburg maintainec 
beach and launching area off the old river park island, just off th 
Walnut and Market Streets bridges, are as follows: 

Millersburg PFC access on Rt. 14, west end of Moore Stree 

Highspire Boat Club, at Highspire. Limited to members. 

Halifax boat landing, Rts. 14 and 225. (S-P-N) 

Tri-County Boat Club, 2 miles south of Middletown, off Rt. 441 

Elizabethtown landing, 4 miles south of Middletown, off Rt. 441 
Parking limited. (B-N) 





DELAWARE RIVER TIDEWATER — Essington seaplane 

aase, adjacent to Little Tinnicum Island, railway and stone ramp. 
Fuel. Service charge $2. 

Essington, Governor Printz Marina, travel lift only. Fuel. Service 
charge $3.50. 

Essington Yacht Yard, 2nd and Wanamaker Aves.; Ross Boat 
fard, 2nd Ave., Essington; Corinthian Yacht Club of Philadelphia, 
Ind Ave. and Taylor, Essington; 7th Ave. Bridge Boat Yard, 7th 
\ve. and Chester Creek; Anchorage Marine Basin, Front and Jansen 
Sts., Essington; Essington Yacht Club. 

DARBY CREEK — Prospect Park Marina, stone ramp, owner 
>perated. Fuel available. Service charge $2. 

Willowbrook Marina, concrete ramp, fuel. Service charge $2. 

ZHESTER CREEK —Fred Brown boat yard, travel lift. Service 
Large $2. 

Chester West End Boat Club. Crushed stone ramp for members 


:larion river, east branch dam -Eleven 

niles northeast of Johnsonburg, off L.R. 24021, Bendigo State Park. 
'B-P-N) Dam provides 1,370 water surface acres for pleasure boat- 
ng and skiing. 


-AKE ERIE — Tor the pleasure boat owner Lake Erie offers just 
bout the ultimate in pleasure boating with facilities galore — all pro- 
ided by the City of Erie through the Erie Park and Harbor Com- 
nission, the Pennsylvania Fish Commission and the Department of 
Forests and Waters. 

Erie city launching sites: foot of Chestnut Street, a free hard sur- 
aced ramp with parking for cars and trailers; and the public dock, 
oot of State Street which caters to larger boats. Hoist available, 
’ee based on size of boat. 

McAlister’s Marina, State Street public dock, makes available boat 
tails on a rental basis. Those wishing to dock boats for an entire 
eason contact the Erie Park and Harbor Commission, Presque Isle 
itate Park. 

Presque Isle affords at least two public launching ramps. Both are 
lard surfaced ramps with parking facilities. One is located at Niagara 
Corridor, off beach 6; while the other provides access to Misery Bay, 
lorth of the Perry Monument at the lagoon entrance. 

Also there is Leo’s boat livery, near the park office at the West 
nd of the peninsula; hoists and mooring available on the peninsula 
eparating Duck Pond from Erie Harbor, with a fee based on size 
I f craft; and Denmark’s boat livery in the Lagoon, near the Misery 
lay entrance. 

At present arrangements are underway for the construction of a 
ew launching site on the south side of the Erie Harbor entrance, 
ear the Wayne Block House. 

West of Erie, off Rt. 5, are such launching areas as: PFC ramp, 
4 acres, at the mouth of Walnut Creek (S-P) ; another just west of 
•ake City, at mouth of Elk Creek, privately owned, launching fee, 
2 per day (B-P-GO) ; and small craft can be accommodated at a 
each launching area near the extreme western end of Erie County, 
t Raccoon Creek. A fee is charged for launching with parking facilities 

Options have been taken on 17 acres of land at the extreme eastern 
ad of the county to provide another access area to Lake Erie just 
eyond Twenty Mile Creek. 

Also in the county access areas have been provided to Edinboro 
■ake, LeBoeuf Lake and North East Borough Bull Reservoir. How- 
ver outboard motors are prohibited at these lake sites. 

YOUGHIOGHENY DAM —Located between Fayette and Som- 
erset Counties. A flood control reservoir (U. S. Army Engineers) 
with 3,000 acres of water for boating in Pennsylvania and Maryland. 

Launching facilities at: Somerfield, 2 miles west of Addison, off 
Rt. 40. (S-P-GO-N) Confluence, one mile southwest of Confluence, 
off Rt. 281. (B-P-N) Jockey Hollow, west of Addison, off Rt. 40. 


ALLEGHENY RIVER — Tionesta Dam, one mile east of 
Tionesta. (S-P-N) 

Tionesta Fish Cultural Station, one mile north of Tionesta, Rt. 
62. (S-P-N) 

West Hickory, east end of West Hickory bridge, Rt. 62. (S-P-N) 


No suitable pleasure boating waters. 


No suitable pleasure boating waters. 


MONONGAHELA RIVER — Rice’s Landing, one mile east of 
Dry Tavern, off Rt. 88. (B-P-N) 

Scott Harbor, at Point Marion, off Rt. 119. (S-P-GO-N) 


brook marina, Yocum boat house, Filson anchorage and Suters land- 
ing, all about 7 miles south of Huntingdon, on L.R. 31032. 

Pennsylvania Fish Commission ramp, Raystown, on Raystown Dam, 
near Hesston, off Rt. 26. 


CONEMAUGH RESERVOIR — Six mile long, 300 acre body 
of water west of Blairsville, off Rts. 22 — 119. 


No suitable pleasure boating waters. 

UNE— 1963 




JUNIATA RIVER Pennsyl vania Fish Commission access 
area, 2Zi miles east of Mexico, off Rts. 22 and 322. (B-P-N) 

PFC area (Walker) at Mexico, Rts. 22 and 322. (S-P-N) 

Mifflintown access, ! 4 mile north of Mifflintown. 

Thompsontown access, mile south of Thompsontown. 


No suitable pleasure boating waters. Fdowever access available to 
Lake Sheridan, Crystal Lake and Chapman Lake, north of Montdale. 


SUSQUEHANNA RIVER — -Three power dams in Pennsyl- 
vania and Maryland sectioned the river into three widely used pleasure 
boating areas. They are: Conowingo Lake, formed by the Conowingo 
Dam; Lake Aldred, by the Fdoltwood Dam; and Lake Clarke, by 
Safe Harbor Dam. 

Lancaster County launching sites, from north to south, include: 

Bainbridge, foot of Race Street. (S-P) 

Marietta Boat Club. Limited to members. (S-P) There are areas 
where small craft can be launched from shore although this is difficult 
during low water. 

Columbia, Ream landing just north of Walnut Street. Limited 
parking facilities available. (S-C) Other launching areas privately 
owned or maintained by boat clubs. 

Pequea, Lawrence S. Prangely public ramp, just off Rt. 324, at 
mouth of the Pequea Creek. (S-P-C) 

Albright’s marina, on opposite side of the Pequea Creek, offers 
hoist and surfaced ramp. Gasoline, oil and repairs available. Service 
charge use of facilities. 

Outboard Boat Club has mooring and launching facilities, plus 
parking, along the Pequea Creek limited to members only. 

Pequea Boat Club has access to the creek plus floating docks and 
mooring area on the Susquehanna River, just south of the Pequea 
Creek. Use limited to members. 

Fishing Creek, owned and operated by C. Merle Murphy, below 
Holtwood Dam on Lake Aldred. (B-P-GO-C) Hoist available out 
of boat house at the mouth of Fishing Creek. Grocery store and 
fishing supplies available nearby. 

Peach Bottom, at mouth of Peters Creek. (B-P-GO-C) Formerly 
known as Fowler’s, now owned and operated by Murphy. Mooring 
available over the summer months. Fishing good to excellent. 


No suitable pleasure boating waters. 


No suitable pleasure boaring waters. 

LEHIGH RIVER — Allentown, 3 launching sites at Hamiltor 
Street dam; Frick Boat Club landing north of dam (S-P-GO-C) 
River Front Park (B-N); Catasauqua Road. (B-N) 

Cementcn, south end of Cementon dam only. Adjoining lane 
leased to boat club and limited to members. (B-P-C) 

Northampton, north end of Cementon dam, facilities available t< 
the public. (B-P-N) 

Treichler’s Dam, 4 miles south of Walnutport, off Rt. 145. Limitec 
to boat club members. (B-P) 



wallopen, Rt. 29, maintained by Berwick Boat Club. (S-P-C) Fish 
ing good for bass, pike, pickerel and catties. 

HARVEY'S LAKE— Northwest of Wilkes-Barre off Rt. 415 
Link’s landing and Sunset marina. (B-P-GO-C) 

SYLVAN LAKE — 15 hp limit — Pa. Fish Commission acces 
area, 1 Zz mile south of Sweet Valley on L. R. 40068. (B-P-N) 



port, Arch Street bridge, north shore of river. (B-P-N) 

West Branch Motor Boat Club, Duboistown, at foot of Summe 
Street, off Rt. 654. (S-P-GO-C) 

Maynard Street Boat Club, north shore at foot of Maynard Stree 
bridge, Williamsport. (B-P-GO-C) 

Muncy Boat Club, 3 miles east of Muncy, north shore of river 
off Rt. 14. (B-P-C) 

Jersey Shore Boat Club, at Antler’s Club, 3 miles west of Williams 
port, Rt. 220. (B-P-C) 


No suitable pleasure boating waters. 


STONEBORO LAKE— Ramp and picnic area provided fo 
owners of small craft only. Off Rts. 62 and 322. (S-P-C) 


JUNIATA RIVER — Riverside trailer court, one mile east o 
Lewistown, on Rt. 22. (B-P-GO-C) 

White Haven, at Newton Hamilton, L. R. 103. (B-P-C) 

Linn boat livery, Newton Hamilton, L. R. 103. (B-P-GO-C) 


DELAWARE RIVER — Pardee’s beach, about 4 miles north o 
Shawnee-on-the-Delaware. (B-P-C) 

BRADY'S LAKE — Pa. Fish Commission access area, 9 mile 
northeast of Blakeslee, off Rt. 940. Docking and sanitation facilitie: 

GOULDSBORO LAKE —Pa. Fish Commission access area, be 
tween Monroe and Wayne Counties. Rt. 611. Facilities similar to thos 
at Brady’s Lake. 


SCHUYLKILL COUNTY — Norristown, foot of Haws Ave 

Valley Forge Park, near Betzwood, on Rt. 363. (B-P-N) 





ille Boat Club, at Danville, off Rt. 11. Charge for parking. 

Ferry Street landing, at Danville. (B-P-N) 


.EHIGH RIVER — (See Lehigh County listing) 

Three Mile Boating Club, one mile north of Treichler’s on Rt. 
45. (B-P-C) 

Northampton Boat Club, at Northampton. (S-P-N) 
latasauqua Boating, Skiing and Recreational Club, at Catasauqua, 
t. 145. (B-P-C) 

Bethlehem Boating Club ramp, at Hopeville, about 3 miles east 
f Bethlehem, alternate Rt. 22. (S-P-C) 

)ELAWARE RIVER — Penna. Power & Light Co. launching 
icilities and picnic area at Martin’s Creek, about 10 miles upriver 
:om Easton. Open to the general public, free of charge, and no registra- 
on required. Besides ramp, site provides picnic tables and sanitary 



>wn boat landing, at Watsontown, off Rt. 405. (B-P-N) 

Montandon landing, west of Montandon, off Rt. 14. (B-GO-P-N) 
Milton Boat Club, at Milton, off Rt. 14. (B-P-GO) Private. 


oat Club, Sunbury, off 14. Parking available. (B-GO-N) 
Northumberland Boat Club, opposite Northumberland, Rt. 11. 
ee 01. Parking for 75 cars. (B-GO-C) 

Herndon landing, off Rt. 14. (B-P-N) 

Dalmatia landing, off Rt. 14. (B-P-N) 


UNIATA RIVER — Pa. Fish Commission access area, 2 14 miles 
iuth of Millerstown, off Rts. 22 and 322. (B-P-N) 

Pa. Power & Light Co. area 14 mile east of Newport, Rts. 22 
id 322. 

USQUEHANNA RIVER— Maple Grove Park, Rts. 1 1 and 

5, between Liverpool and Montgomery Ferry. 


>ELAWARE RIVER — Linden Ave. and 9100 N. Delaware 
•ve., public concrete launching ramp with adjacent parking lot. 
amp large enough to accommodate five boats on trailers at same 
me. No charge. Owned and maintained by city of Philadelphia. 
Tacony-Palmyra bridge, Charles Weidman boat yard. Overhead 
ft. Service charge 02 . 

Sandy Beach, south end of International Airport. City owned 
nd and gravel beach. Use available at owner’s risk. 


DELAWARE RIVER— Bob Blood’s, Rts. 6 and 209. (S-P-C) 
Andersons. (S-P-C) 

Riverview, about one mile north of Bushkill, Rt. 209. 

Pa. Fish Commission Bushkill access area, north of Bushkill, off 
Rt. 209. (S-P-N) 

LAKE WALLENPAUPACK — Located in the center of the 
Commonwealth’s finest eastern resort centers, the lake was built by 
the Pa. Power & Light Co in 1925 for storage purposes. It lies on 
the borderline of Pike and Wayne Counties. 

PP & L, in line with its policy of keeping in mind the recreational 
interests of the public, has since 1959 established and maintains four 
lake-shore camp sites each with its own launching areas, parking, 
sanitary and laundry facilities. 

Three such camp sites are located off Rt. 507, in Pike County. 
They include Ledgedale, at the extreme south end of the lake, built 
in 1959; Wilsonville, at the northeast end, in 1960; and Ironwood 
Point, northeast of Ledgedale, in 1960. The fourth area, in Wayne 
County off Rt. 590, is the Caffrey Park which was started in 1961. 

In addition to the PP & L sites, also located along the 53 miles 
of shore line, much of it wooded, are such commercial public launch- 
ing areas as: 

Lake Harbor (B-P-GO S-C) ; White Beauty View (S-B-P-GO-C) ; 
Pep’s (B-P-GO-C); Lake Wallenpaupack Yacht Club, members only; 
Seeley’s (B-P-GO-C); Baker’s (B-P-C); Landis Landing, near Green- 
town, off Rt. 507 (B-P-GO-C). 


No suitable pleasure boating waters. 


SCHUYLKILL RIVER — Auburn pool, between Schuylkill Ha- 
ven and Landingville, a Dept, of Forests and Waters project offering 
surfaced launching ramp and parking facilities. Gas and oil available 
on adjacent privately owned facilities. 

Landingville public ramp, off Rt. 122. (B-P-N) 

Auburn Motor Boat Club, near Auburn. Private ramp but its use 
is permitted by the public for a small fee. (B-P-C) 


SUSQUEHANNA RIVER-Uunching facilities available at 
Port Treverton, Rts. 11 and 15. 



— See Fayette County listing. 


No suitable pleasure boating waters. 


Bend access area, Pa. Fish Commission project, one mile east of 
Hallstead, Rt. 11 (S-P-N) 

LAUREL LAKE —A 70-acre body of water off Rt. 29, on L.R. 
57074, at Lawsville. (B-N) 

Forest Lake — A 40-acre lake on Rt. 944, northwest of Montrose. 

LINE— 1963 



No suitable pleasure boating waters. 


SUSQUEHANNA RIVER — See Northumberland County list- 


ALLEGHENY RIVER — Emlenton, off Rts. 38 and 208. 

Kennerdell, 5 miles west of Rockland, off Rt. 257 on T.R. 60011. 

Franklin, foot of Elk Street, Pa. Fish Commission access area. 

Oil City, one-half mile southwest of city, Rt. 62. (B-P-N) Pa. 
Fish Commission project. 

President access area, Rt. 62. One-half mile south of Hunter 
Bridge. Pa. Fish Commission (B-P-N) 


ALLEGHENY RIVER — Pa. Fish Commission access area 2 
miles north of Tidioute, Rt. 62. (B-P-N) 

Tidioute, Rt. 127. (S-P-N) 

Irvine, Rt. 6. (S-P-N) 

Warren, off Rts. 6 and 62. (S-P-N) 

Federal forestry picnic area, Rt. 62. (S-P-N) 

Starbrick PFC access, River Road, Starbrick. 


MONONGAHELA RIVER - East Monongahela, Manseni 
dock, south on Rt. 31. (S-P-GO-C) 

Millsboro, Ten Mile Yacht Club at mouth of Ten Mile Creek, 
Rt. 88. (B-P-GO-N) 

California city boat dock, Rt. 88. (S-B-P-N) 

Charleroi Boat Club, Rt. 88, at Charleroi. (B-P-GO-N) 

Speers PFC access in Speers. 


LAKE WALLENPAUPACK — See Pike County listing for 

launching areas in Wayne and Pike Counties. 

DELAWARE RIVER — Buckingham access area, Pa. Fish Com- 
mission, C mile north of Equinunk, on Rt. 191. (S-P-N) 

Narrowsburg access area, Pa. Fish Commission, opposite Narrows- 
burg, N. Y., on Rt. 106. (S-P-N) 


ALLEGHENY RIVER - Arnold Boat Club, at Arnol 

LOYALHANNA DAM — Small craft facilities at New Ale 
nndria, Rt. 22. (B-P-N) 



ville, Rt. 6. (B-P-N) 

Rocky Forest, Rt. 6 to Laceyville, west on L.R. 65041. (B-P-N) 
Mehoopany, Rt 87. (B-P-C) 

Vosburg, Rt. 6 to Russel Hill, west on T.R. 506. (B-P-C) 
Tunkhannock, Rts. 6 and 29. Two launching sites, one private 
operated (B-P-C) ; other one mile south of Tunkhannock, Pa. Fis 
Commission access area, Rt. 309 (B-P-N) 

South Eaton, Skrevensky’s Grove, take L.R. 65005 south froi 
Tunkhannock. (B-P-N) 

Falls, on Rt. 92. (B-P-N) 

Lake areas include Lake Winola, off Rt. 307 (B-P-N) ; and Lai 
Carey, off Rt. 29. Some areas free, others have service fee. All (B-P 


SUSQUEHANNA RIVER — Conowingo Lake. 

Boeckel’s landing, one mile south of Sunnyburn, off Rt. 7 

Lake Aldred — above the Holtwood Dam. 

Gambler’s, near York Furnace, south of Rt. 124 below Indie 
Steps Museum. (B-P-GO-C) 

Penna. Power & Light Co. ramp and picnic area at Otter Cree 
Lower Chanceford Twp., along Rt. 124, near York Furnace. L 
charge for use of facilities. (S-P-N) 

Lake Clarke — above Safe Harbor Dam. 

Safe Harbor launching ramp and picnic area, south of Long Levi 
off Rt. 624 and Bull Run Road. Surfaced ramp and sanitary fac 
ities. Open to general public during daylight hours. 

Welsh, Resh and Wallick boat yards along Rt. 624, in Long Levij 
Ramps and hoists available to handle any size boat. All provii 

Wrightsville, Pa. Fish Commission access area on Rt. 624, ju 
south of Lancaster- York intercounty bridge. (B-P-N) 

Accomac, one-quarter mile south of Accomac and north ' 
Wrightsville, off T. R. 783. Favorable for small fishing craft onl 

Goldsboro, Pa. Fish Commission site. Rt. 262. (S-P-GO-N) 

New Cumberland, one-half mile south off Rt. 111. (B-P-N) 




If you are thinking about doing some outboard cruis- 
.rg this summer, you’ll have more fun if you take the 
lime to plan. Often, it’s the little extras that make the 
ig difference in the success of the cruise. 

Your first consideration should be your equipment. 
iVhile almost any outboard boat is suitable for cruising 
n selected waterways, it doesn't make sense to cruise 
^sheltered offshore waters in a 15-foot runabout. But 
ivith that same small boat you can have all kinds of 
un cruising protected inland waterways, such as a river. 

Time is another consideration. Unless you want to 
.lake it a combination automobile-boat trip, don’t select 
. spot so far away that most of your time will be spent 
"ii the road getting to and from the cruise area. There 
re probably several excellent areas located within a 
jay’s drive of your home. 

Once you have picked the general area, select the 
Specific waters you want to cover. But don’t restrict 
ourself with a schedule that is too tight. You will find 
raising is more fun if you allow enough leeway for 
laking frequent stops at various points of interest. No 
.oubt you’ll find plenty of them. 

Try to obtain detailed charts of your cruise area be- 
fore leaving home. Mark the spots you want to visit. 
Check for fuel and supply stops. If navigation locks will 
be encountered, allow extra time for locking through. If 
you plan to sleep aboard or set up camp on the shore, 
you need not be concerned with lodging facilities. Other- 
wise, check for the availability of suitable water front 
motels or cabins along the route. 

Don’t forget the kids. They can get pretty ram- 
bunctious on a long cruise if they do not have something 
to occupy their time. Keep them interested by point- 
ing out scenery and wildlife. Explain the significance of 
marker buoys, locks, bridges and commercial vessels as 
they are encountered. Take along a few of their favorite 
games. Of course, youngsters are always eager to take 
a turn at the wheel. And remember, when kids are 
aboard, frequent stops are a must. 

An outboard cruise, whether it be an extended two- 
week trip or a weekend jaunt, is an enjoyable and re- 
warding break from routine living as well as a refresh- 
ing experience. A little bit of advance planning can 
make it even better. 

OUTBOARD CRUISING is a favorite family pastime. Your 
boat need not be large to enjoy cruising on inland waterways. 
When youngsters are aboard, keep them occupied by explain- 
ing points of interest along the shore line. 

☆ ☆ ☆ 


Nationd Safe Boating Week, 1963 

Bv the President of 
The United States of America 


WHEREAS recreational boating is playing an in- 
creasingly important part in the lives of millions of 
Americans who look to it as a means of maintaining 
physical vigor and mental alertness ; and 

WHEREAS the resulting increased use of our water- 
ways has caused a corresponding increase in safety 
problems ; and 

WHEREAS this healthful outdoor activity can be 
enhanced and loss of life and property reduced by 
adherence to safe boating principles ; and 

WHEREAS the Congress of the United States, in 
recognition of the importance of such safe boating 
practices, by a joint resolution, approved June 4, 1948 
(72 Stat. 179), has requested the President to proclaim 
annually the week that includes the Fourth of July as 
National Safe Boating Week. 

AMERICA, do hereby designate the week beginning 
June 30, 1963, as National Safe Boating Week. 

In pursuance of the objectives of this Proclamation, 
I urge all persons, organizations, and Governmental 
agencies interested in recreational boating and safety 
afloat to publicize and observe National Safe Boating 

I also invite the Governors of the States, the Com- 
monwealth of Puerto Rico, and other places subject to 
the jurisdiction of the United States to join in this 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the Seal of the United States of 
America to be affixed. 

DONE at the City of Washington this twenty-sixth 
day of February in the year of 
our Lord nineteen hundred and 
sixty-three, and of the Independ- 
(SEAL) ence of the United States of 
America the one hundred and 


By the President : 


Secretary of State. 

☆ ☆ ☆ 

WHEN TWO BOATS running in opposite but parallel direction 
meet, the drivers should keep to the right, the same as the 1 
would if driving an automobile. 


The lakes and streams of Pennsylvania furnish recre 
ation and fun for thousands of boaters, water skiers 
swimmers and fishermen every summer season . . 
but, they are also the scene of many unnecessary 
drownings. The Fish Commission certainly encourage: 
you to thoroughly enjoy water recreation but certaii 
rules of water safety must be observed if you do no 
wish to wind up as a statistic. 

Boats — Common Sense Afloat 

OVERLOADING. Don’t overload a boat. Pay at 
tention to the manufacturer’s load capacity limits. 

OVERPOWERING. Don’t overpower a boat. Ai 
overpowered boat is hard to control. Respect the manu 
facturer’s horsepower limits recommendations. 

LOAD DISTRIBUTION. Distribute the loa< 
evenly. A boat improperly loaded is hard to control. 

STANDING IN A BOAT. Don’t stand in a narrow 
round bottom boat. And when you change seats, keej 
low and to the center with both hands on the gunwales 

LIQUOR. Don’t drink when you drive a boat. Oper 
ating a boat while intoxicated is a serious offense. 

WEATHER. If you’re not sure about the weather 
don’t go out. If you are out and the weather turns bad 
come in. 

SKIERS AND SWIMMERS. Give them a wkb 
berth. Make it a practice to stay away from beaches. 

HOT RODDING. It’s dangerous. You wouldn’t b< 
a hot rodder on the street in front of your home, don’ 
be one on the water. 

FIRE. Be careful with fuel. Don’t smoke arounc 
gasoline. Keep your boat well ventilated. 

FIRST AID. It’s always a good practice to earn 
a first-aid kit and manual. Learn how to give artificia 



WAKES. Wakes can cause damage and trouble. 
Slow down when passing small boats. Dead slow speed 
ps recommended in channels and anchorages. 

AVOID SHARP TURNS. Never make a sharp 
turn at high speed. 

ASSISTANCE. When you see a man in difficulty 
with his boat give him a hand. 

HEAD INTO WAVES. If waves are high head 
your boat at an angle toward the waves at slow speed. 

Water Skiers 

The law says operators of boats pulling water skiers 
shall be at least fourteen (14) years of age, and all 
such operators shall have at least one ( 1 ) other person 
in the boat fourteen (14) years of age or older, unless 
the boat is equipped with a wide-angle rear-view mir- 
ror affording the operator an unobstructed reflected 
view of the skier at all times. 

Learn all the safety measures of your favorite sport 
and know how to observe them before you venture into 
deep water. By all means, do not get behind a boatman 
in whom you have the least doubt. Your confidence in 
him will make your skiing more fun and relaxation. 
one designed for every type water sport. Today, they 
are attractive and comfortable, their greatest attraction 
is the fact they might save your life! 


The Pennsylvania Fish Commission joins other safety 
organizations urging bathers to swim only in designated 
waters. Watch the signs and if they tell you swimming 
is prohibited, be the first to realize there is reason for 
it. Swimming areas in park lakes and other streams 
where there is no life guard on duty are usually roped 
off, with floats at intervals to indicate where it is safe. 

The Red Cross suggests these water safety hints : 

Wait an hour or two after eating before you go 

Don’t stay in the water after you are tired. 

Don’t overestimate the distance you are able to swim. 

River currents are dangerous . . . don’t try to buck 

Use the safest method possible to rescue a person in 
trouble in the water . . . use a boat or throw some float- 
ing object. When a person accidentally falls into the 
water he should remove all clothing possible before 
trying to swim out. 

In all unsupervised waters where bathing is per- 
mitted, life preservers should be worn by all persons 
unable to swim. 

For a copy of Pennsylvania’s Motorboat Rules and 
Regulations, write the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, 
South Office Building, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Wise use of leisure time — to which outdoor recreation can 
contribute so much — is of enormous importance in mamtaining 
our strongest weapon in even a space age arsenal — the American 
character. — Laurance S. Rockefeller, Recreation. 

Sunrise-Sunset Table 

The following times of sunrise and sunset are based on the 
77th Meridian which runs north and south through Eastern 
Adams County, Harrisburg Airport, Williamsport and Eastern 
Tioga County. Times shown are EASTERN STANDARD 
TIME. Boaters and skiers in localities east or west of the 
77th Meridian should note there is a variation in sunrise- 
sunset times from those shown (as much as 8 minutes earlier 
in Philadelphia and 12 minutes later in Pittsburgh). Check 
your local weather station for correct information. Read and 
observe your motor boat rules and regulations. 






































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Add one hour for Daylight Saving Time if and when in use. 

Use Fresh Fuel 

The highly combustible vapors present in gasoline — what the 
engineers call light ends — are lost when gas is stored for a 
iong period. For this reason, engineers recommend using only 
fresh fuel in your outboard motor. Trying to use fuel left in 
a tank over a period of several months can cause hard starting 
and fuel system fouling. 

JUNE— 1963 





3 , 


More than %2 x / 2 billion was spent by 4.5 million 
American boaters last year for new and used boats, 
motors, accessories, safety equipment, fuel, insurance, 
docking, maintenance, launching, storage, repairs and 
club memberships. If you are one, out of the hundred 
thousand or so newcomers who intend to try boating 
for the first time this season, then you might be asking, 
“How much does it take to get started?” 

It might come as a surprise, but it costs less than 
$1,000 to begin boating, or about the price of a good 
used car. Although this sum won’t buy a yacht, here’s 
what you do get, with everything new, for this amount : 
14-16 ft. boat ($355), 15-18 hp motor ($355-$385), 
trailer ($150), accessories which include lifejackets, 
lights for night operation, fire extinguishers and horn 
($100). Used equipment costs half to two-thirds as 

This family’s “first rig’’ is a perfect, all-purpose 
boat that can be used for fishing, skin diving, cruising 
in sheltered waters or for a host of other water ac- 
tivities. Low priced, but reliable outboard engines such 

as the 15-hp Gale Buccaneer, 18-lip Evinrude Fastwin 
or 18-hp Johnsons Sea-Horse will give this length boat 
enough power to tow one adult skier, or two youngsters 
at a time. 

The family searching for low cost luxury can enjoy 
boating in a more elaborate runabout, of fiberglas or 
plywood construction, priced between $500-$l,200. An 
average boat at the top of this price range might be a 
15-16 footer equipped with complete convertible top 
ventilated mahogany windshield, shipping cradle, run- 
ning lights and upholstered seats. Outboard motorboat 
in this class should be powered with 40-lip engine 
($570), and towed to water with a sturdier trailer 
( $300 ) . When fully fitted-out with motor, trailer ant 
accessories, the final cost will be far less than a new 
1963 “low priced” car. 

Prefabricated boats have been around for nearly 
half a century. For the do-it-yourself builder that 
enjoys assembling and painting, these kits save the 
home craftsman between 30 per cent to 50 per cent of 
the cost of similar factory finished crafts. For example, 
an 8-ft. pram, suitable for motors up to 3j4 hp costs 
about $50 and can be put together in a few hours’ time, 
The more elaborate minded builder can purchase a 20- 
ft. outboard cabin cruiser, designed for engine powei 
up to 75 hp, at about $850. A kit of this caliber usually 
takes several months of spare-time work to construct. 

Boat owners who have neither the time to spare nor 
the urge to build, can purchase hulls in semi-finished 
form, minus hardware and paint. Finish-up kits in this 
form usually save boaters around 10 per cent to 20 per 
cent, depending on the boat’s size. 

It might pay well to investigate completely the wide 
choice of prefabricated boats available. Several com 
panies sell “short kits,” a type that increases boat con 
struction substantially, but cuts the cost of spending 
60-70 per cent off the price of a factory-made craft 
Short kits come complete with such lightweight item 
as seats, frames, stem, transom, windshield and hard- 
ware, but are minus the more bulky pieces of material 
such as marine plywood planking, decking and chine 
logs. Paper patterns and instructions are supplied for 
all missing parts. This saves the boat owner a con 
siderable amount on freight charge. In the meantime, 
the missing sections can be purchased locally at further 

With the precision of today’s production methods, 
kit boats have proved a big boom to boat owners. Manu- 
facturers have gone to great lengths in making sure 
various parts fit with an amazing degree of tolerance 
so as to enable buyers to assemble their crafts with 



! '•:! 



ease. Planks are cut and numbered. All frames are 
oroperly notched and the chines and sheers are bevelled 
;o assure both appearance and snug fittings. Mass pro- 
iuction has helped reduce manufacturer’s labor cost 
ind brought prices down so low that now the most 
popular models, runabouts, can be purchased, in kit 
form, for as little as $150. 

Outboard motorboats are made in many styles. There 
ire runabouts, utility models, cruisers, prams and 
Oontoon boats, to name just a few. Decide first which 
s best suited for your particular needs. Another point 
hat must be given careful thought is the various ma- 
erials used in boat building. Fiberglas, wood and 
aluminum are the most common and all have certain 
id vantages. 

Needless to say, there is only one positive, expense- 
having tip in boating: Have a definite idea of what 
j ype rig is wanted before buying. For the average 
family with two youngsters, a runabout outboard is 
deal. First, the initial investment is light. In contrast 
vith an inboard — a thought that crosses every boat 
iwner’s mind — an outboard has higher speed per horse- 
)ower, less draft, greater adaptability to trolling, easier 
;torage, higher degree of maneuverability and better 
•esale potential. 

Inboards should not be discounted though. They have 
nany worthwhile advantages such as better boat bal- 
mce, lower fuel and oil consumption per horsepower, 
greater durability and all-round better sea-keeping 
jualities. The inboards’ main drawback is they usually 
:ost about twice as much per foot of boat than a sim- 
lar sized outboard. Also an inboard engine must be 
‘quipped with clutch, gear box and V-drive gear trans- 
er box when the motor is located amidships. These 
eatures add both to cost and weight in comparison with 
t 2- and 4-cycle outboard engine. 

Essential accessories, such as those prescribed by 
he U. S. Coast Guard in the Motorboat Act of 1940, 
hould be taken into account and allotted for. The costs 
if such items are minimal and they include children’s 
ife jackets ($6-$8 each), buoyant cushions for adults 
vhich double as padding for wooden seats ($5), lights 
— red/ green combination bow light and white stern light 
$25), whistle or horn ($2-$25), anchor ($10-$15), 
wo paddles ($10), fire extinguisher ($10-$15). 

If the boat is not equipped with minimum hardware, 
•ou will have to obtain at least the necessary towing 
ye, chocks, and stern handles, totaling perhaps $10-$15. 
)ther marine accessories which add to the pleasure of 
amily boating include speedometer ($10-$20), wind- 
hield ($50-$65), convertible top ($50-$100), and boat 
over ($25-$50). 

The U. S. Weather Bureau uses a single red pennant to 
idicate a small craft warning. It signifies a forecast of either 
finds up to 38 m.p.h. or sea conditions dangerous to small 
raft operations, or both. 

Don’t be a boating U litterbug.” Put refuse and trash into a 
ag and dispose of it ashore. 

UNE— 1963 

Try Boat Camping for Vacation Fun 

While millions of Americans are camping this summer, other 
millions will be enjoying vacations built around boating. There 
will also be those families who combine the two for a fun-filled 
vacation of boat camping, an activity that has become increas- 
ingly more popular in the last few years. Let's take a closer 
look at this boating and camping combination. 

The two are completely compatible, probably more so than 
any other pair of outdoor activities. One adds to the enjoyment 
of the other. For example, a boat allows campers a chance to get 
out on the water to catch fresh fish for tasty camp meals, to ex- 
plore the area, water ski, cruise and go skin diving. Camping, 
on the other hand, provides a home base for boating enthusiasts 
who want to be on the water all day but eat and sleep ashore. 

There are two ways to boat camp and both have certain 
advantages. Most common is to trailer the boat right to the 
camp site so that the car will be available if needed. Another 
way, and it can be even more fun, is to trailer a boat to a 
jumping off place. Here the boat is launched, the camping gear 
is loaded into it and the car is parked, locked and left. The 
campers then set out for a camp site which is accessible only 
by water. 

In the latter case where family camping is concerned, the 
camp site should not be located too far from a source of supplies. 
It should, of course, be far enough away to avoid congested 
public areas but close enough to conveniently get to a water 
front store by boat to pick up perishables and fuel. 

In addition to the points already mentioned boat camping 
offers other advantages. For one thing, the boat provides a con- 
venient place to carry tents, cots, cook stoves and other bulky 
equipment when en route. This leaves more room in the car and 
makes traveling more comfortable for the passengers. A boat 
is also a real boon in keeping the kids happy. Camping in itself 
can soon get to be old stuff with youngsters. It" a boat is avail- 
able to break the routine, they will be easier to manage. 

In most areas, trailer boat campers have their choice of 
numerous camp sites. Before setting out, however, it’s a good 
idea to obtain as much information as possible about the area 
you plan to visit. Write to state conservation departments, local 
chambers of commerce and other organizations established to 
furnish tourist information on specific areas. Explain what you 
have in mind and ask for their suggestions and recommenda- 
tions. You’ll find most of these agencies eager to help you in 
planning a memorable boat camping vacation. 


Choose the Right Equipment for 
Booting Fun and Safety 

safety will make your boating more enjoyable. The equipment 
shown here includes Coast Guard approved life jackets and 
cushions, anchor with plenty of line, fire extinguisher, first- 
aid kit, horn, extra propeller, fenders and extra line. On the 
paddle are extra cotter pins, drive pins and propeller nut. At 
the bottom is a bilge pump, basic tools and an outboard own- 
er's manual. 

Boating equipment and accessories can be separated into 
three basic categories — items that are required, recommended 
and desired. The list of items actually required by the Coast 
Guard for outboard boats under 16 feet is short. It consists of 
only running lights and a life saving device for each person 
aboard. But, as the size of the boat increases, so does the list 
of required equipment. The wise boatman, however, will take 
it upon himself to add several other pieces of equipment even 
though they are not required by law. 

On the “recommended list” are such things as an anchor, 
plenty of good line, a paddle if the boat does not have oars, a 
horn or other type of warning device, a few flares and a bilge 
pump or bailing device of some sort. Other recommended equip- 
ment includes a boat hook, fenders, flashlight, first-aid kit, 
extra propeller and basic tool kit. 

Almost as important as having the equipment aboard is hav- 
ing it ready to use. This means having a place for everything 
and keeping everything in its place. Many outboard boats are 
built with shelves under the foredeck. This provides an excellent 
spot for storing equipment. It’s even more useful if a shallow 
box is built and placed on the shelf where it can be used some- 
what like a drawer. The box should be sectioned off to keep the 
equipment separated. 

Another good way to keep equipment dry and handy is to 
mount it to the inner sides of the boat. Paddles, boat hooks, 
bilge pumps and other rather long and narrow items can be 
held in place with spring broom holders. 

Getting back to the equipment itself, there are also many 
items on the “desired list.” These are primarily accessories — 
things that are not really needed but make boating more fun. 
Number one on this list is a marine speedometer. It’s only 
human nature to want to know how fast one is going, whether 
it be on land or water. A speedometer will give this informa- 
tion at a glance. They are also handy when passing through 
restricted speed zones and to give the operator some idea as to 
how the engine is performing. 

A marine compass is a good and inexpensive investment for 
those who do their boating on large or strange waterways. - 
Illuminated models are recommended for boating at night. 

The list of accessories is almost endless. Depth finders, ship- 
to-shore radios, tachometers, barometers and clocks are a few 
examples. Choosing accessories properly takes some careful 
consideration. Before buying, decide which items will give you 
the most enjoyment and be most valuable in your own type 
of boating. 

Quiz for All Outboard Boating Buffs 

Most boatmen make it a point to start the season with their 
equipment in top-notch condition. Too few of them, however, 
take the time to brush up on their boating savvy, which is just as 

To test your knowledge, here’s a short quiz that covers several 
aspects of recreational boating. Give it a try. If you don’t do 
as well as you should, spend a few hours now getting boned up 
on boating. It will pay off during the rest of the season as well 
as in future years. The correct answers are found at the end 
of the quiz. 

1. A steady but slowly rising barometer usually indicates: 

(a) settled weather: fb) unsettled weather; (c) thunder- 


2. If your outboard motor idles roughly, first check : (a) pro- 
peller ; (b) spark plugs; (c) shock absorbers. 

3. To anchor properly in moderate weather, the ratio of 
length of line to depth of water should be: (a) 1:1; (b) 3:1; 
(c) 6:1. 

4. A boat designed to run on top of the water rather than - 
through it has a: (a) planing hull; (b) displacement hull. 

5. When making a landing or picking up a mooring, use the 
wind or current to advantage by approaching: (a) into it; 

(b) with it. 

6. The determining factor in selecting a propeller should be : 

(a) speed; (b) power; (c) the rpm of the engine. 

7. Standard red and green running lights are designed with 
the red light on the: (a) port side; (b) starboard side. 

8. A corroded marine battery is best cleaned with a mild 
solution of water and: (a) baking powder; (b) boric acid; 

(c) baking soda. 

9. Black and white vertically striped buoys indicate : (a) mid- 
channel ; (b) obstruction; (c) right side of channel. 

10. A tachometer is used to measure: (a) boat speed; 

(b) engine rpm; (c) water depth. 

■(9) '01 : 00 '6 ‘ ( 3 ) '8 : (T) ' L ; C 3 ) '9 
: (b) 'S : (b) > : (0) ■£ : (q) 'Z ■ (T) 'I sjomsub pa-uoo 



WITH A LITTLE PRACTICE, anyone can become an expert 
boat trailer handler. The important thing to remember when 
learning is to take it easy; don't try to back up too fast. When 
launching, it's a good idea to have another person direct you 
onto the ramp. 

Even an experienced trailer handler may have to make a couple 
of tries on a bad day. 

Just before you back onto the ramp, loosen the trailer tie- 
downs, tilt up the motor and check to see that the drain plug 
is inserted. It’s easier to do this before the trailer is backed to 
the water’s edge. When the trailer is in launching position 
attach a mooring line to the boat, unhook the winch line and 
shove the boat off the trailer. 

While you’re parking your car, either have someone hold the 
line or tie the boat to a pier where it will not interfere with 
other boats being launched. When others are waiting to use the 
ramp, get your car out of the way as quickly as possible. 
It’s only common courtesy, the same as you would expect from 
other boatmen. 

Boat Trailering Skill 
Comes With Practice 

Boat trailers have played a big part in the growing popularity 
of outboard boating. With a trailer, outboard skippers can enjoy 
boating on many different waterways whether they be near or 
even hundreds of miles away. A trailer also eliminates the need 
to rent a mooring slip. The rig can be brought home after each 
outing and stored in the owner’s garage or back yard. 

Despite the many advantages of trailer boating, some boat- 
, men are a little reluctant to give it a try. Some have the notion 
j that trailering is a real chore. Not so, says Tom Dorwin of 
Evinrude Motors. Dorwin, a former national water skiing- 
champion, is now ski advisor for the company. In his many 
i years of competition, he trailered boats from literally one end 
I of the country to the other. If you’ve never pulled a trailer or 
are not the expert you would like to be, Dorwin offers the 
following suggestions. 

Practice makes perfect. Hitch the trailer to your car some 
quiet Sunday morning and drive over to a large, empty parking 
lot. A shopping center is ideal. Spend some time getting the 
feel of backing the trailer. Try to back in a straight line for SO 
feet or so. Then try to back into a marked parking space. 

It won’t take long to get the hang of it if you remember one 
point — turn the car wheel in the opposite direction from the 
way you want the trailer to go. The simplest way to do this is 
to get into the habit of gripping the steering wheel at the bot- 
tom, and from that position, turn it in the same direction you 
■ want the trailer to move. Sounds a little confusing, but by 
turning the steering wheel left when it is held at the bottom, 
you’re actually turning the car wheels right and vice versa. 

After a short practice session you’ll be ready to give it a try 
j at the launching ramp. Perhaps your biggest problem will be 
, the tendency to over steer which can cause the trailer to jack- 
knife. Don’t let it bother you. Just pull ahead and try again. 


Car Tap Boats Handled Easily 

When it comes to choosing a boat, car toppers are the favorite 
of many fishermen and hunters who make use of the nation’s 
inland waters. They’re lightweight, easy to handle and in- 
expensive to buy. Car top boats, of course, eliminate the need 
for a trailer. They also allow the user to get onto waters where 
launching ramps are not available. 

A regular car top carrier is all that is needed to transport 
the boat. Straps provided with the carrier are used to hold down 
the boat on top of the car. A couple pieces of line tied fore and 
aft to the car bumpers will keep the boat from sliding back and 

Twelve-foot car toppers are most popular. Boats of this size 
usually weigh less than 150 pounds and are easily handled by 
two men. Car toppers are usually powered with outboard 
motors of 10 or less horsepower, depending on the size and 
|| specifications of the boat. The outboard motor is carried in the 
I trunk of the car and attached to the boat when it is put in 
the water. 

Car top boats are functional in design. Most come equipped 
only with seats and as a result are quite inexpensive. Prices 
vary with make and size but good car top boats can often be 
purchased for $100 or less. Add to this the price of a three- 
horsepower outboard and a car top carrier and the total cost 
for a brand-new car top rig is still less than $300. 

Car toppers have several points in their favor and offer 
an excellent way to get started in boating. 

CAR TOP BOATS have several advantages. They are inex- 
pensive, easy to handle and can be launched almost anywhere. 
Car toppers offer an excellent way to get started in boating. 

JUNE— 1963 



By Ray Ovington 

Big rivers like the Delaware and Susquehanna are, in reality, 
a combination of little streams and in their travels between the 
banks are many subtle shallows, long slick runs and eddies, as 
well as the obvious unwadable stretches of white water tumbling 
between house-size boulders. The sight of all this variety within 
the easy reach of the spincaster can be most devastating and 
one’s first impulse is to start casting any and everywhere. It 
is far better, however, to think out your moves in much the 
same way the fly-fisherman, with his limited equipment, must do. 
By sparing the number of casts, you automatically enlarge your 
chance of taking a really big fish, for with the exception of 
those times when the stream is very high and roily, big fish 
are, more often than not, seared by indiscriminate casting. 

The way to the big fish is that which is most direct. Figure 
out where he is likely to be, then go about the strategy by 
casting the lure, preferably above his lair, in such a way it 
will come down to him in perfect timing with the pressure of 
the retrieve. You will then present it to him perfectly the first 
time and all the nuances of the lure’s built-in action will work 
its deadly attraction. 

If you simply heave the lure in the general direction, it will 
usually go by the fish too fast, too high or in such a way he 
will not see it properly. Often the simple strategy of selecting 
a casting point above a midstream rock and working a cast 
well above it, letting the lure drift naturally, will draw the 
big one out. Other times a spinning lure is best fished slowly 
straight across the hot spot. 

Streamer fly-fishing is the general technique which can be 
well adapted to big stream angling. If you have taken bass on 
streamers in big rivers, you’ve likely had to wade long and 
difficult stretches to put the lure in just the right current move- 
ment where the action will count. Any fly-rod man who has 
used a spinner knows what I mean. Spinning, however, makes 
the whole proposition easy. You need not wade, and banished 
is the heavy, bellying line with the accompanying difficulty of 
sinking the lure to the right depth just where you want it. 
Spinning will do all these things and more if you apply yourself 
to the task and put your faith in the tackle. Bass, big ones, 
will come out of the hot spots lured by weighted bucktails and 
even salt-water jigs in the spinning sizes if you don’t scare 
’em down by a lot of unplanned tries. 

In the matter of lures, the heavy sunken lures such as the 
brass, copper and silver finished spoons are good teasers and 
will not snag up readily despite their weight, if you cast them 
bullet-like and not up in the air and down ... a common 
failure which allows too much slack. 

Remember . . . heavy line with the heavy lures if you want 
distance, but remember too that distance is only as good as its 
control. If you can reach the other bank but cannot manipulate 
the lure into the hot spot properly, save your effort and work 
from another point. 

For fast water, avoid the lures with revolving blades that 
fan out from the lure shank. These spin too fast and create 
too much drag on the line and if and when a fish does hit, the 
pressure will often be too much for the frail line. The rod tip, 
already bent from the excessive drag, has little cushioning 
power left in it. 

Avoid the lazy habit of tying your lures directly to the line 
for the holes in most of them are rough. Wire loops are also 
bound to cut into the thin nylon. Your best plan is to tie on a 

snap swivel of the proper size and weight for the job. Make 
sure your tackle box includes many sizes and use the smallest 
possible, for a large swivel detracts from the action of the lure. 
Tie your swivel with a clinch knot and carefully test it before 
you snap on the lure or the lure split-ring. 

Often it is advisable when working with large lures in quest 
of river bass to use a short length metal leader ahead of the 
snap swivel for this will help avoid line breakage when the fish 
carries the lure into rough rocks or pesky snags. Bass, hard- 
scaled and hard-mouthed, tend to wear through a fine line. 
Incidentally, I have never found that the short leader of wire 
or plastic covered wire detracts from the killing qualities of 
the lures, so it just makes good sense to use them. 

Fast-water fishing will twist your line unmercifully unless 
you take the proper precautions. When using lures that have 
any tendency to spin (and bait is definitely included here), 
employ a transparent fin to the leader or just ahead of the 

Live bait is duck soup for the big stream. A hefty night 
crawler needs no additional weight unless you are still-fishing 
at the head of a pool. The worm fished, dead drift, casting in 
slightly upstream fly-fishing style, is still one of the most killing 
forms of bait-fishing. These same thoughts also apply to minnow- 
fishing as well and you’ll note that you can make long casts 
easily with little danger of flicking the bait off. 

Though it may seem like a great deal of bother, change your 
lure weights for given circumstances, even though you keep 
fishing from the same location. For example, suppose you are 
working from the head of a pool on a big fast section of the river 
and right below you is deep water with a combination of back- 
water and heavy flow with a white-water stretch in the center. 
Light lures can be employed on the shallow, slow fringes and 
retrieved right to your very feet. 

The middle water can be handled with the middle-sized lures 
with ease and for the deep water too if it is slow enough. 
When casting across the three levels from a position down- 
stream, the heavy lure is O.K. if you throw it just the other 
side of the fast water and retrieve as it is brought down by 
the current. Let it remain in the white water as long as you 
can and bring it upstream, holding the rod high as you work 
it quickly through the shallows. The lighter lure is sometimes 
more practical, however, for you can cast it upstream, allowing 
it to sink farther for its weight in the fast water and then 
take your time on the retrieve, bringing it through the fishy 
spots. I've taken many bass just at the fringe of white water 
where the bottom of the stream slants upward, for here there is 
a dead water current, not visible to us, where bass congregate. 

Make it a point never to stay with one lure for too long a 
time in the same area. Change often, for fish seem to tire of 
the same lure. They might follow it once or twice, but if you 
present them with something different on the third cast they 
will often strike. I’ve seen this proven in salt-water angling. 
A school of mackerel will go crazy for a particular lure for 
maybe three or four casts and then interest begins to lag. Put 
on something of the same color but different shape and action 
and they come in fresh and eager again. Remember this, for it 
will pay off again and again. Changing lures will also get you 
into the habit of selecting the right weight lure and action for 
the type of water you are fishing. 

Never underestimate the power of the midget bass plugs in 



all shapes, sizes and actions. I can recall one old bruiser that 
came a full fifty feet out of hiding for an old River Runt Spook. 
I was fishing the tail of a broad pool having worked my way 
downstream from the head. I hadn't had a strike despite the 
J fact that I picked my locations and had cast carefully, prac- 
tically calling the shots. While changing lures, I snapped o:i 

the River Runt. The cast was to a rock in the center of the 
j pool, a wonderful resting place for the big fish that come into 
i that lower water and stay there, frustrating all who try for 
them by orthodox means. 

The River Runt was hard to handle, for the faster I retrieved, 
the deeper it went, so, I fed out line while keeping the rod bent 
I 1 against its downstream course. It must have wobbled its way 
at least 200 feet downstream when all of a sudden I felt a jolt. 
Instantly I whipped the rod back, lifting the line in a razor 
cut off the water. Snagged? No sir . . . there was the flash 

i of a fish and the reel drag started to buzz and never quit." 

j stopped. When that finny gent came to the end, I snubbed him, 
the only hope. I swear he must have gone five feet in a long 
tarponlike tailwalk and then up — up ! The line went slack but 
j I didn’t care for I had learned a secret of the big river . . . the 
way to a big baby in fast water is to give him something fishy 
... something large and formidable. I wish that every lure I 
have lost could have taught me what this one did that day ! 

Bass bugs in the evening, work well on lunkers that feed just 
below the fast water of a pool where it slides into a slower 
pace. Don’t jerk them, but let them drift, stopping the line 
every now and then to make them swing into the current. 
Here the drag works to your advantage, despite the teaching 
of the drag-wary dry fly purist. That drag probably looks 
natural for any bug that size should cause some surface dis- 
turbance. Often a few ripples and the sight of the big bug 
! 1 is all that old Mr. Bass needs when he’s beginning his night- 
time feeding period. 

If I were selecting a rig solely for big, fast stream work 
I with big spinning lures or small bait-casting lures (almost one 
and the same), I’d choose a 7-foot tubular glass with a fast 
tip and plenty of solid backbone in the mid-section. The fast 
tip makes the rig more versatile for other fishing, while offering 
just the right power for pinpointing the long casts to those mid- 
stream holes. This type of rod offers great striking qualities, too, 
for it is strong enough to lift a long line quickly and set the 
barbs. When a river smallmouth is hitting y-ou, that strength 
is none too much to set the hook. 

Playing big bass in thick, heavy water, requires you to let 
the fish do the dictating, for he will anyway. With a long line 
out it is hard to stop a downstream run and I’ve found that 
the best practice in this situation is to relax pressure entirely". 
Fish don’t like to run downstream with the current and when 
they find the pressure relaxed, will immediately head back 
upstream. This is the point you have to watch for it is right 
i ' here, with plenty of slack line, they will usually take to j ump- 
ing. Keep ’em down by testing the pull against them, just 
enough so they will battle themselves out heading into the 
current. Now with the current working in your favor, let them 
drop down to a slack pocket and for the final netting, bring 
them in at the head of the quiet water, leaving a comfortable 
margin for them to roust about without getting back into the 
fast stuff for one last terrifying run downstream. If the hook 
has been wearing a hole, that last run may be all they need 
- for leverage. Once they get it, your trophy" is only a myth or 
the “one that got away !” 

Play big fish until they are almost spent and don't make 
any sudden movement when they swim by those first few times 
for they are simply looking y r ou over. When they start turning 
on their side have the net ready. 

When the Shad Flies Hatch 


The expert angler is aware that the opening of trout season 
is not favorable to his art except on rare occasions. As the water 
warms under the lengthening days the hatches increase in num- 
ber and intensity until late May" and eariy June mark the hatch- 
ing of the largest of the Ephemeridae, the Green Drake or Shad 
fly. This is the one time of the year the angler finds large brown 
trout willing to feed at the surface during daylight hours. 

The Shad Fly hatch marks the peak of abundance not only of 
this fly" but of both abundance and variely of species. Because of 
the numbers of surface feeding fish this has been nicknamed the 
“Duffers Fortnight." 

In order to understand some of the effective methods of taking 
fish when t'-e Shad is on it is necessary" to be familiar with som 
of its life history. 

The nymph burrows in the mud or sand of the stream bottom 
and are not available to trout in any quantity’ except when they 
are actually hatching. It is then that they" emerge from their 
burrows. A tiny bubble of gas forms at the thorax and they rise 
toward the surface with a bucking motion. Here the nymph 
floats, the skin breaks open, the adult emerges and using the 
discarded nymph shuck for a raft, floats for the feu seconds it 
requires for the wings to stiffen. It then lifts from the water and 
flies away to the trees. Here it again sheds its skin and so alters 
its appearance that it is difficult for any- but a trained observer 
to believe that it is the same fly. 

The nymph is a dirty y r ellow gray" in color. The sub-imago is 
dull lemon yellow with dark brown or black mottlings. The 
wings are semi-transparent yellow with black barrings. After 
the second adult molt the body becomes elongated and is chalk- 
white in color. The wings are transparent and retain their black 
markings In this stage it returns to the water to mate and lay- 
eggs. The flight begins at sundown, high above the trees and 
gradually descends until the water is literally- covered with 
floating insects. Anglers now crowd the streams, casting to the 
rise and hoping for a trophy" trout. Paradoxically- the angler 
often fails because his artificial is lost in the multitude of 

One of the most effective methods of angling the Shad Fly- 
hatch is to try the stream in the morning. The nymphs leave 
their burrows and become active some time before reaching the 
surface. Trout find these animated morsels rather attractive. A 
nymph either of the fly vise material or one of the molded plastic 
specimens is used. Cast it into the deeper, more calm portions 
of the pools and allow it to sink. Strangely enough the fish 
seldom take this pattern on the way down. After it has reached 
the bottom move it toward the surface in slow pulls with pauses 
between of sufficient length to allow the artificial to settle 
slightly-. Trout many times follow them all the way to the sur- 
face and then strike viciously just as the angler is about to lift 
the lure for another cast. At other times the take is slow and 
del. berate. In the faster water a small dirty- yellow streamer of 
marabou feathers is allowed to drift with the current with an 
occasional twitch to give it life. These streamers should be 
slightly over an inch long and have a body of creamy red fox 
fur spun on yellow silk. Keep the body rather rough to imitate 
the body- of the nymph. It w ill also collect air bubbles and add 
realism to the imitation. 

If y-ou have confined your fishing during this hatch to the tag- 
end of the day be sure to try the morning from about nine a.m. 
on. I am sure you will be agreeably surprised and have the 
further advantage of not being trampled in the evening rush. 

JUNE— 1963 



By Don Shiner 

The hottest item, in recent years, to hit the imagina- 
tion of the bass addict, is the black plastic worm or eel. 
During the heat of the summer months, when big bass 
seek the cool depths of deep water, a plastic worm 
wiggled slowly over the pond bottom reaps a harvest 
when other lures draw a blank. Now these plastic worm 
artists have gone one better. They emerged from their 
bottom plowing tactics only to ascend topside, and are 
using these same worms on the surface with astounding 
success! When the long-jawed pond bass have the 
slightest inclination to surface feed, they leap for joy 
at the sight of a floating, wiggling worm. 

I watched my partner, in the bow of the boat, with 
interest as he “spinned” a popper plug toward a bed of 
weaving cattails. The lure dropped at the edge of the 
foliage. The plug remained quiet as the little ripples 
of sound dissipated. Then, the slightest twitch of the 
rod tip sent a loud “P-L-O-P” echoing among the 
reeds. I watched the little popper plug, for this artful 
angler had been catching three bass to my one. The 
plug quivered in the water for a surprisingly long 
time. Then POW ! A bass pushed from the reed cover 
to slam into the plug. This fellow was once again play- 
ing a heavy bass. 

When the bass bit the boat floor, I closely examined 
that little plug. It was a popper lure, no mistake about 
that, built with a concaved face similar to most noisy 
surface lures. But the similarity ended there. A six- 
inch black worm, fitted to a weedless single hook, 
dangled from the rear. Here was the secret ! The pop- 
per-shaped head held the plastic worm afloat, though 
it dangled down into the pond, dancing the twist with 
every twitch of the rod tip. What bass could resist the 
sight of a worm dancing so enticingly overhead? 

I had a package of plastic worms. I also had a 
popper plug, the conventional type, to which I could 
easily fasten a worm. In appearance, however, my 
renovated lure lacked the polish of my partner’s play- 
thing, but it suspended the worm on the ceiling of the 
bass’s domain. 

It worked. Bass came topside to clobber the wiggling 
worm with amazing regularity. We missed some bass. 
A few rushed in to bite only the end of the worm, 

NEW POPPER-WORAA concept for big bass surface fishing. 
The floating popper body keeps the worm wriggling on the 

racing away before touching the hook. Others scooped 
in the plug, worm and hook in one giant inhale. At 
noon our stringers held a number of bass, some tipping 
the scale at nearly six pounds ! I was impressed. 

“When did you spawn this surface worm idea?” I 
asked this angler in all seriousness. 

“I didn’t,” he answered. “I bought this popper-worm 
plug at a sport shop. It’s a new concept in surface 
lures, and one that I thought would work for bass. 
The popper-head plugs are fitted with plastic worms 
in a variety of colors. Others have plastic tadpoles and 
squids dangling in the rear. You pay your money and 
you take your choice, or you fit a plastic worm to a 
surface plug as you did this morning. An all black 
popper head with a black plastic worm is tops for night 

Each year finds new renovations in lures or angling 
techniques appearing on the scene. A few years ago 
when the black plastic eel or worm was the rage among 
bass fishermen in the deep south, I knew the idea 
would catch hold here in the north, with plenty of 
Pennsylvania anglers finding it profitable to dredge 
the depths with this plastic wiggler. Now the same 
anglers have brought the black worm topside for sur- 
face fishing with equally deadly effects. Northern 
anglers should try this newest of bass techniques, too. 

So pop a worm on the pond’s surface. Then hold 
fast to your hat ! 





Rubber worms, eels and lead-headed jigs are proven bass 
dllers. Many fishermen use these bottom-bouncing lures ex- 
rlusively with great success. Carrying these lures, especially 
he eels and worms, presents a problem because they often stick 
ogether and become more tangled than a bait can full of their 
-eal life counterparts. 

The solution is to make a simple worm wallet. It not only 
ceeps the rubber worms, eels and jigs separated, and their 
looks sharp and clean, but also allows the fisherman to handily 
rarry them in his tackle box, fishing vest or hip pocket. 

Two worm wallets can be made from a dollar’s worth of 
:anvas and some simple machine sewing. A worm wallet of 
he size described carries 5, 6, and 7-inch worms and eels. 
The jig pockets accommodate jigs as large as would ever be 
ised in fresh-water fishing. 

The fabric to buy is 10-oz. treated (waxed) deck canvas. A 
lalf a yard of this material costs less than a dollar at the hard- 
ware store and is enough to make two worm wallets. Untreated 
:anvas or any heavy material can be used but will not be as 
stiff nor as waterproof. Treated canvas is the best bet. 

The half yard of canvas is first cut into equal pieces measuring 
; 18 inches on each side. Then the outline of the wallet is penciled 
nn following the dimensions shown in picture No. 1. These 
ines must be drawn straight and square so the finished wallet 
.vill fold neatly. 

Sharp scissors or a razor should be used to cut the material. 
Be careful to cut straight so there are no serrations which cause 

Before folding the top and bottom flaps, the fold should be 
scored along the dotted line (Picture No. 1) with a blunt tool. 
The back edge of a table knife works very well. This scoring 
nsures a clean fold with a straight edge which is easy to sew. 

After the top and bottom flaps have been folded inward the 
juide lines for sewing the pockets are drawn. Starting from 
he right these lines are spaced 1*4 inches apart as shown in the 
>ottom of picture No. 1. This makes nine pockets with a I/ 2 " 
lap on the left which is used for closing the wallet. 

Unless you are a sewing machine operator you are going to 
hsk your wife to do some simple sewing on her machine. Size 
Mo. SO sewing thread works very well. The right and left edges 
ban be sewn with a button hole stitch to prevent ravelling. 
The pockets are sewn with a regular stitch, sewing each seam 
wice to make it strong. 

1 The extra jig pocket is an optional feature. It allows you 

0 carry extra jigs but in no way will interfere with using the 
op and bottom pockets in this area for worms and eels. 

The only thing left to do is sewing on a No. 2 snap; first 
naking sure that both parts of the snap line up when the wallet 
s folded close. This is easily done by folding the wallet in three 
;qual folds and sticking a large pin completely through the can- 
/as where the snaps are to go and then using these holes to 
renter them. 

The worm wallet is complete except for the lures. The worms 
ind eels are placed in their pockets by first opening each pocket 

1 vith your finger and slipping in the end of the lure. They cant 
nove or slip because of the pressure of the canvas against 
hem. One jig-headed worm or rigged eel fits perfectly into 
;ach pocket. Extra unrigged worms and eels can be fitted two 
ind three to a pocket. 

Photo 1 
Photo 2 

AERIAL VIEW of Pennsylvania Fish Commission's Opossum 
Lake scheduled for opening June 15. The 60-acre lake has been 
stocked with bass, muskellunge and bluegills. The breast of 
the 30-foot dam is at the upper part of the picture. Water 
backs up from dam approximately one mile. 

TUB FULL OF FISH displayed during survey taken at Opos- 
sum Lake last fall by (left to right) Fishery Biologists Dan 
Heyl and Curtis Simes, assisted by District Fish Warden 
Thomas Karper of Mount Holly Springs. The survey was taken 
to determine growth factors of the fish in the new lake set for 
opening to public fishing on Saturday, June 15. 

Opossum Lake Open to Fishing— June 15 

Photographs courtesy of Carlisle Evening Sentinel 

Opossum Lake, six miles west of Carlisle, Cumber- 
land County, Pa., will open to public fishing on Satur- 
day, June 15, the opening day of bass season in Penn- 
sylvania. A survey was made of the lake last fall by 
Curtis Simes and Dan Heyl, fishery biologists of the 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission. The survey was aimed 
at determining the growth of bluegills, bass and crap- 
pies over a period of a year. 

Four large nets were laid at strategic parts of the 
60-acre lake to study growth factors and make other 
observations of the fish. Biologists at the time said the 
number of fish which have reproduced in the lake was 
greater than anticipated but growth in size was less 
than hoped for. Many legal size bass, bluegills, crappies 
and sunfish were netted in the study. With additional 
growth anticipated since the survey last fall, the open- 
ing day at the lake should be a banner affair for anglers. - 


NEW FLY-FISHING WATERS — Members of the Yellow 
Breeches Anglers and Conservation Association, Boiling 
Springs, recently placed "fly-fishing only" signs on a mile 
section of the Yellow Breeches Creek in Cumberland County. 
The group stocked 1,400 trout in this and other sections of the 
stream and plan to add more from fish being reared in Boil- 
ing Springs lake trout pens. — Carlisle Sentinel photograph. 

When hot, people seek shade or cool water. How about fish, 
a cold-blooded animal ? 

In one study brown trout always lingered in water between 
51.8° F. and 62.6° F. Evidently warm water is uncomfortable 
to the browns and given a choice they will take cold water. 

Browns will die when water temperatures exceed 80°. Species 
known as “warm-water fish” tolerate much warmer temperatures. 


Muskellunge Culture Featured at 
Fish Commission's Open House 

JNION CITY fish cultural station, Erie County, was the site 
4 the Fish Commission's Open House. Foreground shows 
ype of trap net used to capture muskellunge. 

Employes of the Fish Culture and Law Enforcement 
)ivisions, Pennsylvania Fish Commission, held a special 
ripen house program at the Union City Hatchery, Erie 
bounty, on Sunday, April 21, 1963. 

Although all state fish culture stations are open daily 
o the public, the selected program gave more than 200 
ijdsitors an opportunity to see some of the specialized 
echniques involved in muskellunge culture. The main 
•vent of the program featured egg-taking from a large 
emale musky and the even more complicated process 
if obtaining milt from a male muskellunge. 

A demonstration of electro-fishing in a hatchery race- 
vay provided added overall interest to the program, 
n addition, live exhibits of fishes common to the area 
|vere on display. Various types of nets, tools and 
quipment necessary to fish culture were shown and 
xplained to visitors by Fish Commission personnel. 

Northwest Regional Fish Warden Supervisor S. 
Ilarlyle Sheldon, gave a running commentary of the 
lemonstrations and explained the various phases of the 
irogram of the day to visitors. Wallace Dean, Fish 
Commission member, outlined the Commission’s mus- 
:ellunge program including its history, growth and 
importance to the fishermen of Pennsylvania. Also 
peaking to visitors and viewing events of the open 
louse were Joseph M. Critchfield, vice president, Penn- 
ylvania Fish Commission, and Albert M. Day, Execu- 
ive Director. 

VISITORS crowd around demonstration center where egg- 
taking from a large muskellunge was featured. 

Bass Season Opens June 15, 1963 

Pennsylvania's bass fishing season on inland 
waters will open at 1 :01 a.m., Eastern Daylight 
Time, Saturday, June 15. At that time fishing for 
all species of fish in the Commonwealth will be 
legal. This year the season for walleye, chain 
pickerel, northern pike and muskellunge on inland 
waters opened on May 11, and together with bass, 
will remain open until March 14, 1964. 

District fish wardens said that fishing waters 
throughout the Commonwealth are reported to 
be in excellent condition and should provide good 
fishing in most areas, barring sudden storms. 

Regulations governing the inland water fishing 
include: bass (largemouth and smallmouth), mini- 
mum size — 9 inches, daily limit — 6 (combined 
species) ; pickerel and walleye, minimum size — 15 
inches, daily limit — 6 (each species) ; muskellunge, 
minimum size — 30 inches, daily limit — 2 ; northern 
pike, minimum size — 20 inches, daily limit — 6. 
There is no season or size limit on pan fish, in- 
cluding sunfish (all species including bluegills), 
yellow perch, crappies, rock bass, catfish, suckers 
and eels. Possession limit on these is 50 of each 
or 50 combined. 

Fishermen are warned that the open season on 
frogs does not begin until July 2. 

CLOSE-UP of egg-taking procedure by hatchery technicians. 

UNE— 1963 



Sucker fishermen at Koon Lake, on March 10 last, were 
taking fish that I feel might have been record catches. Quite a 
number of the suckers weighed over five pounds ; one weighed 
several ounces over seven pounds. It was the largest sucker I 
ever handled. — District Warden William E. Mcllnay (Bedford). 


While watching the ice jam on Conewago Creek I was sur- 
prised to see one large cake of ice twist and turn and in the 
process throw up a large carp. While he lay there flopping 
about I overheard two young men talking about going down on 
the ice to pick it up. Just as one of them decided to go after 
it a great surge of water picked up the ice cake and practically 
threw it back into the open water. The carp was tossed like a 
cork into the water. Was that guy glad he didn’t get to the ice 
cake! — District Warden Kenneth G. Corey (Warren). 


Our nets were set in Conneaut Lake and in three days of 
fishing we took over 300 northern pike to be taken to Union 
City Hatchery and stripped of their eggs. All of these fish 
were there for anglers last summer and fall but for some reason 
these fish were not harvested. Fishermen who say Pennsyl- 
vania’s waters are fished out should first find reasons for not 
catching fish and learn more about the lake’s bottom, weed beds 
and then go to work with angling techniques, proper lures 
and baits to catch them. — District Warden Raymond Hoover 
(Crawford) . 


District Fish Warden Lee F. Shortess (Lycoming) observed 
that when the ice broke up in Muncy Creek, a sucker run 
occurred that surely exceeded all expectations. One Saturday 
as this officer was approaching the stream mouth four anglers 
were leaving with their limits of SO suckers each. Each man 
carried over 100 pounds of fish on their backs. Each had been 
fishing four hours that day. Upon seeing them, I decided to 
make a check count. There were 21 fishermen with some 40 
odd suckers each. Many more anglers had between 3 and 20 fish 
each. Of this latter group, all claimed catching many more but 
had thrown them back when they had enough for a fish dinner. 
The “limit” fishermen claimed their wives canned or cold 
packed the fish after cleaning and then used the suckers as the 
average family uses canned salmon . . . fish cakes and sand- 
wiches. It was claimed the bones become soft and edible as 
do salmon bones upon canning. As for flavor, they said it 
far exceeded canned salmon. 


The 1963 trout season stocking program was aided con- 
siderably with the fine cooperation of sportsmen’s clubs in my 
district. Due to the extended cold season this year, stocking 
conditions were pretty rough. Many cancellations were pre- 
vented by help from the various clubs. Bulldozers and highlifts 
were used to open snow-clogged roads. Jeeps, pickup trucks 
and good drivers with plenty of strong backs and legs were 
there when and where needed. Nobody can convince me fishing 
is going downhill in Pennsylvania when fishermen will co- 
operate in this manner to enjoy better fishing. — District Warden 
Paul Antolosky (Centre). 

ANGLING ASSIST goes to Bobby Davidson, Bellefonte, Pa. 
from District Fish Warden Paul Antolosky on proper castin; 
methods.— Photo by Jack Yeager— Centre Daily Times. 

Warden Antolosky Directs Angling 
Course at Bellefonte YMCA 

An angling techniques course was presented recentl) 
at the Bellefonte YMCA prior to the opening of the 
1963 trout season. The course was under the directior 
of Centre County District Warden Paul Antolosky. 

The course, held one night per week, two hour: 
nightly, for three weeks, consisted of basic funda 
mentals of fishing, use of the fly, spinning and casting 
rod technique. Also, proper presentations, selection am 
care of equipment, bait and fly casting, fish identifi 
cation, safety and valuable tips and instruction ii 

George Harvey, noted authority on angling fron 
Penn State University, demonstrated fly-casting am 
bait-casting techniques to the interested classes. Danie 
Lonaberger also assisted in presenting safety tips am 
other valuable fishing information. The course war 
well received by about a hundred persons attendin' 
each session. No admission charge was made and th< 
project was sponsored jointly by the Pennsylvania Fisl 
Commission and the Bellefonte YMCA. 

Education that includes some thought of environment, for th< 
cherishing of our wild places, should be the number one projec 
of the human race. — Dr. O. J. Murie 



Boulder Valley Club's 
Fish Conservation Program 

Boulder Valley Sportsmen’s Association completed 
le initial phase of a three-phase program recently 
hen 43 of its members drained and seined Oren Wood- 
ard's farm pond in Sumneytown, Pa. The entire 
jrogram was under the able supervision of Walter 
urkhart, District Fish Warden, Pennsylvania Fish 
■ ommission. 

The Woodward pond was chosen as the first of many 
ands in the area to be part of producing more and 
! stter fishing in the Perkiomen Valley. 

Phase one of the overall program consists of drain- 
iig farm ponds and seining out the fish. The trash and 
in fish are either destroyed or planted in nearby 
reams, whereas the game fish are put in small hold- 
ig ponds until the ponds are refilled and fertilized. 
Phase two is the restocking of these ponds with a 
yo to one ratio of food and game fish. During this 
rase ponds are periodically checked to measure the 
"owth rate of the fish and the ponds’ reproductive 

The third and final phase is the seining out of legal 
ze game fish for stocking in nearby creeks and streams 
jpen for public fishing. 

Assistance and help in the initial phase of the pro- 
•am was provided by Delmont Scout Reservation and 
e Green Lane Fire Company. Don Cunningham is 
ish Committee Chairman. 

Former District Warden L. E. Close was helping to stock 
out in the Driftwood Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek along 
th Game Protector Norm Erickson. Erickson’s Labrador 
triever was along but could hardly be called a first rate trout 
tcker. After the stocking was ended and all were gathered 
■ out the truck ready to leave, the group turned to look for 
je dog. They saw him bringing a fish out of the water in his 
nuth. He was warned that following the fish truck was less 
in ethical and the unharmed fish was returned to the water. 

History is the glorious record of man’s increasing mastery of 
ture and deepening insights into his own inner world. — Harry 

IlNE— 1963 


Chief Enforcement Officer, Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

/ he following questions zvere asked through our mail bag cor- 
respondence. If you have a specific question or problem relating 
to fish laws and regulations, send them by card or letter to 
Editor, Pennsylvania Angler. Pennsylvania Fish Commission, 
Harrisburg, Pa. 


Is it legal to use small sunfish and perch as bait? 


Sunfish and perch may be used for bait if they have been 
taken by hook and line. These species are classed as game 
fish and may not be taken with a minnow seine or trap. 


How many bait may I have in my possession if I purchased 
them from a licensed propagator or baitfish dealer? 


There is no limit on the number of bait you may possess if 
purchased from either a licensed propagator or licensed bait 
dealer. You must be in possession of the bill of sale you re- 
ceived from the seller which shows the number, species and 
date purchased. Such bait may be possessed for a period of 
15 days from date of purchase. 


I have a farm pond and would like to know if other persons 
whom I invite to fish in it must have a fishing license and may 
they take fish, any size, any number and any species the same 
as I am permitted to do? 


The only persons who may fish farm ponds without fishing 
license and take fish therefrom at any season of the year, 
any size and any number are: The resident owner, tenant 
farmer, regularly hired help and members of their immediate 
families residing on the farm. All other persons must have 
fishing licenses and abide by the seasons, sizes and numbers 
the same as if they were fishing any stream or lake in the 

The farmer or others as listed above may catch the fish, any 
species, any number, any size and give them to their friends 
to take off the farm, providing the person catching them 
gives the person a statement in writing which shows by whom 
caught and to whom given. The number and species. The fish 
may then be taken and possessed by the individual not re- 
siding on the farm. 

Edito/s Note: A question in this column. May issue, asking 
when Sunday fishing zcas enacted went unanszvered due to lack 
of space. Sunday fishing became legal on April 14, 1937. 

There can be athletes among fish. When conditioned to fast 
water, they have larger hearts and higher blood hemoglobin. 

When faced with fast swimming, their condition pays off. 
They can use up more fuel reserves and undergo a larger 
oxygen debt and still recover faster than untrained fish, accord- 
ing to a recent study. 

The angler would no doubt like to catch the athlete. 

Creativity is the art of taking a fresh clean look at old 


Letter to the Editor 

TROPHY TROUT . . . 25 V 2 inches long, weighed 8V2 pounds 
caught by 12-year-old Dennis Johnson, Milesburg, Pa. Dennis 
caught his big rainbow in Spring Creek, Centre County, near 
the West Penn Power Plant about 8 a.m. on opening day of 
the 1963 trout season. The big fish took a spinner.— Photo 
courtesy Hassel Lose, Bellefonte, Pa. 

BIG BROWN TROUT, 25% inches long 
that fell to a minnow fished by Jack 
Baumgardner, Milroy, Pa., while fishing 
Honey Creek near Reedsville, Mifflin 
County, on opening day of the trout 

Dear Editor: 

My name is Kirk Mangus and I am in grade 4 at Hadley 
school in Sharon, Pa. My father thinks this report I made for 
school is good enough to send to you because I used the 
Pennsylvania Angler for this report. — Kirk Mangu, 


If you want to go fishing in Pennsylvania, your best bet is 
to go to the mountains to fish in the streams and creeks. In the! 
mountain brooks where the water is very cold and clear you® 
can find the trout. They are hard to catch because they f righten 1 
easily. Trout are some of the best eating fish and you fry them, 
with the head on in butter until they are crisp. 

There are two species of trout in Pennsylvania — rainbow and) 
brook. In these creeks you find minnows and crayfish. When® 
the brooks and creeks flow into the larger streams you will 
find other kinds of fish. The larger streams have larger fifjil 
Some good fish are rock bass and warmouth bass, crappies,j| 
bluegills, sunfish and pumpkinseeds. Among the rocks at the! 
bottom lay the suckers and mudpuppies. 

We have very few lakes in Pennsylvania. However, we live!' 
near a large lake, man-made, called Pymatuning Lake. Herejv 
we can find largemouth bass which are a terror to the tiniest 1 
mole who happens to fall in the water to a large water snake., 
The bass are very good baked with stuffing and some are asd 
big as ten pounds. At Pymatuning you can catch carp and the® 
sunfish family. 

In the dirty water of our Shenango River live muskellunge,| 
carp and suckers. These fish all have a mud-vein in them andl 
if you clean them correctly they are good to eat. 

If we want to be able to fish in Pennsylvania when we growl 
up, we must help the conservationists to keep our waters free! 1 
from pollution and wastes which kill our fish. 

SMILING ANGLER is Ronnie Marshall, of Patton, Pa. He 
took this nice 22-inch brown trout on opening day of the trout 
season. — Photo courtesy of the Patton Courier. 

Dear Kirk: 

This is a fine report and to your last paragraph I say . . . 
“Amen!” — Editor 





Enclosed is $ 

□ 1 year (12 issues)— $2.00 
* or □ 3 years (36 issues) — $5.00 

To be sent to 


Name (please print) 

Address Zone 



Make check or money order payable to 


Cash sent at your own risk, stamps not acceptable. 

JULY 1963 



Albert M. Day 
Executive Director 

(psuwAifoatria (biql&h 

Published Monthly by the 

William W. Scranton, Governor 

Robert J. Bielo 
Assistant Executive Director 

Warren W. Singer 
Assistant to Executive Director 

Paul F. O’Brien 
Administrative Officer 

Paul J. Sauer 



Aquatic Biology 

Gordon Trembley Chief 

Fish Culture 

Howard L. Fox Superintendent 

Real Estate and Engineering 

Cyril G. Regan Chief 

Edward Miller Asst. Chief 

Law Enforcement 

William W. Britton Chief 

Conservation Education-Public Relations 

Russell S. Orr Chief 



S. Carlyle Sheldon Warden Supervisor 

1212 E. Main St., Conneautville, Pa., 

Phone: 3033 


Minter C. Jones Warden Supervisor 

R. D. 2, Somerset, Pa Phone: 6913 


H. Clair Fleeger Warden Supervisor 

351 Terrace St., Honesdale, Pa., 

Phone: 253-3724 

Terry Rader Fishery Manager 

R. D. 3, Honesdale, Pa Phone: 253-2033 


John S. Ogden Warden Supervisor 

1130 Ruxton Rd., York, Pa Phone: 2-3474 



Maynard Bogart, President Danville 

Joseph M. Critchfield, Vice President Confluence 

Gerard J. Adams Hawley 

Wallace C. Dean Meadville 

John W. Grenoble Carlisle 

Albert R. Hinkle, Jr. Clearfield 

R. Stanley Smith Waynesburg 

Raymond M. Williams East Bangor 

JULY, 1963 

VOL. 32, NO. 7 



2 HOW FISH BREATHE-Dr. Arden Gaufin 
6 SPINNING FOR CARP— Erwin A. Bauer 

10 BOATING-Robert G. Miller 


15 THE NEW TWIST FLY-Don Shiner 

16 SOME FISH STORIES— S. Carlyle Sheldon, Regional Warden Supervisor, Penn- 
sylvania Fish Commission 

17 SMUTS, CURSES AND MIDGES— Albert G. Shimmer 


24 YOU ASKED ABOUT IT— W. W. Britton, Chief Enforcement Officer, Pennsyl- 
vania Fish Commission 

25 SCHOOL’S OUT!— Ned Smith 

“Where didja go?” . . . 

“FISHIN’ . . .” 

Cover photograph by Grant Heilman 
Back cover— “Lazy Summer Days” 


John I. Buck Warden Supervisor 

P. O. Box 5, Lock Haven, Pa., 

Phone: 748-7162 

Dan Heyl Fishery Manager 

R. D. 1, Spring Mills, Pa., 

Phone: Center Hall Empire 4-1065 


Harold Corbin Warden Supervisor 

521 13th St., Huntingdon, Pa., 

Phone: Mitchell 3-0355 

POSTMASTER : All 3579 forms to be returned to Dunlap Printing Co., Inc., 
Cherry and Juniper Sts., Philadelphia 7, Pa. 

The PENNSYLVANIA ANGLER is published monthly by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission 
South Office Building, Harrisburg, Pa. Subscription: One year— $2.00; three years— $5.00; 25 cents’ 
per single copy. Send check or money order payable to Pennsylvania Fish Commission. DO NOT 
SEND STAMPS. Individuals sending cash do so at their own risk. Change of address should reach 
us promptly. Furnish both old and new addresses. Second Class Postage paid at Philadelphia, Pa.. 
and at additional mailing offices. 

Neither Publisher nor Editor will assume responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts or illustrations 
while in their possession or in transit. Permission to reprint will be given provided we receive 
marked copies and credit is given material or illustrations. Communications pertaining to manuscripts, 
material or illustrations should be addressed to the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, Harrisburg, Pa! 

NOTICE: Subscriptions received and processed after the 10th of each month will begin with the 

second month following. 

Gill cover 




I F you are a farmer, every time you allow muddy drainage 
waters to flow into a nearby stream you are helping to 
ruin fishing. If you live in a city, you are partly respon- 
sible for having changed your favorite nearby trout stream 
into a trash-fish stream. Many of your everyday activities 
may be decreasing your fishing success by suffocating 
your finny friends. Depletion of dissolved oxygen in water, 
due to bacteriological decomposition of introduced organic 
matter is often the cause of fish kills in our lakes and 
streams. Every time we allow the community, of which 
we are a part, to pour raw sewage, industrial wastes, 
radioactive wastes, or even hot water into a nearby water 
course, we are decreasing our chances for future fishing 

There is no definite amount of oxygen that can be 
said to be absolutely necessary to sustain fish life. More- 
over, fish differ greatly in their requirements. Unfor- 
tunately most game fish require more oxygen than many 
rough fish and hence often die while the rough fish sur- 
vive. When oxygen is about one-third of the normal 
amount present in the summer, the fish are in danger. At 
times fish may survive on much less, whereas at other 
times they may die when this point is reached. These 
differences may be due to the condition of the fish and 
to the temperature and other physical and chemical dif- 
ferences in the water. 

A knowledge of the way in which fish breathe may help 
you appreciate their need for a clean, well aerated environ- 
ment and, if you help prevent pollution, thereby improve 
your fishing success. 

Superficially, there is little resemblance between the 
respiratory system of man and that of most fish. The 
respiratory organs of fish are gills located in the gill slits 
and attached to the visceral arches. Each gill consists of 
a double row of slender gill filaments, with every filament 
bearing many minute transverse plates covered with thin 
tissue and containing many capillaries. Each gill is sup- 
ported on a cartilaginous gill arch, and its inner border 
has expanded gill rakers, which act as a strainer to pre- 
vent food from clogging the gills. 

A fish respires by expanding its pharynx and taking 
water in through the mouth. Then the mouth is closed 
or in certain species, oral valves close, the pharynx is con- 
tracted, and water is forced out through the gill slits. 
Water cannot go down the esophagus, for this is col- 
lapsed except when swallowing. In sharks, each gill slit 
opens independently at the body surface. In bony fish, 
all of the slits empty into an opercular chamber which is 
closed when water is expelled. 

The gills are protected in the gill slits, they have a 
large surface area, the blood and external environment 
are in close proximity, and gas exchange occurs readily as 
water passes over them. In addition, the body gains or 
loses water through the gills, and some nitrogenous wastes 
are excreted here. The salt-water fish also excrete salts 
through the gills. These fish live in an environment in 
which the salt concentration is greater than that in their 
bodies so they tend to lose water by osmosis. They must 
drink large amounts of salt water and then excrete the 
salts by specialized cells in their gills. 

A number of fish live in water which has a low oxygen 
content, and they supplement gill respiration by occa- 
sionally gulping air. For example, carp can live in heavily 
polluted water having an oxygen content of less than one 
part per million. There is much more oxygen in the air 
than in water and carp can extract it as long as their 
gills remain moist. On the other hand, trout do not have 
this ability and require oxygen concentrations of and in 
excess of four to five parts oxygen per million parts water. 

While depletion of dissolved oxygen, due to bacterial 
decomposition of organic wastes, is probably the most 
common cause of fish kills in our lakes and streams, a 
number of other pollutants may adversely affect fish by 
interfering with their respiration. High temperatures, 
excess turbidity, high concentrations of carbon dioxide, 
and certain toxic industrial wastes can markedly increase 
the susceptibility of fish to deficiencies of dissolved oxy- 
gen. Brook trout and silver salmon have been kept alive 
under laboratory conditions at dissolved oxygen concen- 
trations of two parts per million at moderate temperatures 
(64.4° F.). By comparison, dissolved oxygen concentra- 
tions well above the three parts per million can be quite 
rapidly fatal at fairly high temperatures (77° to 80.6° F.) 

Water used for cooling purposes in industrial processes 
may become so hot and be of such quantity that it may 
substantially raise the temperature of a receiving stream. 
In trout streams even a slight rise in temperature may be 
undesirable. Few trout, even the most tolerant species 
can survive temperatures above 82° to 83° F. even for 





TOXIC substances from stream dumping practices can 
render water unsuitable for fish. There are too many 
stream-side dumping pest-holes along our Pennsylvania 
waterways. Injurious action of dump substances seep- 
ing into the water can prove fatal to fish and aquatic 

very short periods. Furthermore, when stream tempera- 
tures are raised so that they consistently exceed 70° F. in 
summer, even though they may not be lethal, environ- 
mental conditions become less favorable for trout and 
more favorable for minnows, suckers, and other warm- 
water fish. This change is largely due to differences in 
the respiratory and metabolic requirements of these dif- 
ferent species. 

Clogging or blanketing of the gills of fish with matter 
suspended in water, such as soil particles, fibers, or pre- 
cipitated matter is not unusual when fish are exposed to 
various toxic solutions containing the suspended material. 
Injury to the gills by the harmful dissolved substances 
probably results in the inability of the fish to keep their 
gills clean. Fish in extremely turbid waters may also be 
affected by the gill filaments becoming clogged with clay 
particles from the water thus interfering with normal 
gaseous exchange. 

Any one of a great number of toxic substances can 
render water unsuitable for fish. Industrial wastes such 
as effluents from canning and sugar factories, oil refineries, 
pulp mills, metal finishing and electroplating plants, and 
steel mills, all of which are common water pollutants, can 
be highly toxic to fish. They may contain oxygendepleting 

I organic material, acids or alkalies, salts of various metals, 
cyanides, phenols, and numerous other toxicants. Ex- 
tremely poisonous insecticides, herbicides, and algicides 
can cause serious mortality of fish when they are pur- 
posely added to water or are accidentally introduced by 
being washed into watercourses from land by rain. The 
injurious action of many of these substances, which can 
be fatal to fish when dissolved in water, is largely external. 
Damage to the delicate tissues of the gills and impairment 
of their respiratory and excretory functions is a common 

1 cause of injury. The circulation of blood in the gills may 
be interfered with by an accumulation of mucous, which 
coats and clogs gills, immobilizing the gill filaments. The 
salts of many metals such as lead, copper, zinc, and mer- 
cury, particularly, produce this coagulation of mucous on 

I gill surfaces and result in respiratory failure in fish. Such 
salts may gain access to streams from industrial plants 
and be largely responsible for a complete absence of fish 
in streams receiving effluents from heavily industrialized 

—Utah Fish and Game Magazine. 

JULY— 1963 

SEVEN MILLION . . . 7,000,000 fish were killed by water pollution in 
1962 with domestic wastes the No. 1 killer, industrial wastes in second 
spot. Mining killed 700,000 and agricultural poisons wiped out 

BEAUTIFUL TROUT WATER . . . but is it? One accidental shot of 
poisonous insecticides, herbicides and algicides could be fatal to the 
fish and ruin fishing throughout the length of the stream. 


Come live with me, and be my love. 

And we will some new pleasures prove, 

Of golden sands and crystal brooks 
With silken lines and silver hooks. 

Ever since Mrs. Izaak Walton watched from her London 
doorway as her husband departed for a week-end of fish- 
ing on the River Lea, wives have suspected that there may 
be more to the sport of angling than meets the eye. 

After all, when a man gets up before daybreak on his 
day off, to return many hours later, bewhiskered, bleary- 
eyed, and often fishless— yet smugly contented— one has 
reason to wonder. 

So the question is, “Why do men go fishing?” The ob- 
vious answer, to catch fish, just won’t do. But if not fish, 
what is it we seek. What’s really behind our compulsion 
to pursue fish. In perfect honesty, this is a question that 
we anglers have never faced up to. 

The answer, I have come to conclude, is love. If that 
sounds strange, pause a moment and consider. The typi- 
cal angler on the eve of fishing season is like a high school 
freshman preparing to ask his secret sweetheart to go to 
the prom with him. He can’t sleep, can’t eat, he is light- 
headed, giddy, wobbly in the knees, and his breath comes 
in short gulps. The symptoms are the same in both cases. 
And so is the diagnosis. It’s romantic love. 

But romance is only half the story. We also speak off- 
handedly of having a “passion for fishing,” or we refer to 
a man as being a “passionate angler.” Here again we are 
laying our cast squarely over the rise without knowing it. 
Fishing is both a romance and a passion. 

The problem is that terms such as romance and passion 
are seriously applied only to the relationship between men 
and women. So when we use them to describe our feel- 
ings toward a sport it might follow that we are talking 
about a different kind of love. But are we really? 

Actually, there seems to be a definite psychological 
overlap between a man’s feeling of romantic and pas- 
sionate love for a woman, and his romantic and passionate 
love of angling. The cause of this overlap is not clear, 
but I suspect that it may have its roots in boyhood when 
most men begin fishing. As young anglers grow into their 
teens they find themselves enmeshed in a tender trap, 
torn between chasing girls and chasing fish. It is at this 
point that a man either becomes an avid angler and 
eventually marries in spite of it, or he gives up the sport 

Thus at the very time a man first begins experiencing 
love he encounters a conflict of desires. In the confusion 
his romantic urges become vaguely mixed up with fishing. 
After marriage the conflict still rages, with the angler- 
husband now torn between family obligations and his de- 
sire to go fishing. By transference, man’s love of women, 
which acts in conflict with angling ambitions, carries over 
into the pursuit of the sport. 

Of course, this is a personal theory. Nevertheless, there 
is little doubt that a psychological overlap does exist. It 
even has legal support from no less an authority than 
Robert Traver, the jurist-author of Anatomy of Murder 
and more recently of Trout Madness. In his latest book. 
Trout Madness, Mr. Traver wonders out loud whether 
man’s compulsion to pursue and catch fish may not be 
related to “the sexual urges of the fisherman himself.” 

Under our present customs, he observes, courtship and 
marriage can get to be a routine affair. “Some men there 
be among us who doubtless rebel at constantly laying 



Of WiAmauL, 




siege to an already conquered citadel,” he says. “Unless 
they are going in for collecting blondes, fishing and all 
that goes with it may be the one pursuit that permits 
them to vent their atavistic impulses and still preserve the 
tatters of their self-respect.” 

Interesting though it is, Traver’s atavistic theory is not 
particularly new. The original version had it that because 
men’s primitive ancestors fished for food, the lore of the 
pursuit got stuck in our natures, and handed down like 
dew-claws on dogs or appendices in people. Thus, we now 
do for sport what our cave man forbears did for food. 
Traver’s sexual interpretation makes a lot more sense with 
one slight exception. He’s got hold of only half the apple. 
He currently sees the passionate side of the overlap, but 
he overlooks the romance. 

In his book, Fisherman’s Luck, Henry Van Dyke con- 
fessed to being a true believer in romantic love. His only 
doubts on the subject grew out of “a sedentary life and 
enforced abstinence from angling.” When he went fishing 
he returned to “a saner and happier frame of mind.” 

He explains, “Even on a trout stream I have seen nothing 
prettier than the sight which I once came upon as I was 
fishing down the Neversink. A boy was kneeling beside 
the brook, and a girl was giving him a drink of water out 
of her hands. As I glanced discreetly at their small tableau 
I was not unconscious of the new joy that came into the 
landscape with the presence of a lover and his lass. I 
knew how sweet the water tasted from that kind of a 
cup. I also have lived in Arcadia, and have not forgotten 
the way back.” 

Van Dyke introduces here still another element in our 
whodunit. For this “girl by the stream” (with or without 
her boy friend, but preferably without) is a wraithlike 
creature that we anglers have been pursuing and writing 
about for centuries. 

She tiptoes ghostlike through fishing literature under 
many names and in various disguises. But she is always 
lovely, she has a simple, musical name, and a mystical 
other-worldliness about her. She is every man s secret 
dream girl, his personification of the ideal woman. 

To Edwin L. Peterson in No Life So Happy she was 
the lithe, golden-haired Elaine who knew the secret of 
the King of the trout stream. To Frank L. Stanton she 
was Jenny, for whom he let the fishing go to walk with 
“through meadows with daisies white as snow. And to 
Izaak Walton’s fishing partner, Sir Henry Wotton, she 
was pink-cheeked Joan with her “neat-rubb d pail tipping 
to milk the sand-red cow.” 

Even old Izaak Walton, saintly man that he was, seemed 
haunted by dreams of encountering wood nymphs during 

his streamside rambles. In several of his poems and 
prefaces he refers to a wood nymph named Clora. In 
early editions of The Compleat Angler he tells of hearing 
Clora sing while loitering long days “near Shawford- 
brook.” Finally, in 1676, in the fifth edition of The Com- 
pleat Angler, Clora the wood nymph takes human form 
to become “Kenna”— his late wife, Anne Ken. 

It is interesting to note that while Walton’s wife was 
living, he pursued an imaginary wood nymph during his 
fishing trips. But in his old age, after his wife had died, 
Clora the wood nymph and Anne Ken his beloved wife 
merged into a single identity. Ah, how sweet the cup of 

The truth of the matter is that we cherish most what we 
can never fully possess. When we have a wife we want 
a wood nymph, and when the wife is gone we yearn for 
the wife. When we have romance we want passion, and 
when passion is fulfilled we long for romance. 

Only in fishing do we find the perfect mistress. In fish- 
ing we get only fleeting kisses and constant enticement. 
The great embrace, the completed passion, as symbolized 
by the fish we pursue, is always tomorrow or around the 
next bend in the river. The secret is akin to that of the 
strip-tease dancer. She never shows too much, and we 
keep coming back in hopes that some day she will. 

Fishing offers not only the perfect fulfillment of roman- 
tic love, but it contains the promise of passionate love as 
well. Subconsciously we are always seeking that “girl by 
the stream.” And so we fish from pool to pool, roman- 
tically in love, yearning for passionate fulfillment, but 
never quite achieving it. This kind of a pursuit comes as 
close to ideal love as mortal man ever gets. 

So there you have it. The fact that fishing season opens 
in the springtime probably accentuates the symptoms. 
But the underlying motivation is a crazy, mixed-up quest 
for a non-existent blend of romantic and passionate love. 
We never find this heady concoction, of course. It doesn’t 
exist except in dreams and poetry. But in fishing we find 
the closest thing to it: the romance of the stream, pursuit 
of a sport, and the vision of the lovely Lorelei who waits 
for us around the bend in the river. 

So the next time you go fishing, just kiss your wife 
goodbye and gently explain, “Goodbye, old dear, I am 
off to make love to a trout stream and chase a wood 
nymph across the meadows. And don’t wait up because 
I won’t be home until late Sunday night.” 

She will understand perfectly. 

Yes indeed. . . ! ! ! 

JULY— 1963 


X Carp 


There’ S no point in cussing carp any more. We might 
as well make the best of them. 

So far our biologists have found no way to dispose of 
them without destroying other fish at the same time. 
Anglers can’t catch them fast enough to make a dent in 
the over-all population. So it looks like carp are here to 
stay. And according to the way you look at it, maybe 
that’s not so bad. 

Let’s see how the carp measures up. A three- or four- 
pounder is average in Pennsylvania. No other fish of 
the same size is as powerful. Carp will never thrill you 
by jumping— or even by breaking the surface— but they 
straighten more hooks and break more lines than all other 
fresh-water fishes together. 

Maybe you’ve known humiliating moments at the hands 
of old settler browns. Perhaps you’ve spent an entire sum- 
mer, as I have, just trying to hook one jumbo. Well— carp 
are every bit as wily and as fastidious. They belong in the 
heavyweight class mentally as well as physically. For in- 
stance, you’ll fish a lifetime before you take a carp on any 
type of artificial lure. Of course that disqualifies him from 
the roster of game fish, but it doesn’t label him a dumb- 
bell. The bass, bluegills and trout fall for all those hair 
and hardware combinations easily enough. But carp need 
real calories. • 

There is another, less happy side to his character, 
though. Those tendencies, for example, that earned him 
the name of “sewer bass.” His foraging habits roil vast 
areas of water, consume beneficial types of vegetation and 
suggest the name “root hawg.” And no matter how you 
look at it, his physical appearance is not likely to inspire 
any classic fishing essays. 

Depending on your point of view, carp have another 
very good or very bad quality. They’re abundant. You 
can find them virtually wherever there is water enough 
to cover them the year around. They are tolerant to ex- 

tremes in water temperature and to a great variety of 
impurities. They prosper in clean water and foul, in 
running streams and in lakes. 

Catching carp is fascinating business. It requires skill. 
Sloppy casts to feeding fish will put them down as surely 
as a poor delivery will frighten a feeding brown. For the 
greatest success it requires use of light and delicate tackle— 
preferably a spinning outfit. 

Spinning was made to order for carp. Its European 
originators probably had carp in mind. The critical mo- 
ment in carp fishing is that second or so when a curious 
fish lightly samples your bait. If there is any noticeable 
drag, he’ll hurry away in search of vitamins less likely to 
be fatal. Right there is the biggest advantage of the 
spinning reel and light monofilament line. By leaving the 
spool open, line can be pulled from the reel by a nibbling 
carp with practically no resistance. 

There are other advantages to spinning. In carp fishing, 
you’re dealing with small baits and the lightest sinkers 
possible. Spinning affords the greatest ease in casting 
them. It also gives you more distance. 

Carp are steady, busy feeders. But they are fastidious, 
as we mentioned before, and almost dainty. They scour 
strips of bottom as thoroughly as a vacuum cleaner, but 
morsels of large size are discarded, even by larger fish. It is 
as important for an angler to use only small baits as it is 
to prevent drag on a sampling fish. That means small 
hooks, too. 

Prepared dough baits are the most popular with carp 
fishermen wherever you find them. And justly so— for carp 
are susceptible to a great variety of these homemade con- 
coctions. A quick and easy one to prepare requires equal 
quantities of flour and yellow corn meal. Mix them with 
enough water to make a dough. Drop small pieces, each 
no larger than your smallest fingernail in boiling water. 
Remove them when they become like sponge rubber. Dip 



in anise, put them on No. 6 or No. 8 hooks and they’re 
ready to go. 

I rarely fish specifically for carp any more. But I do 
carry a supply of those dough baits in my kit. There are 
always days when other fish are not hitting— so I put the 
dough baits to work. And of course there are occasions 
when a school of feeding carp is located. Times like these 
you’ll often have more action than you would with any 
other local fish. A five-pound carp can give you some 
exciting moments; a ten-pounder will leave you talking to 

There are as many effective baits for carp, nearly, as 
there are carp fishermen. Marshmallow is popular. Par- 
tially cooked turnips, parsnips, or potatoes are good. Per- 
haps the most deadly of all is two kernels of fresh sweet 
corn on a very small hook, even for very large fish. 

Some queer baits have also been used successfully from 
time to time. Ivory soap has produced good catches. The 
list is long; it includes wall paper cleaner, cheese, and 
salmon eggs. Among the natural baits, you can’t go wrong 
with nightcrawlers or small crayfish. I’ve had them take 
hellgrammites, too. 

Sometimes finding carp is a simple matter. On other 
occasions, it can be quite a chore. Roily water areas are 
often good indication of their immediate presence, espe- 
cially if surrounding water is relatively clear. Obviously 
it’s good policy to confine your fishing to mud bottoms. 
Carp feed by “rooting”— and rocky or gravelly beds are 
not suitable. 

In streams, carp frequent pools of medium depth. At 
certain times, you’ll see them move out onto the riffles, 
perhaps for crayfish, but this isn’t standard behavior. 
When you do find them in shallow water, they “spook” 
at the slightest provocation. 

The downstream sides of small dams or similar stream 
obstructions are excellent places for carp to congregate. 
Sometimes it’s hard to keep a bait on the bottom where 
water boils as it does beneath a dam. But if you succeed, 
you’re in good position to connect. In one such pool no 
larger than an average living room, I saw one angler take 
14 carp. One was a 22-pounder. Presumably the fish had 
worked upstream from the Ohio Paver about 15 miles 

Usually it isn’t too difficult to keep your bait on the 
bottom, even in moving water, and at the same time elimi- 
nate drag when a carp takes the bait. Obtain a supply of 
the type of sinkers through which the line can run freely. 
These should weigh about one-eighth ounce each and 
should be located just a few inches above the baited hook. 
A taking carp can thus run easily, pulling the line freely 
through the sinker. 

The sinker has two purposes. It’s necessary as a casting 
weight and it serves to get the bait on the bottom where 
a current exists. 

There’s little doubt that importation of European carp 
more than a century ago was unwise. But like starlings, 
English sparrows, Norway rats, and boll weevils, they’re 
here to stay. Like brown trout and ringneck pheasants, 
they have accumulated a million and more fans, furnish 
a considerable amount of sport and relaxation. 

Some years ago, after receiving my first spinning out- 
fit, I hooked an 11-pound carp. I’ve never had a fresh- 
water fish wage such a battle. Not even heavier muskies 
and Northerns measured up. So— since I have to live with 
’em— I’ll fish and vote for ’em, too. 

CARP at Linesville are so thick ducks walk upon the fishes backs. 
Fishermen and tourists buy bread at the spot to toss to the boiling 
carp. The sight became so popular there was tough bidding com- 
petition for bread concessions. 

SOME ANGLERS have little or no regard for carp fishing while others 
will be ready to rassle you the best out of three falls defending the 
carp. While in some streams the carp is a nuisance and a detriment 
to other fish, it is a mighty heavyweight contender on light tackle, 
particularly a spinning outfit. 

JULY— 1963 

How To Pick The Best 

By Wayne Heyman 

THE fast expanding field of secondhand boats and acces- 
sories, offers all types of promising opportunities to wide- 
awake buyers. This market not only gives sensible 
beginners a chance to invest lightly to determine whether 
or not they will enjoy boating, but it also furnishes to most 
these newcomers some idea of the rig they will eventually 
want to buy. 

Even veteran boat owners, who often purchase an extra 
boat for the advantages it offers, are not neglected. This 
second craft— usually a small one— is purchased for some 
younger member in the family. More often it is acquired 
for the purpose of cruising or fishing in areas too shallow 
for a large boat. 

How do you pick out the best buys? The veteran boat 
owner usually knows most of the rules. Unfortunately, 
many of us have not reached this class and must rely on 
experienced advice. 

Most smart beginners who are aware they’re on un- 
familiar ground seek the expert help of an established 
marine dealer. But often, many of those “once-in-a-life- 
time” bargains are not always in their shops. For instance, 
some stranger in the next town might be advertising a 
forced sale on what seems like a good buy. A transaction 
of this type will depend on the buyer’s own judging ability. 
How he makes out will balance largely on the following 
three rules: 

1. Know the trouble spots. 

2. Learn the current prices. 

3. Have a definite idea of what is wanted before buying. 

There is still another side to the page, too. How can 

you expect to get the top price for your own boating 
equipment? Since every boat owner will eventually want 
r trade in his own equipment, this decision 
will some day be just as important as that first buy. 

The general rules on selling are almost identical to those 
of buying with just two exceptions: The seller must be a 

fair carpenter and he must know something about engines. 
If you can hammer, paint and clean out a carburetor bowl, 
then you can expect a f ir price for your own equipment. 

When buying a boat, even one that is to be used on an 
inland lake, check for ruggedness and strength. If the 

boat is to be used in coastal waters, then these factors 
become even more essential. The weight of a boat alone 
does not mean strength. To qualify, it must be built so 
that the stresses and strains it receives are transmitted in 
such a way that the boat, as a unit, takes and absorbs them. 

The strongest section of any boat is the keel. But re- 
gardless of size, it cannot, by itself, absorb all the strain a 
boat might receive. Shocks are taken first by the keel 
which in turn distributes them to the ribs, planking, and 
other parts of the boat. The combination of heavy ma- 
terial properly joined is ideal. But if a choice must be 
made between light material correctly joined and heavy 
material improperly placed, then preference should be 
made in favor of the lighter boat. 

Boats correctly constructed have a keel which is either 
notched out or rabbeted to receive frames that are fastened 
by screw, nail, or bolt. Alongside the keel is usually located 
a garboard stake which is bolted above the rigs. The 
garboard insures first that when the bow hits a wave the 
shock of the impact is transmitted throughout the boat via 
the frames. A garboard also prevents the frames from 
moving out of position or otherwise working free. 

Well-layed planking is attached to the ribs by at least 
two fastenings. Whenever planks are laid end-to-end, 
the splice should always have a butt block on the inside. 
Careful inspection should be given the transom and stem 
to see that the plankings in this area fit squarely and solidly 
without any compound filling. Always be wary of boats 
with loose fitting or filled in seams. A thin bladed knife 
will always reveal faults of this type. 

All boats have some means of keeping themselves from 
springing apart laterally. This springing action is usually 
held in check with a heavy rough flooring laid directly 
beneath the deck (which in turn is fastened to the floor- 
ing) or with bulkheads running thwartships across the boat. 
Inspect these areas for stress and weakness. 

If the boat has been in salt water for any length of time, 
then insist on checking the fastenings. A clue to rust is 
stained paint over concealed nail holes. When iron or steel 
fastenings begin to deteriorate, even in the first stages of 
rust, there is no method available to prevent them from 



worsening. But do not let this condition alone condemn 
an otherwise solidly constructed boat. What the buyer 
should do is make an allowance for this type damage and 
deduct the expense of replacing the fastenings with 
new ones. 

The best fittings are made of true bronze screws which 
last almost indefinitely. Do not confuse bronze with com- 
mercial brass— a metal that is quickly eaten away when in 
contact with salt water. Again the emphasis is on per- 
sonally removing a screw, checking the type metal, its 
condition, and seeing that it has not been beaten down to 
a wirelike thinness. 

Anti-fouling paint is a must on the bottom of any salt- 
water boat. It is not important whether the seller or buyer 
applies the paint, the fact remains the hull must be coated 
before used. 

Most boat owners enjoy refinishing work. It not only 
gives them a personal feeling, but the knowledge of a job 
well done. If the boat for sale lacks paint, consider this 
a favorable point, since a bare hull will quickly expose 
hidden defects. It will also furnish the new owner an 
excuse to refinish. 

Before you decide to buy any boat, make the owner haul 
it out for inspection. Walk all around the outside and 

examine the hull carefully. A small knife blade may be 
poked at suspicious areas. If the knife goes in more than 
1/16 in., you may have a “soft-spot.” If the knife goes 
into the wood up to the hilt, then you have a serious defect. 
Pass this boat up and search for another. Sad expereince 
will show that it’s much cheaper to simply purchase a new 
boat, than find yourself replacing, by slow degrees, the 
rotting plankings of a poor second-hand one. 

The only cure for dry rot is to tear out every bit of 
infected wood and replace. If you leave a few shreds of 
dry-rotted wood, then the disease will likely spread to new 
areas in a short time. Paint will help prevent it, providing 
the entire surface is painted before the wood is put in 
place. There are many good wood preservatives on the 
market today which do a lot at keeping dry rot at bay, but 
here again, the entire piece of wood should be dipped or 
soaked after it is cut to shape and ready to put in place. 

On old-time sailing ships, rock salt was used copiously all 
over the inside of the hull. The idea was to thoroughly 
salt the wood, and by this method, prevent a great deal of 
dry rot. At regular intervals, ships were “salted” and in 
time this treatment made the wood almost ironlike in 
hardness. There is no reason why this could not be done 
on many of our boats today. 

A GOOD, RELIABLE RIG is something every boatman must have if he is going to get the last measure 
of pleasure from sailing and boating on our Pennsylvania waterways. A faulty piece of equipment 
can ruin even a new rig. 


MEMORIAL DAY, 1963, is by now a thing of the past— 
a date which in addition to its memorial significance is 
used by many Pennsylvanians as sort of an unofficial time 
piece to mark the start of another boating season. 

Fortunately there are many boating enthusiasts who, 
after months of armchair cruising in the warmth of the 
living room, took advantage of the sometimes favorable 
weather prior to May 30 and managed to get in a few 
extra weeks of boating. 

This year, provided you have the time and equipment, 
why not try something different for a change by making 
use of some new stretch of water. There are launching 
facilities galore, from one end of the Commonwealth to 
the other. All you need is the time and a strong urge to 
break away from the routine even if its just for a day or two. 

A ,-EW SAFETY HIN Tr keep in mind this year and every year: 
A. Steer clear of fishermen and, as a result, he'll refrain from 
anchoring in areas commonly used by pleasure craft and water 
skiers. B. Learn the p; : jer way to wear CG-approved life 
cushions. C. Carry shear pins, cotter pins, pliers and a punch. 

D. Use the seats, not the bow, cabin top or gunwales, while 

Robert G. Miller 

The Susquehannock Power Squadron, with a member- 
ship encompassing several eastern Pennsylvania counties, 
recently released its roster for the 1963 season— a roster 
which keeps growing by leaps and bounds each year as 
proof that more and more Pennsylvanians are becoming 
boating enthusiasts. 

At the same time the association reported increased 
interest in its various courses of study dealing with not 
only safe boat handling but also the mechanics of boating. 
This is an excellent indication that folks have reached the 
point where they are no longer satisfied with just an 
afternoon cruise. They want to know what makes that 
engine hum, and what to do when it stops humming away 
from home port; they like to be able to look at the sky 
and tell what kind of weather is in store, and to have at 
least some knowledge of seamanship and piloting. 

My apologies this month to the Tri-County Boat Club 
of Dauphin County which has taken over the former Stein’s 
Landing, below Middletown, on the Susquehanna River. 
The former name was listed in the recent “Boating Guide 
to Pennsylvania Waters.” Incidentally my aim is to keep 
this guide up to date as much as possible so drop me a 
line in the event of any new improvements, changes in 
management, or the establishment of new marinas. 

Incidentally the Pequea Ski & Crutch Club, Lancaster 
County, is currently planning a water show for the Fourth 
of July. This organization, ofttimes confused with the 
Pequea Boat Club, operates on the lower Susquehanna 
out of Pequea. 

Ed Barto, president of the organization, is also serving 
as chairman for this year’s first, and perhaps annual, ski 
show which will feature trick skiing, doubles combination, 
slalom and jumping using the new ramp. 

Last year the organization sponsored its first boat parade, 
an event which went over big in the Pequea area. A 
similar event, aimed at providing boat owners with an 
opportunity to use their creative ability in decorating their 
craft, was planned for early this month. 

In addition to Barto, other officers are: Jake Eshleman, 

Conestoga, vice president; and Miss Mary E. Kauffman, 
817 E. Madison St., Lancaster, secretary-treasurer. 

Understand the Bethlehem Boating Club has expanded 
its facilities this year. Hope to have more on this subject 
in a later issue. 

On Thursday, May 23, the Susquehannock Power 
Squadron released its roster for the 1963-64 season and 
if it becomes any larger, and it does each year, the squadron 
may have to issue it in two volumes. 

Gray Playter, public relations man for the organization, 
reports the new roster contains 303 members plus the 
names of 86 women. The latter, better known as the 
“ladies of the squadron,” are not members but hold cer- 
tificates earned on completion of various boat handling 

During the past winter months, Playter reported, some 
70 per cent of the members, and a few of their wives, took 



advantage of the courses offered by the squadron. Ten 
different courses were made available in these communities : 
Lancaster, York, Harrisburg and Chambersburg. They in- 
cluded piloting, seamanship, advanced piloting, junior 
navigation and two optional courses of study, engine 
maintenance and weather. 

Volunteering their services as instructors were: G. Robert 
Spalding, Neffsville, holder of a master’s degree in 
meteorology from Penn State, who handled the weather 
course; Gilbert Reynolds, Lancaster; advanced piloting, 
Leon Sacks and Sam High, Lancaster, piloting, Jack 

S. Belsinger, Lancaster seamanship; Carl J. Wilcox, 
York, junior navigation; and Ward W. Donohue, York, one 
of the engine maintenance instructors. 

C. McCrea White, Harrisburg, commander of the 
squadron this year, named Sam W. High, 1591 Mission 
Rd., Lancaster, owner of the 26 foot cruiser, “REBEL,” as 
chairman of the boating activities committee this year. 

At this point I would like to take the opportunity (space 
permitting) to ask for the cooperation of all boating 
organizations in the state, individual boatmen as well, in 
obtaining material for this column each month. 

Today, because of the extensive growth of pleasure 
boating over the past 15 years and its importance as an 
outlet for family recreation, many publications, even some 
weekly newspapers, devote a certain amount of space to 
the subject. 

Many use syndicated material, which may or may not 
have any local interest, while others make better use of 
material featuring local events and local people. 

The latter is the aim of this column for the “Pennsyl- 
, vania Angler” but in order to achieve this goal it is neces- 
sary to have the cooperation of clubs from one end of the 
state to the other. 

To avoid getting into a rut with canned copy, I hope to 
deal largely with club activities on a more personal basis. 
A good start would be to list the names, and addresses, of 
all new officers and to use, if possible, a group photo of 
those officers. If a group photo is not available, then how 
about a recent shot of the new president or commodore. 

Incidentally, all photos, which will be returned provided 
they have a return address on the back, must be good, 
clear and sharp back and white glossies. 

A brief notice of advance activities can and will be used 
provided the information is received well in advance, at 
least two months ahead of time. 

New facilities are always news and in most cases would 
also warrant the use of a photograph. If one is not avail- 
able, pass along the item anyway and perhaps arrange- 
ments can be made to have a photograph taken especially 
for this column. 

Pennsylvanians enjoy a variety of boating. Some prefer 
a rowboat for drift fishing, others aren’t satisfied with less 
than a sleek, fast runabout; while some folks like the 
comfort of the small, roomy cruiser. On the other hand 
owners of sailing craft claim that’s the only kind of boating 
there is. 

My goal, and it may prove difficult to achieve, is to 
report something of interest to all of these folks and to touch 
on as wide an area as possible each month. 

This is where cooperation comes in and I’ll certainly 
appreciate hearing from boaters from all four corners of 
the Commonwealth, and points in between as well, as soon 
as possible. Please mail all copy to: Robert G. Miller, 

367 Locust St., Columbia, Pa. 

l RuIslAu ihsL TIcuajUcclL (RdojcL 

SndudsL fciqhL (Boms: (poinhu 

HaVING a thorough knowledge of what you are doing 
always makes doing it more fun. This applies to just about 
everything, including recreational boating. 

It’s more fun when cruising, for example, if you are 
familiar with the rules of the waterways, buoyage systems 
and locking procedures. Water skiing is more fun when 
both skier and driver understand and use recognized hand 
signals. And here’s a case where experience is not neces- 
sarily the best teacher; it’s better to learn as much as you 
can beforehand. 

Some things are pretty basic and should be common 
knowledge among all boatmen, whether they own 8-foot 
prams or 30-foot cruisers. In Outboard Boating Skills, a 
booklet published by the Evinrude Boating Foundation, 
outboard authority, Everett B. Morris, lists the following 
eight basic rules of the water road. Are you familiar with 

1. Meeting— When two boats approach head on, each 
should steer to the right or starboard side of the other boat. 

2. Overtaking— When one boat is overtaking another, 
the one doing the overtaking must stay clear of the one 
being overtaken. The boat being overtaken has the right 
of way. 

3. Crossing— When two boats approach at a 90 degree 
angle, the one to the right of the other has the right of 
way. This is the same thing that applies when driving 
an automobile. 

4. Leaving slips and piers— Boats leaving slips or piers 
for open water have no rights until they are entirely clear. 
They must proceed slowly and with caution. 

5. Sailboats— Sailboats always have the right of way 
over power boats except in a rare situation where they are 
overtaking boats under power. 

6. Fishing boats— Whether anchored or underway with 
nets, lines or trawls out, fishing boats have the right of way. 
Take it easy when passing a fishing party. 

7. Tows.— Under certain circumstances, power boats 
have the right of way over tugs with barges in tow. In 
practice, however, it’s only good sense to yield the right of 
way since a small outboard is much easier to maneuver 
than a string of barges. 

8. Boats in distress— If you are involved in a mishap or 
come across one on the water, it is your duty to render all 
possible assistance. A good boatman is always ready and 
willing to offer a tow or lend fuel to a fellow sportsman 
in need. 

There are the eight basic written rules of the nautical 
road. There are many other unwritten rules that come 
under the heading of just plain common sense. When in 
doubt as to what to do in a particular situation, put yourself 
in the place of other boatmen who will be affected by your 
actions and then act accordingly. You won’t go wrong. 

Water skis are made in varying lengths and widths. 
The weight and experience of the skier, along with the 
pulling power of the tow boat, should be considered when 
selecting skis. 

JULY— 1963 


OudJbocUucL Jimw-Kmu Qarc 

(pMvmt cl 

Jto&L COcsJl 


Back in the days of the old “knuckle-busters,” outboard 
boatmen often had to be part time mechanics if they 
wanted to get in a whole day of boating. But modem 
outboards are quite different. Now it’s to the point where 
a man, woman or child can turn a key to start the engine, 
push a button to shift into gear, nudge a lever to accelerate 
and do all this while sitting in a comfortable seat behind 
an automotive type steering wheel and wrap-around wind- 

No doubt about it, recreational boating has come a long 
way. Today, in fact, many outboard skippers have never 
seen their engines with the motor covers off. All this is 
fine but, according to Bill Smale, chief engineer at Evinrude 
Motors, it still pays to know something about minor prob- 
lems you may encounter and how to correct them. 

What do you do if your engine won’t start? First check 
the fuel system, says Smale. Make sure the tank is not 
empty and the fuel lines are not kinked. Also check to 
see that the line is connected at both ends and that it is not 
being pinched under a tank or at some other spot. 

If a warm engine won’t start, chances are it’s flooded. 
To remedy this, disconnect the fuel lines at the motor, 
advance the throttle and pull the starter rope several times. 
Then reconnect the line, squeeze the priming bulb and 
give it another try. This should do it. 

Rough idling is another common but easily corrected 
problem. Turn the low speed carburetor setting knob 
slowly until the engine smooths out. Defective spark plugs 
and improper fuel mixtures can also cause rough idling. 

If the motor is sluggish at full throttle, poor spark plugs 
are most likely the answer. If inspection shows them to 
be fouled or burned, they should be replaced. Plugs can 
also be cleaned but for the small cost involved, it’s a better 
idea to put in new ones. Poor high speed performance 
can also be caused by other factors which can usually be 
quickly found by a qualified marine dealer. 

Excessive vibration while the boat is underway is often 
due to a bent or broken propeller. If the propeller is good, 
check to be sure weeds have not caught on the lower unit. 
Propellers are a subject in themselves and it’s a good idea 
to have them checked periodically. At the same time, ask 
the dealer if the propeller you are using is right for the 
boat and the load you are pulling. 

These are basic answers to a few common problems. 
They won’t apply all the time, says Smale, but they will 
give you a place to start. Leave the servicing and major 
repair work for the experts but know enough so that you 
can handle minor adjustments yourself. Besides being 
practical, you’ll find it will make your boating more fun. 

It doesn't take much imagination to figure out this fellow's problem 
— he's out of gas. One cf the rules of the boating road is that a 
boatman will always help another boatman in distress. Lend a 
helping hand or a gallon of fuel when needed. 

ChiuAiwj^ wild (Boat and Qah. 

CDoubloA, J'lUL, ftsducsA. fold 


OOKING for a new approach to boat cruising fun? 
Here’s an idea that is becoming quite popular in all parts 
of the country. It involves cruising with a second family 
and a car. Let’s say you and your friends, whom we’ll call 
the Joneses, are both interested in boating. You can both 
arrange your vacations at the same time and you can decide 
on a cruise area. If this is the case, get set for a wonderful 

Here’s how it works. You both start at point A. You 
and your family take the boat and set out for point B. 
The Joneses leave by car and agree to meet you later that 
day at a predetermined time and place at point B. The 
next day you alternate; the Joneses take the boat and you 
drive the car. This continues until you have reached your 
destination. On the way back you plan it so the family 
that traveled a specific area by boat will now travel it by 
car and vice versa. That way, both families have a chance 
to see the entire area both by car and boat. 

Many families find this an ideal way to cruise. It cuts 
the costs and doubles the fun. It does take quite a bit 
of planning, however, to coordinate the meeting times and 
places. But planning is half the fun of doing. 

£ e 



Jo ftsialk).' lAnwincL . . . 

Jwsl (Boalhuj^ cl Jaj^, 

Cut the grass, wash the car, go shopping, get up early, 
work late and hurry! These words are about as smooth 
and soothing as a shot of 15? bar whiskey. They’re down- 
right irritating, in fact. But unfortunately, they have be- 
come quite familiar to most of us. 

It’s a wise man who knows when he’s had enough and 
decides it’s time for a day of complete laziness. A day 
when he says the heck with it all; I’m going fishing and I 
hope the fish don’t even bother me. It’s his own brand of 
relaxation tonic and it’s usually a very effective one. 

One of the best ways to get away from it all is with a 
boat. Although much has been written about the joys of 
family boating, occasionally a man likes to get out by him- 
self. He looks for a quiet spot where he is not likely to 
be bothered by anyone— a spot where he can relax com- 
pletely and be just plain lazy without having to worry 
about it. What better way to find that spot than with a 

This is not boating as it is usually thought of. This is lazy 
boating and it usually includes fishing. It’s not that the 
fellow really cares if the fish bite or not. It’s just that it 
gives him a good excuse to get away, stretch out in the 
boat and let the rest of the world go by. 

The next time you feel fed up with it all, grab your 
fishing pole and head for nearest waterway. Find a cozy 
secluded spot and forget about everything. You’ll never 
find a relaxation tonic more pleasant to take. 

( OoIcJl St&tJL (jJhcfL (puUirn^ 

(2wai^ Jjwml (pistils 

UnLIKE an automobile, the back end of a boat responds 
first to a turn of the steering wheel. Keep this in mind 
when pulling away from a pier. If the boat is snugged 
against the pier and the steering wheel is turned 
too sharply, the stern can swing into or under the pier. 
Either push the boat away from the pier before accelerat- 
ing or leave the pier at a slight angle until the boat is clear. 

(Bsl OlstiiL Joh, Ob/dcudoA^ LOPiqil 
(B ocdinq^ ul Shallows 

When boating on shallow and unfamiliar waterways, 
keep both eyes on the water dead ahead and one hand 
on the throttle. Be alert for underwater obstructions such 
as submerged logs, stumps and rocks. Steer clear of sus- 
picious looking areas. If you see you are going to run onto 
something, cut back on the throttle until you have passed 
over the obstacle. Engineers caution that even though 
your outboard motor may be equipped with a slip clutch, 
damage to the propeller or even the motor itself can occur 
if it strikes a solid underwater object. 

SMALL CHILDREN and nonswimmers should be fitted with an ap- 
proved lifesaving vest. Make periodic checks to be sure all 
lifesaving devices aboard ship are in good shape to do the job 
they are intended for. 

OulhocOid (BoaimcjL Should 
Hcwsl JinowkdqsL o£ (RojfUiiu 

W HEN it’s in a coil it’s called rope. When it’s cut into 
lengths for use aboard a boat, it becomes line. But don’t 
let this confuse you. The important thing is that you know 
your ropes and how to use your lines. 

Good lines are a must for every outboard boatman. 
Even the skipper of an eight foot fishing pram must rely 
on his lines when anchoring. The water skier is towed 
with a line. And lines, of course, are very important to 
outboard cruising enthusiasts. 

Boatmen can choose from four basic types of rope: 
Manila, nylon, Dacron and polyethylene. But before buy- 
ing rope it’s a good idea to understand the difference. 

Manila rope, the old stand-by, has some advantages. 
It’s the most economical to buy and is easy to handle. 
However, it is susceptible to rot and is not as strong as 
some of the synthetic ropes. 

Nylon rope, while being stronger than Manila, is more 
expensive. It is also quite elastic which can be good or 
bad depending upon the use. Its elasticity makes it desir- 
able for mooring and anchor lines but not satisfactory for 
water ski tow lines. 

Dacron, like nylon, can be stored wet. It is stronger than 
Manila but not as strong as nylon. It does not have the 
elasticity of nylon. 

Polyethylene is the water skier’s favorite. It floats, is 
quite inexpensive, is not elastic and is stronger than Manila 
rope. Because of its flotation qualities, it seldom gets 
tangled in the propeller when used as a ski tow line. 

If you don’t know the ropes, ask a dealer for his recom- 
mendation. Make sure the rope you buy is stout enough 
to do the intended job and still provide a margin of safety. 

JULY— 1963 


*?iCtet 'tyau'i itc& 


A walleye was selected to show how to fillet your fish. Trout, 
bass, pickerel and yellow perch and others can be cleaned in 
the same manner. 


ST STEP . . . cut through skin from head 
tail along dorsal fin. This operation calls 
a SHARP knife. 

CUT DIAGONALLY across the side, in rear 
of gills, from head to pectoral fin. You need 
not scale the fish. 

CUT SKIN along belly, head to tail, 
the skin with the scales intact. 

: KNIFE to lift edge of skin, then peel 
back toward the tail. Skin peels easily 
m freshly killed fish. Cut white meat 
ich clings to skin. 

REMOVE SKIN this way in two long pieces. 
It makes the meat actually taste sweeter! 

WHEN FILLETS are freed, discard remaining 
sections . . . head, tail, entrails and back- 
bone. It takes a little practice but it gets 
easier as you go along with nice cuts and 
very little waste. 

FEW BONES and little work. Now cook 
according to your favorite recipe. 

WITH SKIN laid over tail, run the ti 
along backbone from tail to head, <i* 
fillet from body of fish. 




'Hew Icvitt 

A NEW twist lure to put action into your bass fishing 
this summer is a tiny spinner lure with an “up-side-down” 
fly. This reversed fly is simply a streamer or bucktail 
which has had the wings twisted around the shank until 
this appendage now covers the point and barb. The 
result is a spinner/fly combo that is practically weedless. 
It can be chucked right into the midst of a brush pile or 
weed bed without fear of becoming hooked in this debris. 
Yet, when smallmouths belt the lure, the feathers in no 
way interfere with the hook’s point. The fish is solidly 

Add a split shot or a keel sinker to the line for extra spin 
cast distance with this feather light lure. Then disregard 
the potential hazards that brush, submerged logs and beds 
of driftwood offer to fishermen. 

UP-SIDE-DOWN FLY will crawl over logs, thru grass and pads with- 
out getting snagged. The whirling blade sets up a vibration highly 
attractive to bass and other fish. 

ORDINARY spinner and fly combinations are used. Twist the wings 
on the fly until they are on the underside, covering the point and 
barb of the hook. It makes a weedless outfit. Add a keel sinker 
for greater casting distance. 

BRUSH PILE, snags and sunken logs are 
potpie for the twist fly. Big bass are 
often found in these tough-to-fish spots. 

SMALLMOUTHS are suckers for the tw 

(Don 't' tj&t Joo (jJsdL (Ddml JhsL JIaaL (Dol^ OjuL 

After a long cold winter the first warm day at the beach 
can be one of the most exciting experiences of the summer. 
Or it could be one of the most unhappy. 

Most of us expect overnight to turn into beautifully 
tanned gods and goddesses. But trying too hard the first 
time may find us in a hospital bed unable to move. 

Suntan lotions and creams are helpful protections but 
are not a substitute for gradual exposure. A warning to 
elderly persons and patients with tuberculosis, heart dis- 
ease or other serious illnesses— consult your physicians 
before any sun-bathing since exposure to the sun can be 
harmful in certain special cases. 

The only way to prevent sunburn is by gradual exposure 
to the sun, starting with a 10 to 15 minute sunbath in the 
late afternoon or other times when the sun is not too hot 

and slowly increasing the time and the intensity of the 

Too long exposure can mean not only sunburn but also 
sun and heat strokes. The symptoms of sunstroke and 
heatstroke, produced by too much exercise in the hot sun. 
are the same: headache, fever, complaint that things look 

red. Such strokes can be fatal. A physician should be 
called at once. Clothing should be loosened and the victim 
kept as cool as possible until the physician arrives. 

Heat prostration also is caused by getting overheated, 
but instead of developing a high fever, the victim becomes 
cold and clammy. Prompt medical attention and keeping 
the patient as warm as possible until a physician arrives 
are important. 

JULY— 1963 


TAG $T1 41 30— Walter LeVere, left, caught this 44'/2-inch, 20'/2-lb. 
muskellunge at Conneaut Lake on May 11, 1963. Dave Black, right, 
was LeVere's fishing partner. 

Some Fish Stories Are Stranger Than 


May 16, 1958, was a beautiful spring day and the fisher- 
men at Conneaut Lake were out in numbers. About 
10:30 a.m. someone noticed a large truck backing down to 
the water’s edge at the Shore Acres Beach and someone 
else shouted, “Oh boy, a load of fish for stocking the lake.” 

Soon a large crowd gathered and the driver brought 
out a large, deep net. Dipping down into the tank truck, 
he came up with a long, slender fish of about 30 inches 
and handed it down to the fish warden who immediately 
walked to the end of the dock and carefully released the 
fish into the waters of Conneaut Lake. Three more times 
this same operation took place and each time another 
musky was released into the lake. As the last one was 
being liberated, someone noticed a small, shiny tag on 
the dorsal fin of the fish and asked the reason. The driver 
explained that all of the fish had been tagged by the 
biologist at Erie before they were placed on the truck. 
He further explained that each tag bore a number which 
would be recorded at the regional field office and the 
Benner Spring Fish Besearch Station at Bellefonte, and 
that if these fish were caught later and the tags sent to 
the Fish Commission much valuable data would be ob- 
tained on the growth of muskellunge in Conneaut Lake. 

The Time changes. It is now five years later— May 11, 
1963, a far different day, in more ways than one. The 
weather was cold and a stiff wind was blowing out of the 
west. The only bright thing about the day was the fact 
that it was the opening of the musky, walleye and northern 
pike season in the inland waters of Pennsylvania and many 
of the more hardy fishermen were hard at work trying for 
the greatest of all freshwater prizes— a musky. 

District Warden Ray Hoover was out in the patrol boat 
checking fishermen when he pulled up to a boat with two 
men in it whom he had seen struggling with a very large 
fish. The lucky angler turned out to be Walter LeVere 
of Evans City, Pennsylvania, who proudly displayed a 44 h 
inch musky weighing 20h pounds. Hoover went over the 

TAG $14117— Fred Phelps, Jr., caught this 42-inch, 22-pound 
musky at Conneaut Lake also on May 11, 1963. 

fish very carefully, taking a sample of scales from the side 
of the fish and examining it for other markings. No tag 
was in evidence but he noticed a small growth on the first 
two rays of the dorsal fin about the size of a dime in 
circumference and almost perfectly round. Thinking that 
the fish had been injured slightly at some time, he con- 
gratulated the fishermen and proceeded on up the lake. 

Within a few minutes he came across Fred Phelps, Jr. 
and his younger brother who reside on the east side of 
Conneaut Lake and who are both ardent fishermen al- 
though Fred, Jr. only recently reached his seventeenth 
birthday. Fred, Jr. proudly informed Hoover that he, 
too, had been successful and immediately produced another 
beautiful specimen measuring 42 inches and weighing 22 
pounds. Again Hoover took scale samples and looked the 
fish over carefully, found no tag showing but again noticed 
a pronounced lump on the first two rays of the dorsal fin. 
Somewhat puzzled, he congratulated Fred on his fine catch 
and proceeded on across the lake to check other catches. 

About 4:00 p.m. Warden Supervisor Sheldon received 
a phone call that a seventeen year old boy had caught a 
large fish and had it at his home on the east side of Con- 
neaut Lake. Sheldon was anxious to get a picture of the 
fish and immediately drove to the Phelps’ home to photo- 
graph the fish. While admiring the fine specimen he, too, 
became curious about the lump on the dorsal fin and asked 
Phelps for permission to examine it closer. With a pen- 
knife he attempted to cut into the small growth and found 
it was a very tough ball of tissue having something very 
hard in the center. After several minutes he came up 
with a small metal tag bearing on one side the initials 
P.F.C. and on the other side the number T14117. Re- 
turning to his headquarters Sheldon immediately looked 
up the tag number and sure enough, it was one of the four 
muskys released on May 16, 1958. 

But the story does not end here. About 8:00 p.m. 
Warden Hoover stopped at Sheldon’s office to go over the 
events of the day and was not overly surprised when told 
that inside the growth on the dorsal fin of the fish there 
was a tag. When he informed Sheldon that the other 







T ii: 










fish also had a small growth in the same place, they both 
immediately returned to Conneaut Lake and to the cottage 
of Homer LeVere. Receiving the usual excellent coopera- 
tion from Mr. LeVere they were soon on their way back 
to Conneautville with tag bearing PFC T14130. They 
were, of course, anxious to learn the history of this fish 
and a check at the field office brought the surprise of a 
lifetime. This was another of the four fish which were 
stocked on May 16, 1958! 

Muskys bearing tag numbers T14107 and T14184 are 
still in the lake or else they have been caught by some 
lucky fishermen who have failed to find the little metal 
tag on the first and second rays at the base of the dorsal 
fin. The scale samples will, of course, show our biologists 
the exact age of these two fish but the fact that one was 
24/2 inches and the other 30 inches when stocked will 
give them very valuable information on the growth of 
these fish since they became residents of Conneaut Lake 
on that sunny day in May 1958. 

Records at the field office in Conneautville show that 
several hundred marked muskys have been planted in 
the waters of Conneaut Lake as well as many other 
waters in the State. Many were not tagged with a metal 
tag but instead had a fin removed. So, Mr. Fisherman, 
if you catch a musky, northern pike, walleye or bass, 
please examine it very carefully and if it has a tag or a 
missing fin, report it to your nearest Fish Commission rep- 
; resentative. In doing so you will contribute valuable in- 
formation toward fishery management in Pennsylvania. 

Regional Warden Supervisor, 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission. 



and Midges 

> 7 / ' 


MERICAN anglers, contrary to scientific fact, have 
adapted the word midge to any fly that must be tied on a 
size eighteen or smaller hook. The true midge is a small 
two winged fly belonging to the family of Chironomidae, 
of which there are over two hundred named species. I 
feel that our conservative English cousins had a sense of 
the fitness of things when they named these diminutive 
specks, Smuts or Curses. The latter is particularly appro- 
priate in the light of several observations involving the 
reactions of certain anglers when trout are feeding ex- 
clusively on these minutes specks. 

I answered the telephone one evening to hear the voice 
of one of my angler friends, vibrant with excitement. He 
had just returned from one of the less frequented stretches 
of a limestone stream and had found the trout cooperative 
beyond all reason. Would I care to come the next evening? 
Although experience in such matters have made me a 
skeptic I accepted his invitation. 

Instead of the larger flies of the day before we found 
the trout feeding on a tiny black midge. My friend cast 
his choicest patterns while trout fed all around, occasionally 
swamping the artificial with their rise to a natural. My 
friend had acquired a vocabulary that is rather colorful 
and expressive although perhaps not acceptable in polite 

society. As his exasperation grew his audible comments 
became more and more lurid. 

I carry a box of these small flies for just such an emer- 
gency and when I had supplied him with some specimens 
and 6 X tippets for his leader he tried again. He had 
trouble seeing the artificial and as a result began striking 
at every flash of a fish. The result was a frustrating 
evening with only one fish to show for his efforts. 

Several years ago we observed another angler who 
proved the effectiveness of the name “Curses.” The locale 
was a wooded portion of Penns Creek. The time was an 
afternoon in late June. There had been sporadic hatches 
of both Black Midges and a tiny Blue Dun. The trout 
had cooperated in a way that would please any angler. 
We had used several patterns of flies. Eighteens worked 
well but 20 and 22 sizes were better. The sport had been 
so good that my companion and I had skipped lunch. By 
mid-afternoon we felt the need of both rest and nourish- 
ment so found a place in the shade of some streamside elms. 
An island of grass and willows screened our resting place 
from a pool we intended to fish a little later in the after- 
noon. Suddenly from the pool beyond the willows came 
a volley of expletives. My companion, sniffing a scent 
of fun in the air, waded to the island unseen, then parted 
the grass and peered through. He motioned me to join him. 

An angler with snowy hair and a bristling white 
mustache was building up his blood pressure by fruitless 
casting over at least a dozen rising trout. We watched 
him change flies at least nine times in a few minutes. 
All the while his exasperation was increasing. When a 
trout finally moved in and used the back of his boot for a 
breakwater, the angler kicked viciously at the fish, then 
splashed his way ashore and walked swiftly away. His 
sulphuric comments came back more and more faintly 
mellowed by distance. The waves that marked his passing 
had barely stilled when the pool was again ringed by 
rising fish. 

My companion attached a No. 20 Blue Dun and took 
eight trout with ease. He killed one that weighed a bit 
under two pounds and released the others. 

A feeding characteristic that is apparent when the 
midges are flying just above the surface is splashing. The 
trout will rise and splash with its tail. The tiny insects 
are knocked out of the air to flounder on the surface. The 
trout will then rise, deliberately pick them from the surface. 
This action has been observed by many anglers so soften 
we have come to believe it is a deliberate feeding pattern. 

One of the best fish producing patterns as well as the 
easiest to tie is the Knotted Midge. This is an English 
pattern representing two midges falling on the water dur- 
ing the act of procreation. A strand of ostrich herl is tied 
around a No. 20 hook in such a manner as to cause the 
fibers to stand out at right angles to the hook. A band of 
tying silk divides the body into two parts. There are 
no wings or tail. 

Another pattern that is a must is the Black Midge. This 
fly is tied with slate colored wings, black silk body and 
black hackle. A variation is tied with a gray silk body. I 
occasionally add a long tail consisting of just two black 
hackle fibers adding something to the appeal of this fly. 
There are two Blue Dun midges tied with tiny slate 
wings and blue gray hackle. One has a body of muskrat 
under fur, the other has the fur dyed green which pro- 
duces a slate green body. When the tiny gray duns are on 

JULY— 1963 



the water these flies will produce rises when the other 
small ones fail. 

Unusual patterns sometimes turn the trick when the 
imitation of the naturals fail. For this reason I like to 
carry a supply of Royal Coachman in size 20 and 22. This 
is a particularly effective pattern on deeper, still waters. 

During certain seasons of the year the silver maples and 
other streamside trees are infested with aphids. The 
winged adults are dislodged and fall into the stream. 
Trout take them avidly. Whether the sweetness of the 
honeydew produced by these insects accounts for the 
greed with which the trout take them is a question I 
cannot answer. 

For an imitation I spin white rabbit fur on blue tying 
silk and build a football-shaped body on a No. 20 hook. 
If you wish to add a tiny pair of light stub wings and pick 
a few hairs from the body with a dubbing needle to serve 
as hackle it will not detract from the effectiveness of 
the lure. 

The larva of the midges resemble tiny worms and live 
in slime tubes either attached to the bottom or to rocks 
in the stream bed. They are red, yellow, white and green. 
The pupae rise to the surface, hatch into the winged adults 
with enlarged thoraxes. If a bit of dark chenille is added 
to the worm-like body and topped with some sparse gray 
hackle to imitate the respiratory filaments the imitation, 
fished wet, will entice fish during the hot summer months 
when fishing it slow. This may account for the popularity 
of the old Gray Hackle yellow that our fathers valued as 
a taker of trout. 

One of the memories I cherish is of a beaver dam located 
on the head of a mountain brook where the brookies had 
grown to considerable size. After trying a great number 
of patterns I finally attached a No. 20 Royal Coachman 
and found success. The trout rose with deliberation and 
took it without caution. When I returned a year later the 
beavers and trout were gone and the dam broken, yet this 
tiny fly has proved its worth may times since. I find still- 
water feeders are still susceptible to this bright bit of fluff. 

—Albert G. Shimmel 

HoWDY, the Good Outdoor Manners Raccoon, is return- 
ing this year to resume the battle for a cleaner, finer out- 
door Pennsylvania. 

E. F. McNamara, President of the Pennsylvania Forestry 
Association, HOWDY’S originator and chief sponsor, has 
announced that this year’s project will be a word building 
contest open to all the school children of the state. The 
contest will be conducted shortly after the opening of 
the fall term of the 1963-64 school year. 

In the contest, the young people will be asked to form 
as many words as they can from the sentence, HOWDY 
letter only once. 

Contest rules and the list of county and state prizes are 
being put in final form and will be announced later this 

The Association will defray the costs of the program 
through the sale of attractive, sturdy, durable school book 
covers, illustrated to tell convincingly the story of why 
Good Outdoor Manners are growing increasingly impor- 
tant as more and more people flock to the out of doors 
for recreation and other purposes. 

As in previous years, the Pennsylvania Fish Commission 
expects to cooperate fully in the project. 

Executive Director Albert M. Day has had a notice 
sent to all Fish Wardens and other field personnel, asking 
them to help in every way possible, including serving 
actively on the county committees that are being formed 
to carry out the contests in their local areas. 

Other sponsors of the Good Outdoor Manners educa- 
tional project include the Game Commission, Department 
of Forests and Waters, the Agricultural Extension Service, 
the U. S. Soil Conservation Service, the Federation of 
Women’s Clubs, the Garden Club Federation, the Federa- 
tion of Sportsmen’s Clubs, and the Pennsylvania Division 
of the Izaak Walton League of America. 

McNamara announced that the Forestry Association has 
asked William Voigt, Jr., to serve as the program director 
this year. Inquiries regarding the Good Outdoor Manners 
educational project may be addressed to Voigt at P. O. 
Box 178, Bowmansdale, Pa. 

Fish Commission to Receive Federal Aid 


A PRELIMINARY distribution of $12,600,000 in Federal- 
aid funds will be made available to the States July 1, 1963, 
for fish and wildlife restoration projects. Secretary of the 
Interior Stewart L. Udall announced today. The similar 
division a year ago was $12,350,000. The Pennsylvania 
Fish Commission was apportioned a total of $52,350.81. 

The balance of the Federal-aid funds will be apportioned 
during the fall of 1963, but the Department did not indi- 
cate the possible total. For the past five years wildlife 
restoration funds have averaged $14.8 million annually 
and fish restoration funds approximately $5.3 million 
each year. 

Of the $12,600,000 just allocated, $10,200,000 is for 
wildlife restoration and $2,400,000 for fish projects. 

Secretary Udall said that early distribution is being made 



again this year to help the States better program their 
Federal-aid activities. 

“Early distribution is of special importance to those 
States operating on a revolving fund basis,” the Depart- 
ment explained. 

Under the Federal-aid programs for restoring fish and 
wildlife, States spend their own funds on approved projects 
and are then reimbursed up to 75 percent of the cost. 
Many States have exhausted or soon will exhaust their 
Federal-aid funds for programming their projects for the 
next fiscal year, which begins July 1. 

Federal-aid funds come from an excise tax on sporting 
arms and ammunition and on fishing rods, reels, creels, 
and artificial lures. Distribution of the two funds is made 
on formulas based upon the number of paid license holders 
in a State and on the State area, as spelled out by law. 

Laws establishing the Federal aid to fish and wildlife 
restoration programs also provide $10,000 each for such 
projects on Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. 
The total funds these territories are entitled to for the 
fiscal year 1964 is included in the preliminary apportion- 
ment made today. The Federal aid acts are administered 
by the Fish and Wildlife Service’s Bureau of Sport Fisheries 
and Wildlife. 

Pennsylvania Junior 
Camp Opens 



ORE than 170 high school boys are enrolled this sum- 
mer at the Pennsylvania Junior Conservation Camp, spon- 
sored by the Pennsylvania Federation of Sportsmen’s 

The Camp, which will mark its 16th year this summer, 
opened June 23 and will continue through August 17, 
during which time four groups of boys will spend two 
weeks each in camp. 

As in past years, the camp site is in the Stone Valley 
Recreation Area of the Pennsylvania State University, 
located at RR 1, Petersburg, in Huntingdon County, about 
15 miles south of the campus. 

Charles W. Stoddart, Jr., director of physical education 
continuing education at Penn State, will again be director 
for the camp and Fred Carpenter, of Bloomsburg, will 
return for his second year as head counsellor. 

The camp is planned for high school freshmen and 
sophomores who are leaders in their schools and who have 
an interest in conservation education. 

It offers them a chance: 

1. To learn the conservation or wise use of our natural 
resources— soil, forests, water, minerals, wildlife; 

2. To profit from a rich camping experience while 
studying conservation education; 

3. To prepare for citizenship and service in home 

4. To learn to live, work, and play together; 

1ULY— 1963 

5. To develop interests in outdoor hobbies and activi- 
ties; and 

6. To prepare young leaders in the conservation edu- 
cation of the various communities of the State. 

The instructional program for the camp includes work 
with firearms, game and fish management, forest manage- 
ment, soil conservation, campcraft skills, leadership tech- 
niques, and enjoyment of outdoor living. There will also 
be instruction in ropecraft, gear and shelter, firecraft, tool 
craft, boating, canoeing, and sailing the Tech dinghy. 

To be enrolled for the camp, a boy must be sponsored 
by a sportsmen’s club or conservation agency. Informa- 
tion on sponsorship and financial support by a sponsoring 
organization may be obtained through sportsmen’s clubs 
in the home area or through Division chairmen, Mr. 
Stoddart explains. 

Divisions and dates for each to send quotas to the camp 

Northeast and Southeast— June 23 to July 6. 

Southern and Northwest— July 7 to July 20. 

North Central and South Central— July 21 to Aug. 3. 

Southwest and Central— Aug. 4 to Aug. 17. 

Slippery Rock Creek Watershed 
Samplings Completed 

T HE Pennsylvania Department of Health has announced 
that a study of samplings taken to check the quality of 
stream water and mine drainage on the Slippery Rock 
watershed has been completed. 

The study will help determine what can be done to 
improve water quality on the watershed, Dr. Lewis D. 
Williams, the Department’s regional medical director with 
headquarters here, said. 

Mine drainage from all mines, both active and inactive, 
will be investigated by regional sanitary engineers and 
water pollution specialists, Dr. Williams said. 

To provide a complete picture of stream conditions, 
local fish wardens will conduct a fish survey and biologists 
from Allegheny College will cooperate by analyzing stream 
bottom samples. 

The Slippery Rock Creek watershed has 1,300 mines in 
its 400 square mile area. Since coal was mined in the 
area for more than a century before clean streams legisla- 
tion was enacted, over 400 of these mines have unregulated 

The closing down five years ago of a limestone plant in 
Boyers caused water quality in one section of Slippery 
Rock Creek to deteriorate. Dr. Williams said. The section 
of stream is between Pa. Route 308 and U. S. Route 19. 

He explained the deterioration came when the plant no 
longer discharged limestone washings which used to 
neutralize acid coal mine drainage. 

While making the stream quality study, health depart- 
ment engineers determine : ( 1 ) which coal seams are pro- 
ducing the most mine acid drainage; (2) what effects dif- 
ferent types of backfilling have on the quality' of the dis- 
charges; (3) what measures can be taken to correct 
individual mine discharges. 

After the study is analyzed, the engineers will recom- 
mend to the Sanitary Water Board measures to help cor- 
rect conditions. Dr. Williams said. 



On Saturday, May 18, 1963, I observed an angler hook into 
a big fish at Chapman Lake. From the way it fought I knew 
it was a nice one and I thought it had gotten away. I ap- 
proached the angler and sympathized “It’s too bad you lost 
that fish.” “I didn’t lose it ... I released it. It was a big 
pickerel at least 28 inches long and I could have won a prize 
with it, but since the season is closed on pickerel, I released 
it.” I informed him the season opened on May 11 and he 
could have kept the fish. The man sat down and started to 
either bawl or talk to himself. That angler was a good sports- 
man to release the fish thinking the pickerel season was closed. 

—District Warden WALTER G. LAZUSKY ( Lackawanna. ) 


The American shad run in the Delaware River has brought 
about a big change in the river. Late April anglers have 
found the river able to produce some very good catches of 
walleye and smallmouth bass. The season on these species 
is open the year around in the Delaware. If the shad aren’t 
hitting I have seen many anglers come up with good stringers 
of walleye and bass. 

-District Warden HARLAND F. REYNOLDS (Wayne). 


While in Bedford Valley, Game Proector William Shaffer and 
I talked to James Miller about hunting and fishing there- 
abouts. Miller made the statement that he quit buying a 
fishing license but does buy a hunting license. He reasoned 
that when you come back from hunting and don’t get any- 
thing you can always say there’s nothing there but when 
you’re fishing and can actually see the fish swimming around 
and then can’t get them to bite, you cannot say there are no 
fish ... so I just quit fishing. 

—District Warden WILLIAM E. MdLNAY (Bedford). 


The Delaware River has been alive with angling activity 
from the tidal area at Penn Manor Estate in lower Bucks 
County to the Delaware Water Gap in Northampton County. 
It all came about when the herring made their appearance in 
the area of Penn Manor near Morris ville and, according to 
Edward Balderston at this place, the run started about the 
11th of April; also verified by others at the area. Special 
Warden Joe DeSau had been getting reports of small sturgeon 
being caught by anglers fishing for suckers below the Penn 
Manor Club at Morrisville and near the Fairless Hills steel 
mill. The shad started to come on about April 19. On April 
21, John Sawchuk, Easton, Pa., caught a 22-inch roe, weighing 
five pounds, which produced a pound of roe. Sawchuk caught 
the fish at Easton in the fast water under the railroad trestle 
of the Jersey Central Line on a dart. 

—District Warden MILES D. WITT (Northampton and Bucks). 


On Saturday, April 20th the Union City Hatchery had sev- 
eral muskellunge fishermen from Edinboro Lake looking over 
the brood stock of muskies taken from Edinboro Lake. One 
48-inch, 28-pound female musky that had her eggs taken was 
placed in a tank with, a dark lid on top. By lifting the lid by 
the corner and morioning for this fish, she would come swim- 
ming to that corner of the tank with her back out of the water 
and lay there, allowing her back to be stroked. This fish really 
seemed to like men! New ... if any fishermen at Edinboro 
Lake this summer, are seen making soft, stroking motions on 
the water, it’s only that female musky getting her back 
scratched. — District Warden NORMAN E. ELY (Erie). 

From a Warden's Mailbag 


Dear Sir: 

Thanks for the information concerning fishing from the Dam 
Breast. I will tell anyone who asks me about it, and we appre- 
ciate the way things are going at Hunter’s Lake. It’s the best 
Lake around here as far as we are concrened for fun and fish- 
ing and sure do appreciate the fact of being allowed to keep a 
boat on it. The foliage around the lake is more interesting than 
any other lake in Pa. 

Thank you very much. 

Sincerely yours, 
Donald A. Audieur 

Dear Sir: 

The information you requested in order for me to obtain a 
mooring permit is as follows: Length— 12 ft. width approx. 54", 
can seat 5, and is built of plywood. 

I think Hunters Lake can be made into an excellent fishing 
lake. I spent a lot of time there this summer fishing for pick- 
erel and find it rather poor, although there are some nice bass 

Any information concerning stocking of the lake in the future 
will be greatly appreciated. It will be passed on to the con- 
solidated sportsmen of Muncy Creek, who are also interested in 
this lake. 

It provides a place where a working man can go fishing with- 
out costing him a fortune. 

So here’s hoping for better fishing. 

Yours truly, 

Richard E. Feusternachier 

Muncy, Pa. 

Dear Sir: 

I am told that you are the person that can give me a permit 
to moor boats at Hunters Lake in Sullivan County. 

I have had two boats there since before the Fish Commis- 
sion bought the lake. 

I understand that now I must have a permit to keep them 

The information that I was told I must furnish you is as 
follows, as both boats are nearly the same. 

Boat Width— about 48" 

Length— 15/2' each 

Type— row boats 

Seating Capacity— 3 persons each 

Construction Material— wood 

The estimated value of each would be about $20.00 each. 

If there is any cost or any other information you need, please 
let me know. 

I appreciate what the Fish Commission is doing at Hunter’s 
Lake. I have fished this lake for nearly the last 12 years. 

It is one of the most beautiful and peaceful lakes in this part 
of Pennsylvania. 

I sincerely hope it stays that way. 

Sincerely yours, 
Carl O. Breisch 
Blooms burg, Pa. 

Dane Hawk, Evans City, Pa., informed me that when trout 
were hard to catch he used corn curls and took five trout in 
an hour when the rest of the fishermen had little luck on 
other bait. Wonder how potato chips would work? 

—District Warden CLIFTON E. IMAN (Butler and Beaver). 




COMMISSIONER JOSEPH M. CRITCHFIELD releases the first fish stocked 
in the 1,640 acre lake now open to public fishing. 

ADULT NORTHERN PIKE, one of the first to be stocked in Pennsylvania 
waters, was released at Glendale Lake, Prince Gallitzin State Park. 
Holding the big fish are (left to right), Gordon L. Trembley, Chief 
Aquatic Biologist, and Southwest Regional Supervisor Minter Jones, 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission. 


The opening day of trout season was warm and sunny and 
perhaps a record-breaker for the number of anglers out. Here 
and there the bushes were decorated with shirts, pants and 
socks hung by fishermen taking their usual trout season 

-District Warden KENNETH G. COREY (Warren). 

Commissioner Joseph M. Critchfield Stocks 

First Fish 

More than 300 persons saw Fish Commissioner Joseph A. 
Critchfield of Confluence, Pa., stock the first fish in Glen- 
dale Dam at Prince Gallitzin State Park recently. Two 
truckloads of adult northern pike, black crappie and large- 
mouth bass were released in the initial stocking of the 

I, 640 acre lake which opened to public fishing on May 

II, 1963. The trucks carried approximately 200 northern 
pike ranging in size from 20 to 36 inches; 160 black crap- 
pies, weighing a pound each, and 40 largemouth bass up 
to 20 inches in length. It was the first time adult northern 
pike had been stocked in Pennsylvania waters. 

Commissioner Critchfield said there would be additional 
stockings of muskellunge, northern pike, bass, walleye, 
crappies and channel catfish fry or fingerlings in the lake 
during the early summer months. It was added it will 
take 2 to 3 years for the fry or fingerlings to attain legal 
size but in the meantime, sunfish and bullheads could be 

Other officials attending the opening event were: Minter 
Jones, Southwest Regional Fish Warden Supervisor; Penn- 
sylvania Fish Commission District Wardens— Frank Kuli- 
kosky, Cambria County; Arthur L. Walker, Indiana 
County; Claude Baughman, Blair County; Game Protector 
G. A. Miller, Pennsylvania Game Commission; Carl White, 
president of the Pennsylvania Federation of Sportsmen’s 
Clubs and William Barnhart, Superintendent of Prince 
Gallitzin State Park, Department of Forests and Waters. 

Frederick K. Riedel, Fish Hatchery Pioneer, Dies 

F REDERICK K. KIEDEL, 76, died on May 27, 1963 at 
Linesville, Crawford County, Pa. He was employed by 
the Pennsylvania Fish Commission August 1, 1907 and 
was in continuous employment for 44 years. He served 
with the Armed Forces in World War I. 

He was appointed superintendent at the Union City 
Hatchery on Tanuary 12, 1922, serving there until June 
1, 1935 at which time he was transferred to Pleasant Mount 
hatchery where he remained until June 20, 1939. In 
June, 1939 he was assigned as the first superintendent of 
the Linesville Hatchery which the Commission was con- 
structing on the Pymatuning Sanctuary. He served in this 
capacity from June 20, 1939 until his retirement on Mav 
1, 1952. 

Linesville Sportsman Dies 

AlPINE W. McLANE, the man generally credited with 
coining the phrase “Linesville, where the ducks walk on 
the fishes’ backs,” died Friday, May 10, 1963, at Meadville 
Spencer Hospital. He was 70 years of age. 

The ducks and fish slogan has made Linesville one of 
the top tourist attractions in the United States. Mr. 
McLane picked it up when he noted that when bread was 
thrown into the water near the spillway that both fish and 
ducks fought over it, that the fish would boil up in the 
water so solid that the ducks were left without any place to 
swim, so they would get up on the fishes backs and walk. 
He wrote to Ripley about it, and subsequently Believe It 
or Not gave it top billing. 

JULY— 1963 


Dear Sir, 

I have read the Angler for many years and enjoy your arti- 
cles on fishing and boating. But your magazine tends to be 
one sided on the Fish Commission policy. I realize that you 
are in no position to crticize the Commission but you should 
be able to defend them. 

Why not a letter to the editor? A page or pages in the 
Angler where a fellow can express his likes, dislikes or sug- 
gestions, perhaps his problems pertaining to fishing and boating. 

I read (The Conservationist) put out by New York State 
which is one of the finest magazines I have ever read. This 
magazine is open to criticism and I really enjoy and learn a 
lot reading these letters to the Editor. 

I don’t believe that raising the license fee will solve all our 
problems in the Fish Commission. Somewhere down the line 
we must have had poor management, but after all we are all 
still human! Let bygones be bygones. 

I believe that the Fish Commission is now ready to give us 
fishermen a fair shake. I am for an increase in fishing license. 
I will always buy a fishing license. I realize that as wages go 
up so will the cost of running the Fish Commission. 

I am also in favor of a raise in hunting licenses. Following 
are a few of my own ideas which might help fishing: 

1. Go back to the license in pocketbook, that is, do away 
with the inconvenience of carrying an outer garment. 

2. On any trout stocking after the first day keep the stream 
closed to the following Saturday so as to give everyone 
a fair chance, thus discourage truck following. 

3. Or stock these trout in fenced-in areas such as on Kinzua 

4. More warm water fish stocking, especially in the Alle- 
gheny River where the pressure is increasing each year. 
Black bass needs the most help. 

5. Don’t introduce a trout stamp. Work this out in the 
Commission so that each fisherman is helped whether he 
be a bait, artificial, warm water or trout fisherman. 

6. A free license for our senior citizens. 

7. Retaining boating within the Fish Commission. 

8. Strict laws on littering our streams. 

A Fisherman, 
Edward R. Hill 

Mr. Hill, we frequently use letters written by ANGLER 
subscribers, and you may be sure that they are not necessarily 
favorable to the Commission. 

RING-AROUND-THE-ROSIE ~ been all broken up between these 
characters by this time because crayfish are at, or near the top of 
the menu offered Pennsylvania bass! 

Dear Sir, 

My initial copy of your magazine arrived the other day, and 
I am very pleased with the contents. This was the May 1963 
issue, and I was impressed by the pictures on page 24 of vari- 
ous good catches of extra large fish in Commonwealth rates. 

One thing disturbs me, the picture showing 3 “Nice Wall- 
eyes” taken from the Delaware River lists the bait ured as 
“ LAMPREY EELS.” Is this bait legal? I thought lamprey 
eels were not allowed because they are deadly fish parasites. 


David G. Fridirici, V.M.D. 

Dear Dr. Fridirici: 

In reply to your letter of May 7th we wish to advise that 
lamprey eels are legal bait to use in Pennsylvania waters. These 
fresh water lampreys are the young of the sea lamprey. Sea 
lampreys run the Delaware River annually to spawn in head- 
waters and tributaries. The adults die after spawning. The 
young live in mud bars for several years before leaving fresh 
water to return to the sea. They live principally on insects 
and are, therefore, not considered a detriment to our streams 
in Pennsylvania, since they are not a parasite to our fish in 
fresh waters. 

Trusting this is the information you desire, I am 

Very truly yours, 

W. W. Britton 

Chief Enforcement Officer 

Trout Fisherman at 93 

GeTTING comfortable on a porch chair, J. B. Riddell, 
Williamsport, an amiable old-timer of 93 years, leaned 
back and began spinning a yarn that dated back nearly 
that far. 

“The first time I went trout fishing was in July, 1883,” 
the 5-foot 4-inch Williamsporter quickly recalled when 
asked when he first wet a line. A 1963 fishing license 
peeked from his hat band. 

“It was in Kettle Creek, Potter County,” he continued, 
“A wonderful stream at that time. 

“My dad, Charles Riddell; Capt. J. E. Potter— then 
Jersey Shore postmaster— and I left Jersey Shore in a 
lumber wagon Saturday and arrived at what is now Rudy 
Nichol s place at 6 p.m. Sunday, about 65 miles. 

“We camped there a week, fishing and living in a tent. 
I remember cattle running loose and myself chasing them 
at the time.” 

Born at Larry’s Creek on July 9, 1869, Mr. Riddell still 
fishes for trout, one of his main interests. When the season 
opened a few weeks ago, he left home at 1100 Market 
Street— where he lives with his daughter, Mary— and headed 
with a friend to Love Run Hunting and Fishing Club, a 
mile above Little Pine Creek Dam. 



Bit by bit . . . every 
litter bit hurts! 


“I didn’t do any fishing though,” he confessed, pointing 
to “tired legs,” although he walks without a cane. A mem- 
ber of the club 40 years, the old-timer admitted to catching 
62 trout last season. 

“An every day garden worm is as good as anything,” 
he said of his bait. “But I like to use the belly fin off a 
trout. It’s a good bait sunken or on top of the water— 
once you catch the first trout.” 

He also had a comment about a bill introduced in Harris- 
burg to provide free fishing licenses to persons 65 years 
old or more: 

“If they want to give a license to a crippled soldier or 
someone like that. I’m in favor of it. But if you can’t pay 
your fee and help stock the streams you might as well not 
go fishing.” 

Approaching 94, Mr. Riddell intends to go on fishing. 

Fish-a-Thon Big Hit at Hatfield 

HaTFIELD, PA.’s annual “Fish-a-Thon” was a big suc- 
cess with about 150 boys and girls turning out for the 
event held under perfect skies on Bergey’s pond recently. 

Chairman A1 Procopio, of the Jaycees— sponsors of the 
event, reported that many fish were caught during the four- 
hour period of the contest. The fish caught were catfish 
and sunfish. 

The Jaycees had stocked the pond with about 100 sun- 
fish a few days before the fishing derby took place, and 
on Saturday morning they added 150 catfish to the pond. 
Bob Kirpatrick, a Jaycee member who was assisting 
Procopio, said that the catfish put into the pond were all 
as big as 12 inches or bigger. 

The “Fish-a-Thon” was open to all boys and girls in 
Hatfield borough and township. During the four-hour 
time period prizes were offered for the first fish caught dur- 
ing certain periods, the most fish caught and the biggest 
fish caught. 

New State Park Proposed at Ohiopyle 

C REATION of a great state park in the Ohiopyle area 
took a giant step forward recently with the announcement 
that the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy had trans- 
ferred 2,800 acres of mountain lands to the Department of 
Forests and Waters of Pennsylvania. 

The properties acquired by the state extend for seven 
and one-half miles along the southern side of the Yough- 
iogheny River from Sugarloaf Mountain to Jonathan Run. 

Included are the thousand-acre Keister Park, with its 
two-mile-long trillium-lined Great Gorge Trail, the famed 
Cucumber Falls, and the sparkling rapids of the upper 
Cucumber Valley, and 1,650 acres of mountain lands lying 
between Ohiopyle and Sugarloaf Knob. 


H AVE you found a green slime clinging to your bass lures? 
The slime is algae, one of several hundred plants that grow 
in hair-like strands, and is a key factor in good fishing. 

The plant uses sunlight and the carbon dioxide in the 
water to form starch, and returns to the stream the free 
oxygen necessary for fish life. When two algae filaments, 
weaving with the current, finally meet, conjugation tubes 
are grown, through which the protoplasm from one cell 
flows into the cell on the opposite strand, forming a football- 
like fertilized cell. These footballs are released and grow 
into more algae plants, ready to balance the water chem- 
istry and, of course, foul your hooks. 

When the pond becomes bone dry, the footballs can 
weather out the drought and from the spores within the 
new algae plants begin to grow when the water reappears. 
This is how the green slime so mysteriously appears year 
after year. -don shiner 

Rock 'n Roll Lakes 

RoCKING and rolling of a lake is more fact than fiction. 
When the wind subtly exerts its force on the water surface 
and the waves roll, water is piled up on the far shore. 
Then, when the wind stops, the whole water surface seeks 
equilibrium and the lake stars to rock. The phenomenon 
will best be seen on the harbors and piers of big lakes. It 
looks like a small tide coming in and out. 

Also, a big internal wave is set in motion. As large quan- 
tities of warm surface water are piled up on the other side 
the cold water surface is depressed. The surface of the 
colder bottom waters begins to rock with even more ampli- 
tude than the surface. —Wisconsin Conservation. 

JULY— -1963 



— the — 

'tyou /ti&ed *)t 


Chief Enforcement Officer, Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

Following questions were asked through our mail bag corre- 
spondence. If you have a specific question or problem relating 
to fish laws and regulations, send them by card or letter to 
Editor, Pennsylvania Angler, Pennsylvania Fish Commission, 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 


I have a farm pond which has many bass in it. How can I 
get a regulated fishing lake license for my pond? 


It would be necessary for you to eradicate all fish presently in 
your pond, unless all fish in your pond were purchased from a legal 
source in the beginning. Eradication may be done by draining 
the pond down and poisoning the fish in it. This may be legally 
done by obtaining a permit from any salaried fish warden without 
cost. A regulated fishing lake as defined in Section 13 of the Fish 
Laws is as follows: The term "regulated fishing lake," as used 

in this chapter, means any artificial or man made pond or lake 
other than farm ponds or lakes as defined in Section 56 of this 
act, owned, leased or controlled in any manner by any individual, 
partnership, association or corporation, where fishing is permitted 
for payment of a fee, and in which all fish stocked are artificially 
propagated by commercial hatcheries or purchased from persons 
licensed to sell fish. 


How can I convert my farm pond into a baitfish propagation 
pond, whereby I can sell live minnows to fishermen or live 
bait dealers? And how much does such a license cost? 

P entvfLyluattia 



Pennsylvania's Anglers & Skippers 

Clip and mail coupon below 



If the original brood stock was not purchased in the beginning 
from a legal source, then the present minnows in the pond would 
have to be eliminated. In other words, you must start from scratch. 
Baitfish and fishbait taken from streams or ponds can not be sold. 
The cost for a baitfish propagating license is $25.00, per year. A 
bait dealer who does not propagate his bait may secure a bait 
dealers license for the sum of $10.00 per year. Both types of 
licenses are valid for the calendar year. Non-residents who wish 
to bring live bait into Pennsylvania for sale must secure a non- 
resident live bait dealers license for the sum of $100.00. Resident 
live bait dealers who wish to bring bait into Pennsylvania must 
first secure a transportation permit at a cost of $2.00 per year. 
All the above licenses must be secured from the Harrisburg office. 
A list of livebait propagators in Pennsylvania may be secured from 
the Harrisburg office of the Fish Commission without charge. 

Official Publication of the Pennsylvania Fish 

Enclosed is $ for my (New) (Renewal) 

Please send to: 



a © w r? 

: or money order payable to the Pennsylvania 
Fish Commission 


Cash sent or your own risk. STAMPS NOT ACCEPTABLE. 


In your May issue of the Angler in “You Asked About It,” 
you have answered a question on fishing from a bridge on a 
highway, stating the landowner can arrest you for trespassing. 
Question: If I fish from diat bridge or highway with a float on 
my line or a plug that does not touch the stream bed at any- 
time is that legal? That landowner does not own the water. 
I can not arrest an airplane pilot who flies over my property, 
because I don’t own the air. 


You are right in saying the landowner does not own the water, 
but he does have control of the water which flows over the land 
he owns Unless a stream has been declared navigable, past or 
present, the owner of the land has full and complete authority 
because it is on private property. 

Commonwealth vs. Foster, 36 Pennsylvania Superior Court, 
433 (1908). Reads in part, “As to private streams, the rule is 
that while the fish therein do not belong to the riparian owner 
or owners of the land through which the private stream flows, 
nevertheless the public may not fish therein.” 



Monthly peatune po* tyotatp 


Fishing and bird watching go together like sneakers 
and jeans. Wherever you fish, on lake or stream, there 
are interesting birds in sight that glean their living from 
the water and shoreline. 

One of the showiest of these is the belted kingfisher. 
Perhaps you’ve spotted him perched on a dead branch 
above the water or have heard his rattling call as he passed 

He is little larger than a flicker, but his head, with its 
shaggy crest and long stout bill, gives him a strange, top- 
heavy look. His upperparts are bluish-gray and his under- 
parts are white. With most birds the male is more col- 
orful than his mate, but the female kingfisher has a 
rust-colored band across the lower breast that the male 
lapks. Both sexes have a blue-gray band across the upper 

The kingfisher is an excellent angler, as you’d expect 
from one who spends all his time fishing. Aside from a 
few frogs and crawfish he eats little but fish. 

Watch him as he scans the glimmering water from his 
perch. Nothing that moves escapes his notice. At the 
first glimpse of a flashing fin he rushes to the spot, some- 
times hovering in mid-air until the target is right in the 
sights. Then he folds his wings and drops like a falling 
arrow. The impact tosses up a fountain of spray, but in 
a second he emerges, chattering triumphantly, and flies 
to a nearby limb, his prize clasped in his bill. Should the 
minnow struggle it is quieted with a few hard whacks 
against the limb, then swallowed headfirst. 

Some fishermen worry about the kingfisher eating all 
“their” fish, but except in unusual cases his prey consists 
of chubs, dace, and other non-game shallow water fish. 

Don’t look for the kingfisher’s nest in a tree or bush; 
you’ll be wasting your time. Look instead for a hole in 

a steep bank that has been excavated by the bird’s bill 
and feet. Some nesting tunnels are as deep as twelve feet, 
but most penetrate only half that far. The white eggs are 
laid in an enlarged chamber at the end of the hole. 

Unlike most baby birds, kingfishers do not acquire a 
coat of down after hatching, but are completely naked 
until their feathers appear. When small they are fed 
partially digested fish but long before they are old enough 
to scuttle to the mouth of the tunnel to meet their return- 
ing parents they are given whole fish to gulp down. 

By the time they leave the nest they are colored like 
their mother— each with a rusty band across its breast. 
Next year, after spending the winter in the South, only 
the females will wear this colorful band. The males, hav- 
ing reached maturity, will be attired in plain blue-gray and 
white like their father. 


You’ve probably heard the bullfrog’s deep “Jug-o’rum” 
coming from a nearby pond on a still July evening, but 
have you ever actually seen him singing? It’s quite a 
sight. By approaching quietly with a flashlight you can 
usually locate him as he floats lazily on the shallow water 
near shore. If you have the patience to watch for a while 
you will see his throat suddenly inflate like a huge, flat- 
tened balloon. With this supply of “compressed air” he 
begins his bass solo, and the ground fairly vibrates with 
each note. 

If you are a camera bug you can easily take a flash 
photo of his performance. Have a companion hold the 
flashlight on him while you focus. Remember though, it's 
illegal to catch frogs with the aid of a light, so be content 
to watch and listen. 


To straighten a kinked leader draw it through a folded piece 
of inner tube or other rubber. 

4 « e 

Waterlogged dry flies can be restored by squeezing them in a 
toad of facial tissue, then dressing. 

< « « 

To prevent a clincher sinker from sliding wrap the line or 
leader once around body of the sinker between the tabs. 

O 0 o 

To prevent rust damage to hooks open your fly box and dry 
quickly after each fishing trip. 

o o o 

Hooking Hellgrammites through the tail instead of the collar 
will enable you to break their hold on streambed rocks. 






(pwnAijfocwia dnqhth 

Published Monthly by the 

William W. Scranton, Governor 



Maynard Bogart, President Danville 

Joseph M. Critchfield, Vice President Confluence 



Albert M. Day 
Executive Director 

Robert J. Bielo 
Assistant Executive Director 

Warren W. Singer 
Assistant to Executive Director 

Paul F. O’Brien 
Administrative Officer 

Paul J. Sauer 



Aquatic Biology 

Gordon Trembley Chief 

Fish Culture 

Howard L. Fox Superintendent 

Real Estate and Engineering 

Cyril G. Regan Chief 

Edward Miller Asst. Chief 

Law Enforcement 

William W. Britton Chief 

Conservation Education-Public Relations 

Russell S. Orr - - Chief 



S. Carlyle Sheldon Warden Supervisor 

1212 E. Main St., Conneautville, Pa., 

Phone: 3033 


Minter C. Jones Warden Supervisor 

R. D. 2, Somerset, Pa Phone: 6913 


H. Clair Fleeger Warden Supervisor 

351 Terrace St., Honesdale, Pa., 

Phone: 253-3724 

Terry Rader Fishery Manager 

S. D. 3, Honesdale, Pa Phone: 253-2033 


foHN S. Ogden Warden Supervisor 

1130 Ruxton Rd., York, Pa Phone: 2-3474 

Gerard J. Adams Hawley 

Wallace C. Dean Meadville 

John W. Grenoble Carlisle 

Albert R. Hinkle, Jr. Clearfield 

R. Stanley Smith Waynesburg 

Raymond M. Williams . — East Bangor 



forcement Officer, Pennsylvania Fish Commission 
7 CANOES— Wayne Heyman 
9 THE WAY OF A STREAM-Eugene R. Slatick 
9 SMALL POND FISHING-Clyde H. Fellenbaum, Sr. 

10 BOATING-Robert G. Miller 




16 OIL DRUM SMOKEHOUSE-Herman Wiedenheft 


18 BASIC NYMPHS-Chauncy K. Lively 



24 YOU ASKED ABOUT IT-W. W. Britton 

25 SCHOOL’S OUT!— Ned Smith 

Cover art by Don Shiner 


ohn I. Buck Warden Supervisor 

5 . O. Box 5, Lock Haven, Pa., 

Phone: 748-7162 

Ian Heyl Fishery Manager 

l. D. 1, Spring Mills, Pa., 

Phone: Center Hall Empire 4-1065 


Iakold Corbin Warden Supervisor 

21 13th St., Huntingdon, Pa., 

Phone: Mitchell 3-0355 

POSTMASTER: All 3579 forms to be returned to Dunlap Printing Co Ine., 
Cherry and Juniper Sts., Philadelphia 7, Pa. 

The PENNSYLVANIA ANGLER is published monthly by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, 
South Office Building, Harrisburg, Pa. Subscription: One year-$2.00; three years— $5.00; 25 cents 
per single copy. Send check or money order payable to Pennsylvania Fish Commission. DO NOT 
SEND STAMPS. Individuals sending cash do so at their own risk. Change of address should reach 
us promptly. Furnish both old and new addresses. Second Class Postage paid at Harrisburg, Pa., 
and at additional mailing offices. 

Neither Publisher nor Editor will assume responsibility lor unsolicited manuscripts or illustrations 
while in their possession or in transit. Permission to reprint will be given provided we receive 
marked copies and credit is given material or illustrations. Communications pertaining to manuscripts, 
material or illustrations should be addressed to the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, Harrisburg, Pa. 

NOTICE: Subscriptions received and processed after the 10th of each month will begin with the 

second month following. 

PENNSYLVANIA FISH WARDENS have a variety of duties. Here Wardens (left to right) Frank Kulikosky 
and Anthony Discavage are shown with the Fish Commission's live fish display at one of the many 
exhibits and fairs throughout the state. The wardens meet the public, answer questions of a helpful 
nature and distribute the Commission's many publications. 

■ ■ 


Chief Enforcement Officer 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission 



THE Pennsylvania Fish Commission has come a long way 
in the methods of teaching and training warden candidates 
in the past ten years. There was a time when the warden 
candidate was given a pick and shovel at one of our hatch- 
eries to determine if he had what it took to work with 
blisters on his hands. This method was as antiquated as 
the horse and buggy is today. 

It should be explained that all warden candidates are 
thoroughly screened before they are accepted for training. 
Birth certificates must be produced so that candidates may 
not deceive as to their ages. They are measured and 
weighed. They must produce their high school diplomas. 
They must be physically and mentally sound. They must 
have good reputations in the communities where they re- 
side. A check is made as to their honesty and habits of 

The written examination is so constructed that men who 
pass it must have knowledge of wildlife and the out-of- 
doors. By having such an examination we get men who 
are fairly well trained in the things they will need to 
know. This is just that much less they must be taught 
or learn by trial and error. After passing the written 
examination each applicant is given an oral examination. 

The Oral Board is composed of Fish Commission staff 
members and Fish Commissioners. Here he is examined 
for alertness, neatness, boldness, temperament, personality, 
etc. After passing the oral test his name is placed on our 
eligibility list from which we draw when there are 

When called for training he is assigned to a regional 
warden supervisor who teaches him all about our paper 
work, acquaints him with Fish Commission policies and 
teaches him concerning his varied duties as a fish warden. 
The supervisor cautions him against making mistakes 
others have made, especially as law enforcement is 

After several weeks with the regional warden super- 
visor, he is placed with an experienced warden for actual 
field experience. He is an observer until such time as the 
regional warden supervisor and the regular warden feel 
he is ready to handle a case. He learns by watching and 

Particular attention is given to all trainees relative tc 
handling cases before a Justice of the Peace. Proper prepa 
ration of the case before, during and after the hearing i; 
instilled into the candidate at the time he is instructed ir 
Fegal Procedure. Trainees are supplied with copies of lega 
procedure and proper wording in filing an information, 01 
for the purpose of settling a case on a field receipt. At 
mentioned before, the candidate is given complete instruc 
tion in his many varied duties. 

His next training is given by the regional fishery man 
ager. He assists in stream surveys, stocking, census taking 
and the many other activities of the managers. In earh 
February a school of instruction is conducted at our Ben 
ner Spring Research Station. A copy of last year’s sehedult 
is shown under outline of courses prepared by Gordoi 
Trembley, Chief Aquatic Biologist, Pennsylvania Fisl 



The training of our fish wardens never ends. During 
the winter of 1959, eighty-five per cent of our warden 
force enrolled, either with the U. S. Coast Guard Auxiliary 
or the U. S. Power Squadron, for additional training in 
boat handling and seamanship. Each fall our wardens are 
assembled at Pleasant Gap for inservice training. Instruc- 
tors from Penn State University have been secured the 
past four years. Instructors from other agencies and our 
own staff make up the complement of teachers. It is at 
this time that the wardens are brought up to date on Com- 
mission policies. The laws are reviewed and discussed. 
The Deputy Attorney General is in attendance to give 
guidance on such matters as may be brought before the 
group. They are brought up to date on the latest technical 
and scientific matters relating to fish and fish life. 

Regional meetings are held at least twice a year in each 
of our six regional field offices for the purpose of keeping 

I the wardens abreast of Fish Commission matters and by 
exchanging views on how our work can best be done and 
the fishing public served. Individual enforcement and re- 
lated problems are discussed and solutions sought. This 
method of communication has proved most satisfactory and 
is considered a worthwhile part of our training program. 
There is no set time a warden trainee must spend under 

I direct supervision. This all depends on the individual. We 
have had some in training for six or eight months and it 
was necessary to drop them. It was evident they did not 
possess the qualities necessary to become a first rate officer. 
It has been our practice never to accept inferior personnel 
. ! when we know it. We had one candidate who lasted one 
t day. We discovered his flaws quickly. Each warden can- 
j didate must serve a one-year period as a warden trainee. 

S This gives him incentive to do his best for he knows others 
have failed. It also affords the Commission a further op- 
portunity to observe his work and evaluate him for perma- 

i nent status. 

Methods of Teaching 

Regarding the methods by which a person may be most 
effectively trained or taught, it is an established fact that 
all educational institutions regard competent instruction to 
a small group or individual to be the most desirable. 

As an example, the public school strongly favors small 
classes in order that a better teaching job can be done. 
Further, when a student performs poorly in this situation 
the next step is private tutoring or individual instruction. 
In fact, educators are well aware of the fact that individual 
instruction by a competent teacher is by far the best means 
of training or teaching. 

Since the above remarks are undeniably correct it would 
, seem that the training given prospective fish wardens is 
superior to any training that might be given in a mass 
teaching situation. This fact is further strengthened when 
we consider that prospective wardens are not only given 
instruction by persons already serving satisfactorily and 
competently as fish wardens, but also they receive the bulk 
of their training from the Fish Commission's regional 
warden supervisors who are masters of their profession and 
fishery managers, to whom the trainees are assigned for 
assistance in biological work. 

Because of the fact that the need for new fish wardens 
is relatively slight, since only two or three are placed each 
year, and some years none, the techniques of warden train- 
ing which we employ are not only more effective but are 
more economical than the maintenance of a formal school. 

Therefore, since we are following the precept that indi- 
vidual instruction is the most effective and at the same 
time is accomplishing the task of warden training in the 
most economical manner, it would seem that criticisms of 
our warden training program are without foundation and 
may be made by persons unfamiliar with our program. 

Advantages of 

Individual Instruction in Warden Training 

1. The warden trainee is given individual and adequate 
instruction regarding his duties by a person already 
acknowledged as an expert in his field. 

2. Individual training permits a warden trainee to learn 
on the job. 

3. Individual training gives the opportunity for his 
teacher to become well acquainted with him and 
thereby provides many more teaching opportunities 
than could be possible in a mass situation and provides 
an excellent opportunity for the teacher to evaluate the 

4. Individual training “in the field’’ is more effective 
and realistic than classroom instruction. 

5. The Fish Commission’s individual training program 
is more economical than classroom instruction. 

6. Educational experts are practically unanimous in 
their opinion that private tutoring is the most effective 
means of teaching since all of the teacher’s instruction 
time is devoted to one student. 

Outline of Courses 

1. The identification of common fishes of Pennsylvania. 
Here the students were able to work with certain fish 
species and actually key them out and learn their identi- 
fying characters. 

2. The limnology of lakes and streams. This was a con- 
sideration of physical, biological and chemical factors 
and the forces in nature which affect fish life. 

3. Identification of the aquatic invertebrates which 
serve as fish foods. 

4. Pollution problems and water chemistry. Here the 
students became acquainted with the different types of 
pollutants in Pennsylvania, effects upon fish life and 
methods for determining the type of pollution. 

5. Warm-water fish management. A study of fish popu- 
lations and the interrelations of forage and carnivorous 
species. Also considered here were the possible methods 
of population manipulation to provide better fishing. 

6. Natural history of fishes including spawning habits, 
food, growth, migration, etc. The classic examples of 
migratory fishes, that is the eel and the salmon, were 
given as well as life histories of numerous of our game 
and forage species. 

7. Fish diseases. The diseases most commonly seen in 
the field were discussed with a description of the 

8. Fish culture research. A review of the progress 
made at our Benner Spring Research Station in this 

9. Pennsylvania’s trout stocking program. A complete 
coverage of how our streams are stocked including all 
of the various steps in the hatcheries and in the record 

As often as possible the men were taken on field trips 
and demonstrations given on the subjects which were 

4UGUST— 1963 


Snsfant Fishing Buddy — your Son 





In MANY households during the fishing season, there 
are enough tears shed to start a do-it-yourself hatchery. 
These are young tears, three to thirteen, sobbed as Dad 
prepares to leave for the stream. “Why can’t I come?” 
flows the little Niagara. “When will you take me?” 

That’s a good question! When will you take him? 
When he grows up? How big is up? Fritz Renitsky said 
he started his boy when he was big enough to hold a rod 
and smart enough not to tell his mother about the stops 
at Pete’s Place. 

There is no universal agreement about the best time 
to begin the small fry’s fishing since so much depends 
upon interest, temperament, your guidance, etc. Along 
the banks of the streams they can be seen in assorted 
sizes, shapes, and ages. There is no minimum age so we 
aren’t surpised to see some who could lose a tug-of-war 
with a six-inch trout. Some of these tadpoles are good 
though; some have to wrestle the worm to get him on 
the hook, but they go home with fish— sometimes more 
than “Dear Dad.” 

BOY AND DAD angling team gets results not only in quality or 
quantity of the fish caught but it's "sport rather than court." 


When I was just a little non-shaver, my Dad took me 
along on trips for anything from sunfish to croakers. 
Many pots full of sun fish wound up in the duck pond as 
a result— but we had fun. Dad was very patient with me, 
which is as essential as a rod and reel. He didn’t even 
get upset when I fell in on our first trip out. I slipped 
trying to save a dropped worm from drowning. Well, 
he had told me that anything that fell in (including me) 
was in trouble. 

Now I have two sons of my own— Wally, who is five 
seasons old, and Mike, whose only hooks are the ones 
holding up his three-cornered trousers, is one. We’d take 
him fishing too, but just as Wally said, “We couldn’t get 
hip boots for him anyway.” I started Wally when he 
was four. I don’t mean weekly or anything close to that; 
just once in a while, when the time was right. I didn’t 
hope to do any more than “expose” him to the wonderful 
world of nature. 

To stimulate a little interest, I took him to the stream 
during the pre-season weeks to feed bread to the new- 
arrival trout. “Boy, this is fun!” he’d yell as he threw 
another slice of wheat. The fish didn’t mind; where else 
could they get so much for so little effort— and toasted 
yet! I had a pretty hard time convincing him that putting 
peanut butter and jelly on the bread wouldn’t make them 
“grow big and strong like their dads.” 

I followed up the feeding with a trip to the Neshaminy 
River for sun fish or anything that happened along. We 
packed a lunch pail complete with thermos and cookies 
(this was a tremendous stimulus). We didn’t need boots 
since we were staying on the bank (I hoped). Because I 
own four rods, lie asked, “Which rod are we taking, 
Dad?” “The glass one I use for worm fishing,” I replied. 
With a very puzzled look he mumbled, “I didn’t know 
you could fish for worms!” Can you imagine what he 
would have said about fly fishing? One thing about it, 
I didn’t have to carry anything— my “sidekick” loaded 
everything. Really big stuff this fishing. 

The Neshaminy River runs rather level and is just 
full of spots for an operation like this. That first day 
we fished a segment of the river about five feet wide 
which swirled around a rock forming a deep pool. I 
rigged the line with a cork (about one and a half inches 
high) up two feet from the hook. Watching the cork 
is really a lot of fun to kids and since the hook can’t 
touch bottom, it can’t get hung up on a rock. 

Meanwhile, some conversation: 

“Dad, do you think the worm will cry when that hook 
pinches him?” 

“No, he doesn’t mind.” 

“Maybe the fish will eat the cork instead of the worm.” 

“Fish don’t like cork. I don’t know why.” 

“Yogi Bear doesn’t do it like this. You know that, 
Dad? You know that?” 

“No, I didn’t know, but this isn’t Jellystone National 
Park, either.” 











As luck would have it, the first taker was an eighteen- 
inch carp about as graceful as a rock. I hadn’t realized 
he was on the line until I was reeling it in to change 
position. As soon as I felt him, I handed the straining 
rod to my screaming partner who immediately began to 
crank— in the carp’s favor! Backwards! He gave the rod 
back to me. I think he did this so he could jump up and 
down easier. They must have heard him back in Doyles- 
town the way he shouted as I lugged “Mr. Splashie” (as 
we called him) onto the bank. 

Ever see a kid around his first live fish? “Pick him up 
. . . Does he bite? . . . Put your finger in his mouth . . . 
Hold him by the tail,” all the while dancing around and 
laughing. After a bit he agreed to touch him— like a hot 
poker. Very carefully he glided his index finger toward 
the carp. Just as he was about to make contact, the chunky 
scavenger breathed, opening up his big gill. Well, my 
buddy jumped a foot and yelled, “Hey! Look Dad! We 
broke him! There’s a big hole up by his head! I can see 
inside!” He was so excited he fell over the lunch pail. 

Then, during twenty questions on fish breathing, I 
convinced Wally we had to put Mr. Splashie back in 
the water because we don’t keep that kind of fish. He 
didn’t fully understand that. It seems his main concern 
was “What will we show Mom when we get home? Will 
we tell her we put them all back? I know how she looks 
at you funny and laughs when you don’t bring any home 
and tell her you put them all back.” You know, the kid 
had something there. So, back to fishing we went. This 
time for seme keepers— sunfish. 

Once again I flipped the cork and worm into the water; 
this time I handed the rod to Wally and told him to 
hang on. Immediately the cork started to dip and sway— 
this brought shrieks of joy and anticipation from my 
oldest. He had him hooked and the line was running 
all over the place. “Reel him in!” I shouted, and the 
battle was on. Could my thirty-eight pound apprentice 
land this colorful Moby Dick? He ran first one way then 
another, then up and then around trying to outwit his 
opponent— Moby Dick? No, my No. 1 son! 

Finally, one fouled reel and two wet feet later, Wally 
had him on the bank (exhausted, no doubt). He dropped 
the rod and ran to pick him up by the line. As the sunny 
flipped and flopped, he started yelling, “Look Dad! He’s 
trying to fly!” After admiring him for a bit, we put him 
in a big can to take him home. Before long he had com- 
pany-lots; they were packed (if you sunnies will ex- 
cuse the analogy) like sardines. 

On the way home, we made two stops to put some 
“flyers” back in the can and one to filler’er up at a gas 
station— no gas, water for the can. Talk about excitement 
when we got home! He showed those fish to all his 
friends and anyone else in his path. When I finally 
caught up to him, he was impatiently waiting for the 
tub to fill while helping the fish to enjoy nondescript 
dives into the tub. He was really thrilled, and I felt 
good because now he was one step farther toward a 
life of sport rather than court. He’ll go with me again 
this year, and I hope for many years to come; but no 
matter how many trips we will make, that first splash 
will be among our fondest memories. 

But how about your son; does he want to go? If so, 
answer this one— Why don’t you take him? It doesn’t 
have to be the first day, week or even the first month. 
Just some Saturday you have set aside as “His Day.” 
Let him help plan it— the spot, the bait, the lunch, etc. 

AUTHOR AND SON, Wally, help to stock trout in the Neshaminy 
Creek, Bucks County. This is a big interest builder for prospective 
young anglers. 

If he’s just a minnow, don’t even take a rod along be- 
cause he’ll need your help if any of your catch should 
“break” or start to “fly.” Do take dry clothing and extra 
boots (tell him it’s just in case it rains). All the other 
equipment is pretty standard with one exception— bring 
that one thing that is even more important than the rod, 
reel, or even the lunch— your patience. If you’re the type 
who gets angry or nervous and starts to shout, stay home 
and save your money; you’ll need it for juvenile court. 
Don’t expect him to sneak up on holes, cast like Zorro, 
or not get a little wet. Anticipate these things and you’ll 
enjoy them rather than get upset. Also, it is extremely 
important not to keep him out if they aren’t hitting. This 
is the cause for dissatisfaction expressed by many non- 
anglers today. 

A big idea might be to take along one of his peers; 
kids always enjoy things more when there is another little 
“deduction” or two with them. In fishing it gives them a 
tiny spirit of competition. 

One of the best possibilities would be to take the 
whole family on a picnic and let them all see you in 
action ... on second thought . . . 

Either way, family or junior, when you get home that 
night you’ll feel like a million; your son will see you as 
a real man; your wife will smile to see how well you 
get along; and you may have found a new fishing buddy. 
But, most important, you’ll know they all love you just a 
little bit more. 

So do it now— drop this magazine (Easy, Mr. Editor. 
I only mean temporarily) and yell in to that cluster 
around the T.V. set and say these magic words— “Who 
wants to go fishing tomorrow?” 

AUGUST— 1963 



N O OTHER watercraft can match the canoe when it comes 
to the perfect all-around boat. For maneuverability, ease 
of handling, and plain adaptiveness, it has become a 
legend in the field of boating. The canoe can be paddled, 
poled, fitted out with power or placed under sail. And 
with the exception of the kyyak, it’s still the lightest 
craft to portage overland from stream to lake on your 

Many sportsmen consider the canoe as something less 
than frail. If this were so, it is hardly doubtful if the 
design could have survived more than six hundred years 
and still be as popular as it is today. The real facts are, 
that for size, the canoe is considered one of the most 
rugged crafts afloat. Due to its surprising strength, and 
many other desirable features, it is one of the few boats 
chosen safe enough to “shoot” the rapids. 

Inexperience and poor handling is perhaps the main 
reason why many sportsmen have shyed away from own- 
ing a canoe. Yet if correctly loaded and handled with con- 
fidence, the canoe is one of our safest crafts. 

The first thing a new canoe owner discovers is, if the 
water’s deep enough to float a leaf, it’s usually deep 
enough to skim across. This opens up all types of promis- 
ing opportunities to sportsmen who normally would be 
canceled out with even a light, power-driven skiff. With 
a double ender, you can explore shallow rivers and 
streams for new and remote fishing grounds. And since a 
canoe is so light, even when equipped with a 3-hp 
engine, it doesn’t require any special type mooring. When 
you have reached a likely spot, just lift your feather- 
weight canoe out of the water and park it. 

The sizes and shapes of canoes are so varied that it’s 
possible to tailor-fit them to the demands of almost every 
sportsmen. One of the larger manufacturers constructs 
models from 11' and 50 pounds up to the huge War canoe 
with final weight and length your choice. For beginners, 
the popular sponson type canoe is best. This model gets its 
name “Sponson” from the special air chambers that extend 
from stem to stern. The sponsons not only add to the 
natural buoyancy of the canoe, but also makes it safe 
to handle in some of the meanest, wave-swept lakes. 
Sponsons also increase the canoe’s capacity for extra lug- 
gage and passengers. 

Before choosing a double ender, first decide on it's 
use. If you intend to cruise with heavy loads on large 
rivers, lakes or even salt water, then you might be better 
off with a canoe with sides that bulge out several inches 
in a convex curve known as the “tumble home.” The 
extra fullness at the bow and stern enables the tumble 
home type double ender to ride large waves with ease 
instead of cutting through them like the sharp ended 
canoe. It also paddles well and can be fitted-out with 
either sail or motor. 

A round bottom canoe is for speed where speed is 
desired, but it will not be nearly as buoyant and stable 
as a flat bottom design. The favorite, all-around choice 
of many veteran canoe owners is the Guide Special. Its 
broad lines provide steadiness and plenty of carrying 
capacity while its flat bottom allows you to glide like a 
feather over shallows. The ends of a Guide Special are 
low to lessen wind resistance— a feature experienced users 
regard as essential. Another point of favor is the Guides’ 
extreme lightness on portage. Most models average 85 
pounds minus paddles and extras. But don’t let its light- 
weight lull you in underestimating its strength. Almost 
any well constructed Guide Special, if given reasonable 
care, will remain serviceable after twenty' or more years 
of use. 

Although canoes are not basically designed for high- 
speed operation, a simple outboard-motor side bracket 
will convert your double ender into a dual-purpose rig. 
Engines best suited for canoe outboard use are the light- 
weight models from 2M to 7/2 hp. This will give you 
speeds from 6 to 16 miles per hour. If you plan to do 
much outboarding, then it might be wise to follow the 
advice of the Outboard Boating Club of America (OBC) 
and keep the speed of your double ender within the 
safe operating range of 8 m.p.h. 

While any double ender can be fitted-out with power, 
the Square Stern canoe is specifically designed for out- 
board-motor application. It is also a dual-purpose rig 
and can be paddled, rowed, poled and when equipped 
with 2]i to 10-hp engine, will reach speeds from 6 to 22 
m.p.h. This lightweight craft, although priced slightly 
higher than a double-end canoe, is a big favorite with 
hunting and fishing sportsmen. It is easily transportable 
and its featherweight makes it ideal for car-top carrying. 
A well constructed Square Stern will cost from $310 to 
$360. But if you intend to do much cruising, then its 
stability and extreme lightness is well worth the price. 

As with any water craft, when owning a canoe, there 
are certain rules to follow if you expect full cruising 
enjoyment and ease of handling. First of all, never over- 
load your double ender. Too much weight or faulty 
loading is the quickest way to upset. Under normal 
conditions the bow should ride slightly higher than the 
stern, but when heading into a heavy breeze, with two 
men paddling, more weight at the bow will enable the 
sternman to keep on an even course by straight paddling. 

If you are alone in a canoe, never load it so that the 
bow rides high. Even on a calm day the chances for an 
upset are excellent, since only the narrowing stern of 
the canoe is in the water, and the craft will roll over 
very easily. Even with a well trimmed canoe, avoid 
sitting or kneeling in the stern. Move amidships where 
the bottom is widest and rest against one of the thwarts. 
You will find paddling easier there since the wind will 
not spin you around as it does when sitting at one end. 

* AUGUST— 1963 

When moving about in a canoe, always grab both 
gunwales for balance and step along the very center line. 
Embark and disembark in the same manner. Avoid 
coasting the bow of your canoe on the shore when land- 
ing. Otherwise you will force the boat to balance on 
a knife edge keel width which can roll you right out. 
Your weight also can, with no support beneath the canoe’s 
middle, break the craft’s back. On sandy beaches, slow 
your speed when reaching shore and, when close in, 
lean forward. This will ground the canoe in a safe and 
solid position. 

If possible, always load the canoe while it is floating. 
This will avoid the unnecessary risk of breaking ribs or 
planking when transporting it to water’s edge. While 
on the subject of carrying, here’s the easiest method of 
portaging a canoe: If paddles are used, lay the handles 
on the middle thwarts and the blades on the bow thwart. 
Adjust them so that the tops of the blades are just for- 
ward of the bow thwart. Lash them securely in this 
position, just wide enough to permit the head to go be- 
tween, and you will have a strong, well balanced make- 
shift yoke. A sweater folded over the shoulders makes 
the load ride more easily and keeps the paddle shafts 
from cutting in. 

The proper way to beach a canoe is to rest it upside 
down on its gunwales. In fact, to get the longest life 
possible and also to prevent leakage, canoes should be 
kept in this position whenever they are not in use. A 
canoe, if given reasonable care and stored properly, will 
need few repairs. 

An outboard-motor side bracket will convert any canoe into a slow- 
speed powered troller. Although the engine is mounted off-center, 
it will not seriously affect the canoe's balance. 


The broad V he Guide Special give it steadiness and generous 

carrying car.- Hi flat bottom lets it travel easily over shallow 

places, which i-iavo • favorite with hunting and fishing sportsmen. 

The "Otca" is wide, sp roomy, Its sides are convex, produc- 

ing a handsome tumble-home. 

Kids love a canoe. It is buoyant and safe and doesn't require man- 
sized muscles when paddling. 



The Way of a Stream 

An ANGLER who happens to wade into the main cur- 
rent of a swiftly flowing stream doesn’t need to be told 
that moving water has force. The current that threatens 
to sweep him off his feet one day may scarcely have 
enough energy to move a floating leaf the next, and the 
day after it may surge downstream, taking large rocks 
with it. But change and movement are all part of a 

A stream channel is continuously shaped and reshaped 
by the flow of water in it. Rock fragments are moved 
from one place to another. And they are subject to 
further reshuffling if the velocity of the stream increases, 
like after a heavy rain. This redistribution of material— 
the erosion here, the deposition there— is all part of the 
process by which a stream tries to reach an equilibrium; 
that is, so it can flow along with a minimum of obstruc- 
tions to curb its journey. 

A stream transports materials by pushing, rolling, or 
skipping them along its bed. Small particles, such as 
clay, soil, and tiny sand grains, are frequently carried in 
suspension by the stream. When this happens the water 
becomes muddy. As the current slows down the particles 
begin to settle out. A large stream may move tons of 
sediments this way. Some things, like certain minerals 
and salts, may even be dissolved and carried along in 

The faster a current flows the more scouring it can 
do; its power greatly increases as its velocity increases. 
A current of about one foot per second can move sand 
particles up to about %2 of an inch in diameter; a current 
twice as fast can move particles up to twice that size, or 
about % of an inch. If the velocity increases to about 
5 feet per second rocks up to 2% inches in size may be 
moved along the stream bed; and during a torrent a 
stream may move large boulders. 

You might be surprised to learn how much water flows 
down a stream. A stream that is 3 feet deep, 10 feet 
wide at the bottom and 15 feet wide at the surface, and 
moving at 60 feet per minute (one foot per second) has 
a flow of about 14,400 gallons per minute. (You can 
estimate the amount of water flowing in a stream by 
using the following formula: flow in gallons per minute 
= width of stream at surface + width of stream bed X 
average depth X velocity in feet per minutes X 3.2.) 

With so much water flowing, you might suspect that 
a polluted stream will purify itself in a certain distance. 
Well, it can. Fast streams are better at recovering from 
pollution than sluggish ones. Oddly enough, some pollu- 
tion can actually help a stream by encouraging the growth 
of certain useful aquatic life. But uncontrolled pollution 
frequently tips the scales of nature too far in the wrong 

Despite its seemingly smooth and easy flow, water is 
subject to a “dragging” effect as it flows through the 
stream channel. Because of this, water that flows along 
the sides and bottom of a stream moves at a slower rate 
than water flowing at the surface. So, unless a stream 
is very shallow, the velocity of the surface current is not 
necessarily typical of the entire stream section. It can, 
however be used as a guide: the average current of a 
stream is about 85% of the surface current. For ex- 
ample, if the surface current is 2 feet per second then 
the average velocity of the stream is about 1.7 feet per 
second. There are, of coui'se, always notable exceptions. 

... I like pond fishing . . .! 

There isn’t much writing space dedicated to this type 
of fishing, mainly because at the mention of ponds, the 
thought arises of stunted bass, small bluegills, and 
wobbling turtles. This type of fishing almost constitutes 
blasphemy, particularly where a die-hard bass fisherman 
is concerned. 

There is no fixed way to fish for pond bass but I 
find them no different than bass in the warm waters of 
Georgia, or the cold spring-like waters of Michigan. 
The pond bass will mutilate your favorite surface lure in 
a furious smash, or pursue your deep running spinner 
in a relentless chase. 

In practically all ponds, with few exceptions, there 
are deep ends, shoals, and shallows. In the early hours of 
morning, even before the retreating worm feels the pierc- 
ing beak of a hungry robin, you will find bass still lurking 
in the deep water. There, the deep running spinner or 
an under water type plug with a twisting, darting action, 
will come into its own. 

Assuming there is no reaction to these two lures, I 
switch to a small silver spoon called the “reflecto.” The 
common practice is to use a small piece of pork-rind at 
the base of the hook. I found on the small type spoon, 
the pork-rind not only has the tendency to pull the spoon 
down, but also cuts down wobbling action to a minimum. 
In place of “rind” I use a small piece of rubber balloon, 
usually white or bright yellow. This not only gives the 
spoon its full action, but the selection of colors is greater. 
Try it . . .! 

If the early morning hours have drifted into the heat 
of mid-day give your arm and mind a rest for you will 
then find bass won’t accept a barbecued omen served on 
a platter of suggestion. If your early morning venture 
was a flop, this is no ill reflection on pond fishing. Re- 
member, bass there are no different than in any other 
part of the world, which means, you must outsmart them. 

Returning at dusk, you will find the pond and its 
surroundings have been painted a dull brown by the 
retreating sun. Bass will now begin to move into the 
shallows in search of food. They will prey on their own 
kind, small bluegills, or that rare treat, a swimming 
mouse. At this time, encouraged by fleeing, terrified 
small fishes, the bass will hit hard at a surface plug. 
Sink it to them . . .! 

Most experienced pond fishermen will walk the shore 
line, making casts hither and yon! If you haven’t the 
know-how I wouldn’t advise this type of pond fishing 
because the slightest vibration from shore will send bass 
thumping for deep water. Cast to the fish, it will pay off! 

Pond fishing is now fast coming on; in the future I 
think it is going to be a big thing. 


Such is the way of a stream. Given sufficient time, 
those processes just mentioned can wear away a moun- 
tain or carve a gap through one. Streams do their work 
slowly— so slowly, in fact, that we seldom realize their 
effect on the landscape. They flowed across the land 
long before the coming of man; but they were only 
streams until man learned to use them for recreation and 


AUGUST— 1963 


In LINE with a previously mentioned plan to keep this 
column as personal as possible, reporting on the activi- 
ties of the various organized boating groups in Penn- 
sylvania, the Tri-County Boat Club became the first to 
be tapped on the shoulder with the conventional “who, 
what, where, when, why and how” questions and it sup- 
plied plenty of answers. 

Along with information concerning the establishment 
and progress made by this organization, the answers also 
indicated it is no easy task to keep an organized boat 
club on an even keel. Too many people like boating 
and only a few are around when there’s work to be done. 

Frank A. Krautheim, present commodore, along with 
other officers of the organization, was quite cooperative 
in providing the answers, plus a cruise of the area, even 
though that particular day was the date of one of the 
club’s special events— open house and chicken barbecue— 
which provided him with a hundred and one other things 
to do. 

Located on the east side of the Susquehanna River, 
between Middletown and Falmouth, the Tri-County boat- 
men operate one of the finest marinas in the east in view 
of the fact that today, unless you’ve had an early start, 
it’s tough to find a suitable location for boat launching 
facilities particularly an area adequate for parking hun- 
dreds of cars and boat trailers. 

The organization was chartered about seven years ago 
with approximately 50 members and Herman George, 
Harrisburg Rl, at the helm. At that time the member- 
ship came from three counties: York, Dauphin and Cum- 
berland. Since then it has grown by leaps and bounds 
to about 300 persons many of them from two additional 
counties, Lancaster and Lebanon. 

However, to reach its present status and to be able 
to offer the facilities it now provides, it has been a long, 
constant uphill fight with George, as Frank mentioned, 
doing all the work. 

A few summers ago the club took over maintenance 
of the former Stein’s Landing and has developed it to 
the extent that parking facilities have been tripled, there 
are docking facilities for approximately 100 boats not 
including those tied up at individual docks along the 
shoreline, picnic tables, gasoline and oil, and a special 
service providing bottled gas to the island cottagers. 

Naturally these services weren’t provided over night. 
When the club took over the landing one of the first re- 
quirements was more shore line frontage. This resulted 
in a long drawn out court procedure, paper work and a 
maze of red tape, before the necessary lease was drawn 
up with the cooperation of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

As a result the club now leases about a mile of shore 
line extending from the vicinity of the PRR-Rt. 441 
crossing south to near the Geyer Church intersection. 

A large portion of the area has been graded for park- 
ing, and a beach type launching ramp improved, with 
the remaining area rough graded for future use. How- 
ever, the club is currently operating with an annual ex- 
pense of nearly $20,000 and can only do a little at a time. 

Robert G. Miller 

AT THE HELM of his outdoor cruiser is Frank A. Krautheim, Tri-County 
Boat Club commodore. 

As the commodore pointed out, he works with a group 
of tight, money-wise, directors who nine times out of 
ten veto any spending suggestion. They prefer to de- 
crease the current indebtedness first and spend later. 

How does a boat club these days raise enough money 
to cover operational expenses? By club dues, charging 
a fee for launching and parking, special benefits, such as 
barbecues to get the people together, and any other 
fund raising projects which come to mind. In fact, he 
said, you’ve got to take advantage of every possibility 
to raise a dollar today. 

For example, club membership is based on the size of the 
craft owned by the member: under 17 feet the dues are 
$35, while anything 17 feet and over will cost the 
owner $55 a year. To “park and dip” is $2 a day, or 
50 cents a day to park the car. These fees are on a par 
with those charged by other marinas in this section of 
the state. 

Receipts from the small refreshment stand assist in 
building up the club treasury as do the funds derived 
from the yearly special events. The Tri-Town Boat Club 
schedules three chicken barbecues a year with the next 
slated for July 28 featuring an extra special attraction, 
a concert by the Liberty Band. 

During a cruise of the area Krautheim pointed out 
some fine boating waters even though that area is faced 
with the same problem as elsewhere, a fluctuation of the 
water level. 

When the river stage at Harrisburg is five feet the 
Tri-County boaters can feel free to cruise on up to 
Harrisburg, a distance of about ten miles from the launch- 
ing point or 12 to 13 miles above the York Haven dam, 
the southernmost cruising boundary. 



When the river is low, rock ledges just north of the 
club area reduce boating to some extent but with the 
river about a mile and a half wide at this point there is 
still plenty of water for cruising, water skiing and fishing 
without getting into anyone’s way. 

A group of islands in the area, directly across and 
south of the club’s launching area, produce a rather 
picturesque background for the boating family. Several 
of these were farmed at one time, in fact the soil is still 
being tilled on one, while years ago dance pavilions were 
the centers of attraction on a Saturday night. One of 
these pavilions still remains having been turned into a 
summer cottage by the owner. 

One of Krautheim’s major concerns is obtaining enough 
volunteer help especially each spring and fall when it’s 
time to refloat the docks or remove them from the water 
for winter storage. He has found, and this is generally 
the rule, there’s always the same persons around when 
it’s time for work. However, the commodore and his 
wife are trying to work this out by issuing a newsletter 
keeping the entire membership abreast of such work days, 
or meeting dates, and of any special events coming up. 

When the club took over the area it also acquired in 
the neighborhood of 20 or 22 old coal flats and two 
steamboats which were used by Ed Downey when he 
dredged coal from the river bottom. 

BARBECUE TIME at the Tri-County Club grounds, off Route 441 near 
Middletown, Pa. 

OLD COAL FLATS anchored end to end to provide water docking 
areas. Club has four rows of barges for docking about 100 boats. 

One of the steamers, no longer usable, can be found 
along shore at the south-end of the club grounds while 
the flats, huge heavy and beamy affairs weighing several 
tons and measuring 50 feet long by 10 to 12 feet wide, 
are anchored end to end to provide in the water docking 
areas. The club has four rows of such barges making it 
possible to dock, or tie up, about 100 boats during the 

Because of rock ledges and the depth of the water in 
the area just off shore, the club found it’s not feasible 
to provide off shore mooring areas with buoys for 
each boat. 

However, as a safety practice, the club does set out 
lighted buoys marking the location of such underwater 
hazards. At the same time each member is cautioned 
against reckless boating in the area and to warn others, 
usually non-members, when they are observed operating 
in a reckless manner. 

In addition to Krautheim, other currents officers are: 
Russell Leonard, Middletown, vice commodore; Amos 
Hedges, Middletown, treasurer; Clair Sowash, Middle- 
town, secretary; the Rev. Edward J. Deller, pastor of the 
Cathedral Parish, Harrisburg, an ardent water skiier, club 
chaplain; and these directors: Earl Wolf, Tony Divatori, 
Paul Hess, Lewis Librandi, Russ Berger, Robert Ginder, 
Bob Veigle, Bill Gerfin and Roy Cummings. 


Instead of buying new spark plugs for my outboard each year, 
I have tire old ones checked, cleaned and regapped. Is this as 
good as using new spark plugs? 


First of all, there's no rule that says spark plugs should be changed 
once a year. Some plugs may last several years. With some out- 
boards, particularly the larger models, it may be necessary to change 
plugs a few times each season. It's a good idea to have them 
checked whenever you suspect they are bad. If they check out all 
right, there's no reason why they shouldn't be reused. 


Does fast gear shifting hurt an outboard motor? 


Not at all. In fact, outboards should be shifted with a snap. Try- 
ing to ease them into gear causes the shifting cogs to wear faster. 


I’ve seen some outboard motors expel a steady stream of water 
when they are idling. Mine doesn’t. Does this indicate a 
problem in the cooling system? 


If your motor is equipped with a thermostat, it will not expel a 
steady stream of water through the exhaust relief outlet. Instead, 
the water is recirculated through the cooling system. If it doesn't 
have a thermostat, it would be a good idea to have it checked. 

» © o o 

All pipes, cigars, cigarettes, stoves and open fames 
must be extinguished when gasoline tanks are being filed. 

o o o o 

Men who ache all over for tidiness and compactness in their 
lives often find relief for their pain in the cabin of a 30-foot 
sailboat at anchor in a sheltered cove. Here the sprawling 
panoply of “The Home” is compressed in orderly miniature 
and liquid delirium suspended between the bottom of the 
sea and the top of the sky, ready to move on in the morning 
by the miracle of canvas and the witchcraft of rope. It is 
small wonder that men hold boats in the secret place of their 
mind, almost from the cradle to the grave. 

AUGUST — 1963 




Not very handsome, but this is a portrait of a most 
popular fellow in Pennsylvania — the common cat- 
fish or bullhead. 

Skin peels off completely in this one motion. 

Continue to grip the head in one hand, while 
sliding the thumb into the body cavity. Then pull. 
Head and entrails will pull free intact. 

Here's an easy way to clean the whiskered cat for 
the skillet. First, thrust your thumb into its mouth, 
and straddle the fin-spines with your fingers. Then 
ring the head with a light cut through the skin. 

Use a pair of pliers to peel the skin in ont o 

Now cut through the backbone just in the rear of 
the head. 

Grasp head in one hand, body in other anc i 

Remains is a solid chunk of flesh with very little 
wasted meat. 

Cut off fins and tail, rinse in water and t 
fish is ready for the pan. You're looking 
of the best eating fish found in Pennsylvania f 
water lakes and streams. 




A DELIGHTFUL bonus to a day spent fishing, is a dinner 
cooked on shore! All the flavor and taste of the freshly 
caught bass or catfish is preserved when an angler pre- 
pares the catch in a sizzling hot pan over an open shore- 
line fire. The treat is unmatched, as all those who enjoy 
outdoor cookery will attest. 

Time was when anglers were required to carry pots and 
pans in their creels for outdoor cookery. Not so today. 
Many sportsmen simply carry a few folded sheets of 
aluminum foil. When a fire is burning down to hot, glow- 
ing coals the paper thin sheets of foil are unfolded and 
smoothed of wrinkles. The foil is then carefully draped 
over a suitable tree stump or shore rock to form a pan- 
shaped container. Cook pot, fry pan and coffee urn are 
all fashioned in this manner. 

Into this newly formed pan goes the fresh bass or cat- 
fish together with a dash of butter and salt, or bacon and 
potatoes. While the meal browns in the open container, 
the wood smoke of fire, coupled with the aroma of cooking 
fish will whet anyone’s appetite! 

Sheets of foil, measuring about 15 to 18 inches square, 
are folded compactly to a size 3x4 inches for carrying 
in a shirt pocket. A half dozen pieces of foil can be folded 
compactly to less than one-quarter thickness of a cigarette 
pack. The foil is easily straightened when the outdoor 
meal is being prepared. Two thicknesses are generally 

Best part of the meal is the omission of the most dis- 
tasteful chore of cleaning pans. The disposable aluminum 
foil pan can also be used to douse water on the fire, then 
placed in litter bag and taken home to be discarded. 

For a tempting outdoor dish, try this. . . . 


Clean and wash one lb. of bass or catfish, and slice one 
potato. Slice onions. Place slices of bacon on aluminum 
foil pan, and place cleaned fish on top of bacon. Place 
potato slices on fish, add salt to your taste. Place sliced 
onions on top potatoes. Top with second piece of bacon. 
Cook about 30 minutes or longer, depending on amount 
of hot coals. Turn to prevent burning. Cook larger bass 
proportionately longer. 

For outdoor cookery, use aluminum foil. Carefully form two sheets of foil 

tree stump or shoreline rock into a 
shaped container. 

Lift foil from forming die, and fold edges. 

AUGUST — 1963 

The result is a nicely formed cook pot 
or fry pan. 

The aluminum foil pot is ideal for fish- 
game or leafy greens cookery. 


High Jinks With Hellgrammites 

One sportsman I know was divorced from his first wife 
because he used hellgrammites for bait. Most others had 
no such luck, however. They merely caught plenty of fish. 

Although hellgrammites are found almost anywhere 
there is flowing water, they are not used too extensively. 
They rate very near the top as bait for smallmouths, brown 
trout, and channel catfish. But still you will meet few 
anglers who habitually use them. 

Perhaps the doggone things are too ugly to have around— 
even in a bait container. Maybe you just don’t know how 
to catch them. Or possible you’ve had trouble using them 
after you caught them. Let’s discuss it in that order. 

A hellgrammite is the larval, or aquatic, stage of the 
Dobson fly. It looks like a centipede with a wicked pair 
of pincers. You can either handle them with respect from 
the very beginning or you can find out, first hand, that 
the pincers really are wicked. With a reasonable amount 
of caution, you can keep all your fingers intact, avoid a 
bloody stump. 

When an adult Dobson female is ready to lay eggs, she 
selects a precarious spot underneath a bridge, a rock ledge, 
or overhanging tree branch. The egg clusters are whitish, 
about the size of a nickel, and may contain as many as 
3,000 eggs each. Sometimes the clusters are numerous 
enough to give the place a paintsplattered look. 

When the hellgrammite hatches, it falls into the water 
and begins the aquatic phase of its life. For two years 
and eleven months, more or less, it frequents the under- 
sides of rocks and logs. It grows fat, slowly, on a diet of 
fellow, but smaller, residents of the rocky riffles. If it can 
survive its two-plus-years span without being reduced to 
so many calories by a smallmouth or rock bass, it eventually 
emerges into a graceful and colorful Dobson fly. There- 
after its use as bait is all but lost— so we ll return to the 
uglier, but more useful larval form. 

Hellgrammites are easy to obtain. Alone it’s a fairly 
tedious matter, but with one helper you can collect an 
ample supply of bait without too much wear and tear on 
your patience. You should have a legal-sized minnow seine 
with a fairly small mesh. 

Station your helper just downstream from several large 
rocks in a riffle. Lift three of four of the rocks quickly, 
one after the other— and then have your partner raise the 
net. You should have several hellgrammites. If you didn’t, 
it may be that you lifted the rocks too slowly. The 
quarry needs only a brief second to grab a hold on the 
underside of the rock and to prevent being washed into 
the net. 

Don t try too many rocks at once and do not disturb 

the bottom unnecessarily. Raise the net frequently or 
the Dobsons will crawl to the bottom of the net and escape 
beneath it. 

Hellgrammites are the hardiest of live baits. You can 
keep them for a long time with little attention. It it’s a 
good day and you’re a skillful angler, you may catch several 
fish on one individual. 

Any of those belt-type bait boxes will do the trick of 
carrying them while you fish. Just line the bottom with 
leaves or moss and sprinkle with water occasionally. Those 
flat tobacco cans are suitable, too, since they fit so well 
into shirt or pants pockets. If you’re a pipe smoker, though, 
better stick to the belt-type models— or use a different 
brand box for the bait. You mistakenly may load up with 

I always use a fairly long leader when using hellgram- 
mites. Depending on the speed of the current and type of 
water, I may use a small split shot or two. The hook 
should be a short-shanked six or eight, hooked under the 
front of the collar and coming out the rear. Never, under 
any circumstances, bury the hook in the hellgrammite. 
It kills them— and there goes your effectiveness. 

Just as important as hooking is removal of the tail 
hooks. If you neglect to do it, you might as well go back 
to other baits. The hellgrammite will grab the first rock 
or obstacle he contacts, doggedly crawl under it, and 
you’re snagged. At best you’ll wind up with a bare hook 
and a frayed leader. 

Fortunately there is a simple and quick way to amputate 
the hooks. Here’s how. Hold the critter by the head, be- 
tween your thumb and forefinger, and with his body 
away from you. Do it another way and you’ll learn first- 
hand how those pincers work. Draw the body across the 
blade of a small scissors or nail clipper (which you should 
carry for the purpose) until you reach the tail hooks. 
As soon as it grabs the blade— snip— you’re in business. 

Be very careful to clip off only the hooks, or claws. 
Do not cut into flesh, or again you’ll have dead or badly 
injured bait. 

After all that effort— the seining, snipping, etc.— you 
deserve some action. Stick to tails or riffles, to start, and 
you’ll have it. Make your cast so that the bait will drift 
naturally into the pool or pocket below the riffle. 

Be careful to start the drift far enough upstream so that 
it will be thumping bottom when it reaches the pay-off area. 

When working glides and other smooth water sections 
of streams, omit the sinker altogether. Fish as lazily as 
you can, allowing the hellgrammite to settle and drift as 
it will. Four days out of five, you’ll promote more action 
with a natural drift. But if business is too slow on the 
fifth day, give it a twitch now and then. I’ve seen it work 
on many a trip. 

Hellgrammites— or devil-divers, helldivers, hoejacks, 
conniption bugs, grampuses, or snake doctors— are generally 
prescribed for bass fishermen. But the truth is that other 
species are even more susceptible. Take the channel cat, 
for instance. 

At dusk, some evening, stake a claim near the tail of 
a riffle. Spend the short period before dark getting 
acquainted with the water. After that, start drifting your 
grampus into the likely spots you had located previously 
in the waning light. You’ll be taking potluck, sure enough, 
but if it’s a typical night when channel cats come onto 
the riffle to forage, you’ll keep mighty busy. 

Many an old residenter has succumbed to a hellgram- 
mite artfully drifted past his hang-out. One brownie I 
know watched a fortune in bivisibles, fanwings, and 
streamers wash past his nose over a period of four years. 
He revealed not the slightest display of interest. Grass- 
hoppers and worms were no more appealing. But one 
warm June night Charlie McCellan turned the trick. He 
didn’t exactly discourage the notion publicly that this 
bragging size four-pounder was taken on an artificial. It 
took a bit of firewater to uncover the hellgrammite in 
the story. 

Hellgrammites are easy to keep. All you need is a damp, 
cool, and dark place. The lower tiers of the family refrig- 
erator meet all these specifications. But a word to the 
wise on refrigerators. Keep the bait container covered, 
especially if your wife has prepared salads for a bridge 
party and has stored these, too, in the refrigerator. 

Imagine the looks on the faces of her guests as they 
discover a couple of Dobsons nestled cozily in the tossed 
salad. That’s how that fellow we mentioned, back in the 
beginning, swung his divorce. 

Now there’s nothing but beer and salami in the re- 
frigerator. And helldivers. 


Fisherman's Diseases 

Dry-fly-itis, a dread malady of the mind. This disease 
is the ultimate, there is no known cure. Fortunately few 
persons become afflicted. Only those persons who hold a 
high regard for their casting skill, can be infected. 

Victims have a tendency toward up-stream movement, 
and may get twitchy around the lakes. External parasites 
often appear attached to head gear. 

Approach suspects cautiously and quietly, don’t strike 
until you see dimple. Temporary relief can be provided 
for patient’s benefit, by flushing streams with muddy water. 
Prescribe limited numbers of Ginger Quill, Gray Hackle 
or Red Variant. Patients may need segregation in, HEH, 
HDH or GBG wards. 

Wet-fly-octomitus, is a specific infection that may result 
in several secondary diseases such as bucktail fever, 
streamer-sickness and nymph fly-itis. Infection may result 
from an injury, such as a blow from a rod handle. Victims 
can be recognized by their spasmodic movements while 
fishing. Casting skill is not a symptom. 

Patients may froth at the mouth at the mention of test 
words, “bait fishing.” Victims may show a noticeable 
tightening of lines, observe the retrieve closely, look for 
jerky motions. Patients are often difficult to handle, they 
insist on being placed in “fly fishing only wards.” This 
treatment is not necessary, for disease is not contagious. 
Some may require back-lash therapy., Suggest monofila- 
ment; it is inexpensive. 

Red and White Sac-disease, is relatively common and 
may appear one or two weeks prior to first fishing trip. Vic- 
tims usually suffer severe pain, caused by the enlargement 
of tackle box. They are inclined to mutter such phrases as 
dare devil, silver nixie, flat fish or lazy ike. Those who 
are afflicted are dazzled by glittering spoons, spinners and 
plugs; they often suffer from hardware blindness. 

For treatment, swing shiny spoon to hypnotize patient, 
treat by hypnotic suggestion. Sample: avoid sporting goods 
stores, do not look through tackle catalogs, stay away from 
hardware counters. Some patients may require minor 
surgery for removal of treble hooks. Prescribe barbless 

Still Fishing-ick, is a common affliction known from pre- 
historic times. It is a highly contagious infection, often 
resulting from repeated attacks of spring fever. Victims 
show schizophrenic tendency, being nice people around 
the office, but inhuman on fishing trips. They spend hours 
trying to drown worms, minnows and grasshoppers. At 
times they may be seen lugging jars of cheese balls, marsh- 
mallows, pork rind or salmon eggs everywhere they travel. 
In addition they are often known to throw rocks at water 
skiers or pleasure boaters. 

Patients may suffer delusions if they are unable to catch 
two or three limits on each trip. May rave about “streams 
and lakes, fished out, need more stocking.” It is difficult 
to treat these deliriums. Try soft soap, or prescribe new 
diversions such as bowling, pool or horseback riding. 

— TOM LYNCH in Colorado Outdoors 

Instant Nature Information 
On Tap in Vest-Pocket Books 

InSTANT information about 486 nature subjects is now- 
available in the form of six colorful books, each smaller 
than an average adult’s hand. 

The matched series has been published by Ottenheimer 
Publishers, Inc., world’s largest producer of vest-pocket 
reference books. The individual volumes present full-color 
photographs and comprehensive data on 85 birds, 80 mam- 
mals, 81 rocks and minerals, 80 trees, 82 wild flowers and 
78 insects. They are available singly or in sets. 

The unique size, format and content of the series have 
been developed to allow unusually fast reference in the 
field as well as leisurely study in the home, according to 
the publisher. Innovations include reproductions from 
actual color photographs, the first to be made available 
in nature guides within the size and price range of the 
new series. 

The six books, each 2% x 512 inches in size, are printed 
on fine paper and durably bound in leatherette with full- 
color dust packets. They are margin indexed for speed) 
location of subject. 

Each book begins with a broad, factual introduction to 
its subject. It then devotes a full page to each of approxi- 
mately 80 species or types— including the color photograph 
and concise, categorized information. The volumes range 
from 94 to 96 pages in length. 

The Vest Pocket Nature Guides are available at book, 
stationery and drug stores and selected news stands 
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Retail price is $1 per volume. 

AUGUST— 1963 


Oil Drum Smoke House 


This 55-gallon oil drum smoker will smoke fish or meat 
quickly and easily, what’s more, it’s portable. The oil 
drum has a metal door about 15" x 11", bolted on the drum 
with 1 or 2 hinges over a slightly smaller hole in the drum. 
This is the fire door. 

Next, the drum has the top cut out with a cold chisel. 
The top is then bent in an inverted V shape to form the 
baffie plate. This plate is suspended on a M" rod above the 
fire and sawdust pan and keeps the drippings from falling 
into the charcoal fire. The fire is made of charcoal or 
briquets in 2 one gallon round cans with sufficient holes 
punched at intervals to make a good charcoal burner. 

Smoke is supplied by filling a small pan (about 14" x 
9" x 2") with hickory or any hardwood sawdust and placing 
it on the two cans of charcoal inside the bottom of the 
drum under the baffle plate. Usually one pan of sawdust 
will supply plenty of smoke for one smoking. One pan of 
sawdust will smoke for about 1 to 1 % hours. The charcoal 
is left in to cook the fish for about 5 to 6 hours or until 
they are done, dry or moist according to your taste. 

Two trays of M" mesh wire are cut to fit inside the drum 
and placed 9" and 18" from the top of the drum. Each 
tray rests on 3fi" rods evenly spaced through the drum. 

The top is made of any wood and fits fairly snug on the 
drum to prevent as much smoke loss as possible. However, 
a small amount of smoke must escape. A hole is drilled in 
the center of the wood lid to receive a thermometer. The 
temperature in the drum should range between 150° to 
200 °. 

This smoker will easily handle about 20 to 30 pounds 
of fish. 

To prepare the fish, clean well, cutting off the head and 
removing the entrails. Wash well in clean water. Soak for 
about 12 hours, more or less, to suit your taste, in a salt 
brine. The brine should float a fresh egg. After soaking, 
remove from the brine and rinse very well with water. 
Place the fish in the smoker, start your fire under the saw- 
dust, close the lid, and sit back and wait for a real treat 
to tickle your palate. 

For the ultimate in smoked fish, try smoking some bull- 
heads. They are tops! 


To Catch More Smallmouths 

If YOU want to catch more smallmouth bass, and just 
about everyone does, try fishing for them at night. Like 
many warm water fish the smallmouth does most of his 
roaming and feeding in the shallows, during the hours of 
darkness. This is especially true after the spring spawning 

If you are fishing a lake for smallmouth bass at night, s 
cast toward the outer edges of bullrushes and weedbeds if 
or across rock gravel bars and reefs, two to six feet deep. 
Concentrate on the slow retrieve. But if that doesn’t work 
try a faster retrieve. Stop occasionally to listen for surface 
feeding smallmouths. 

On smallmouth streams concentrate you fishing around 
the riffles, flowing into the upper ends of pools. 

The night fisherman should study the water— in daylight, 
and learn where the shallow or weedy feeding might be. 
When you go out in a boat at night take a waterproof 
flashlight and wear a light-weight water skiing safety belt. 





There were dark shadows where the driftwood jammed 
against the deep cutbank. Twice my light streamer 
probed the depths in a darting swing, and twice the 
brown followed it into the shallows before returning to 
his lair. His proportions were generous and I coveted 
him. As I searched my fly hook for a more seductive lure, 
the clinking of stone broke the stillness of the morning. 
I glanced up rather resentfully suspecting another angler, 
but instead a portly raccoon worked the shallows for his 
breakfast. He was so intent that he came almost to 
my feet before he sensed my presence. Suddenly he 
grasped a crayfish and stood up. His front paws dropped 
over his wet belly, a look of surprise wrinkled his nose. 
He was so funny that I laughed aloud. He scrambled 
up the bank, threw a disgusted look over his shoulder, 
then retreated with more haste than dignity. At my feet 
lay the dying crayfish. I picked it up, examined it care- 
lessly then tossed it toward the driftwood. It had 
scarcely dropped below the surface when there was a 
swirl and the crayfish was gone. 

The marsh with its weed-choked channel, its strip of 
water littered with beaver cut wood could be scarcely 
dignified with the name pond. Anglers passed it by on 
their way to the river with barely a second glance. It 
abounded with life. Frogs loved its mossy shallows, 
sunfish nested here and there and the bullheads herded 
their clouds of restless infants among the decaying 
branches. We long ago discovered that it was the home 
of silvery, heavy-girthed pickerel. My Scotch friend 
called them “dour” fish because we had difficulty finding 
them in a receptive mood. When the pond steamed 
under a warm summer rain, we sometimes tempted them 
with pork chunks. The answer to the success with these 
selective pickerel came one day when an unusually dis- 
tended stomach of a good specimen aroused my curiosity. 
An autopsy revealed a dozen crayfish of the largest size. 
I am convinced that we could have cleared the pond of 
pickerel with crayfish for bait. 

Walleyes, perch, trout and even bullheads take crayfish 
when they are available. Bass, particularly the river 
smallmouth, are partial to this staple. It is a common 
experience to net a bass and find in the bottom of the 
boat several specimens the bass has disgorged. The live 
bait angler would be mildly shocked to find these are 
generally hard shells and not the usually sought soft 
shelled specimens. 

It is an amusing experience to sit where you can 
observe a small bay or pool that harbors pan fish. A few 
crayfish, pulled into small pieces will concentrate most of 
the aquatic population in a short time. They rush about 
in a perfect frenzy of feeding as long as the food lasts. 
On more than one occasion I have seen a large predatory 
fish dash into the milling throng and gather his dinner 
with ease. 

When French Hubert introduced crayfish tails and red 
sauce as a delicacy, I rebelled until he persuaded me 
to try just one. “Delicacy” fails to express the succulent 
goodness of this gourmet’s delight. It is one of the sources 
of protein readily available in most of the wilderness to a 
lost man. They can be captured by hand in sufficient 
quantities to sustain life. They are tasty when roasted 
over a bed of coals and I suspect, under extreme disaster 
conditions, would not be too distasteful in a raw state. 

They are abundant in the spring brooks where the water 
rarely freezes even in extremes of temperature. 

Crayfish hold an important place in the aquatic food 
chain and its survival as a species is of prime importance 
to the angler. There are a number of characteristics 
that not only expedite its survival as a species but tend 
to increase the number of individuals. It can five in 
waters that have a higher pollution factor than most fish 
will tolerate. It can survive periods of drouth that will 
seriously reduce other aquatic life. It accomplishes this 
by digging burrows that follow the receding water level. 

Crayfish are most active at night, feeding from sun- 
down until dawn. They are sensitive to touch over the 
entire body but seem to crave contact with sides and 
back against something solid. For these reasons scientists 
classify them as negatively phototrophic and positively 
thigmotactic. Thus their hiding places are burrows under 
rocks or in burrows dug either in the stream bed or 
banks. They back into these refuges with only their 
antennae and occasionally their large claws extended. 
Should one of the appendages be lost, either by contact 
with an enemy or through accident, it has the power to 
regenerate the missing limb. This power of regeneration 
is more rapid in young specimens than in adults. 

Crayfish usually mate in the autumn but the eggs are 
not laid until early spring, usually April. The eggs are 
fastened to the swimerettes, located under the tail, with 
a sort of natural glue and are aerated by being moved 
back and forth in the water. The dark colored eggs 
remind one of clusters of tiny grapes. The eggs hatch 
in one to two months and the young cling for a while to 
their egg shells. They stay with the mother for some 
time then strike out on their own. 

When the hard outer shell becomes too tight, it is shed 
and a new one is formed. During the hardening process 
the crustacean seems to sense its defenselessness and 
hides. It is in this stage they are preferred for bait. All 
creatures that prey on them seek the soft succulent 
tidbit that has lost its power to move rapidly. 

Our hard shelled miniature lobster belongs to the 
decapods or ten legged creatures. It moves in two ways, 
walking and swimming. It can walk slowly in any direc- 
tion, usually forward, but also sidewise, obliquely and 
backward. When it is frightened, it can move backward 
in swift darts. The heavy muscles of the tail give it a 
suddenness of movement that helps it to escape. 

When using crayfish as bait, secure a number of 
rubber bands of the smallest size. Slip one or two over 
the tail and adjust them between the tail plates. A hook 
can be held without injuring the bait. It will remain 
active and consequently be more attractive. 

AUGUST— 1963 



SCIENTISTS in the State Health Department’s sanitary 
engineering division laboratory in Harrisburg have gained 
a new “finger” to help them point to sources of contami- 
nants polluting streams. 

Walter A. Lyon, director of the department’s Division 
of Sanitary Engineering, announced that a gas chromato- 
graph, able to separate mixed organic compounds in a 
sample into their simpler components, is now installed in 
the laboratory. 

The chromatograph, the latest model available, can for 
example separate a minute amount of gasoline into such 
things as benzene, octane and toluene. This could enable 
technicians to say what compound is being discharged 
from a suspected source of stream pollution. 

The chromatograph works by fractionating, or “break- 
ing down,” a sample. First, a sample is injected into a 
separating tube which carries the sample to an ionization 
chamber. Then the chromatograph draws a time chart of 
the sample. The chart shows the concentration and pres- 
ence of a certain compound after a specific amount of 
time has passed. Each compound is recorded at a given 
time after the “inject” time. Its curves and peaks look 
like a miniature mountain range. 

This “picture” can then be matched with similar “pic- 
tures” of known compounds for identification. It takes 
from 30 minutes to one hour to complete this process of 
running a sample through the chromatograph. As many 
as 50 compounds in one sample can be traced in this time. 

Mr. Lyon reported that organic substances are analyzed 
from sampling locations throughout the state where prob- 
lems are suspected as being caused by organic chemicals. 

A companion instrument, an infrared spectrophotometer, 
was previously installed in the laboratory. 

After a sample had been separated and tentatively iden- 
tified in the gas chromatograph, the separated fractions 
can be put through the spectrophotometer. The latter 
instrument will then confirm, or make positive, the 

“Today’s stream sleuthing, depending on high-powered, 
sophisticated instruments, is a far cry from the day when 
pollution investigators depended on their eyes and noses 
to help them identify pollutants,” Mr. Lyon commented. 


FOUR years ago George Aiken and I fished the Penitentiary 
stretch of Spring Creek during one of the most prodigious 
Sulphur hatches I have ever seen. The little duns furnished 
some interesting dry fly-fishing during the afternoon but by 
evening the fall of spinners was so heavy that it was 
frustrating trying to follow one’s own fly amid the thou- 
sands of naturals. Since a few duns were still hatching 
I decided to try a nymph along a deep limestone ledge 
near the tail of a long flat. A No. 14 Pheasant Quill 
replaced the dry fly on my leader and within a half dozen 
casts it was taken by a torpedo-shaped female brown of 
four pounds with the coppery complexion and fiery fins 
which marked her a stream-born resident. Too beautiful 
to kill, she was quickly weighed, photographed in the 
waning light, and released with fond fanny-pat. 

Mid-August of the same season found us in the glass- 
smooth flats of Big Spring below Newville, fishing for the 
beautiful and often difficult brookies for which this stream 
is noted. Although these fish generally offer wonderful 
midge dry fly-fishing, they were not rising on the particular 
day in question and it was decided to employ a No. 14 
Pheasant Quill, unweighted, on a twelve-foot leader. Drift- 
ing the nymph on a long line between the weed beds, 
fourteen fine brook trout were caught and released that 
afternoon, including one spectacularly colored beauty of 
nearly two pounds. Not a record catch but a very satisfy- 
ing one, made under tough conditions. 

Many fishermen think of nymphs as purely early season 
flies and it is true that they are effective in the high, clear 
water of April and early May. However, they are an im- 
portant adjunct to the dry fly up to the final days of the 
season and can sometimes prove to be the ace-in-hole when 
the streams are low and clear. 

Hook— Size 14 or 16 regular shank 
Tails— Two dark brown wing quill fibers 
Ribbing— Fine gold wire 

Abdomen— Purplish brown fibers from cock pheasant tail 
Wing Case— Gray goose quill section 
Thorax— Dark brown seal fur 
Legs— Grouse— tied as throat 

The Pheasant Quill was originally tied to imitate the 
nymph of the little dark-winged Caenis Mayflies but it has 
since become a favorite all around nymph for mid to late 

season use. — chauncy k. lively 

* # * # 

An average father is one who wears out a pair of shoes 
while the rest of the family wears out a set of tires. 

£ # # # 

You can be sure summer is here when your chair gets 
up when you do. 




THERE isn’t a reader of angling yarns who hasn’t at some 
time or other been intrigued by the description of an angler 
battling his finny prey and the apparent intelligence ex- 
hibited by the latter. To be sure, a heavy fish on light 
tackle can be a worthy adversary of the most skilled 
angler. However, with plenty of room in which to handle 
the fish the latter has but a slim chance of avoiding either 
the frying pan or the trophy plaque. A hooked fish in- 
stinctively seeks the shelter of nearby logs, brush, rocks 
and even the shadow cast by a boat, but you can rest 
assured that any such move is not a calculated one. 

In the first place the chances are that the fisherman 
induced his quarry into taking something not even remotely 
resembling its natural food. And most expert fishermen 
pride themselves on their ability to entice fish with a 
grotesque creation more nearly resembling a miniature 
interplanetary rocket than a minnow, craw, frog, worm 
or other natural bait. In other words, a fish, any fish, is 
just plain stupid to fall for most of the artificial lures 
used by the average fisherman. On the other hand, who 
has ever gotten a fish’s eye view of an artificial presenta- 
tion? Yes, we have read such descriptions and probably 
have been guilty of writing one or two of them ourselves, 
but most was conjecture tinctured with imagination. Sure, 
skin divers may be in a piscine position to observe such 
phenomena, but it must be admitted that it is not through 
the eyes of the fish. An underwater photograph depicts 
the scene as the human eye sees it, and that, you will agree, 
shows little if any distortion. If that is the way a fish sees 
things, then you must admit to piseinal doltishness for 
taking some of the highly fantastic imitations with which 
it is confronted. 

No hooked fish ever intentionally twisted the line around 
a submerged snag. I even have doubts if a fish can see a 
submerged line or even if he does he certainly does not 
associate it with his plight. Yes, I know what you are think- 
ing, viz., “Why, then, does a trout fisherman use an all but 
invisible leader and/or tippet?” No experienced trout 
angler has any illusions about a fine or even ultrafine 
leader. They make possible the natural presentation of 
that most skillfully crafted of piscatorial phonies, the dry flv. 
On the other hand, does a trout, even a wary old veteran, 
associate the nearly invisible elongated surface depression 
made by a fine leader with the fly to which it is rising? 
If it did wouldn’t that indicate that the fish is capable of 
associated reasoning? And if they could do the latter, to 
catch one would require major strategy. But the convolu- 
tions of the fairly well developed brain point to a short 

Perhaps some of you dedicated bass fishermen can ex- 
plain the following. After catching all the bass needed for 
a good meal we did a bit of experimenting with interesting 
results. After removing the hook from the line we tied the 
latter to a securely harnessed dead frog. A dozen or more 
bass ranging from one to perhaps three pounds, still cruised 
languidly but expectantly in the clear six-foot depth below 
the boat. Without observing any more than regular pre- 
cautions we lowered the weighted frog into their midst. 
A two-pounder nailed it at once and as we gently pulled 
upwards on the hand-operated line the bass came along 
without the slightest resistance. 

At the surface we paused and the fish mouthed its prey 
while three or four of his more curious companions came 
up to see what was taking place. At least that’s about all 
one could assume. When we resumed pulling, the bass 
took a fresh hold on the frog and permitted itself to be 
pulled out of the water almost up to the gunwales of the 
boat and within inches of my hand. All this, mind you, 
while three of us looked on in astonishment. The bass 
finally let go and plopped back into the water. Did he 
flee? Nope, he waited and when the frog was once again 
lowered he grabbed it a second time. After repeating the 
performance three times we figured he had earned his 
dinner without any strings attached to it. 

Now I can hear the clamor of the trout fishermen. Sure, 
trout, especially brookies, can be repeatedly pulled high 
out of the water hanging tenaciously to the bait until they 
finally run afoul of the hook. And I’ve had trout fisher- 
men tell me that they have repeatedly hooked the same 
trout after disengaging it from the hook and returning it 
to the water. One of the most effective trout lures I ever 
used was a cellophane cigar wrapper twisted around the 
hook in such a way as to present two leglike appendages, 
something like a V. Not to be outdone my companion 
caught its buddy with the cigar band. 

One time four of us were drifting up to a dock after we 
had cut the motor. While well within a score feet of an 
angler rinsing his hands after cleaning a mess of fish, he 
suddenly gave a startled yell and jerked both members out 
of the water. One of them was bleeding profusely. Sub- 
sequent examination disclosed two badly skinned fingers 
while a third was scored to the bone. The attacker? A 
northern pike, a fish with dental equipment matched only 
by the musky. Nor can it be said that the latter has any 
keener discernment. There’s an inveterate angler living 
in our town who enticed a musky with his wiggling toes 
while he was cooling his dogs in the Allegheny. Fortu- 
nately the fish missed, but only by inches. Probably took 
the toes for nestling birds which occasionally fall out of 
nests built on an overhanging limb. We long ago learned to 
keep our feet and hands out of the water when fishing. 

Are fish induced to strike by hunger, ignorance, orneri- 
ness or a combination of all three and by other impulses 
still unknown to us? There isn’t a bass fisherman who 
hasn’t seen a hooked fish regurgitate a whole gulletful of 
half digested minnows or craws when it jumped in its 
attempt to throw the hook. You must admit that they 
are not very bright in discerning artificial lures. Form your 
own conclusions. _n. r. casillo 



AUGUST— 1963 



While Warden Abplanalp and I were pulling the last nets 
from Conneaut Lake, as we neared the net set from the 
south shore of Wolf Island, we noticed an unusual commotion 
in the lifting crib of the net. We caught the lifting buoy and 
pulled the net onto the boat. In the crib was a pair of loons, 
both birds very lively, just jumping into the twine in an 
effort to escape. Warden Abplanalp opened the crib and got 
the birds out unharmed. As the first loon was released he 
went about half way across the lake on the surface of the 
water just flapping his wings and making noises. The second 
bird watched the first for an instant, then dove from the 
boat deck and chose to stay underwater out of sight until 
well away from any danger. 

-District Warden RAYMOND HOOVER (Crawford). 

District Warden STEPHEN A. SHABBICK (Wyoming) was informed 
of the following incident by a local Sunday School teacher 
who teaches a class of pre-school age children. She began 
to tell them the story of Peter the fisherman and had 
hardly begun the story when five-year-old Ronnie Lane 
piped up and asked . . . “Was Peter fishing or stocking?” 

While on routine patrol of Black Moshannon Lake in 
May, I found a musky that had been dead probably a day 
or so that measured 44 inches in length and weighing in 
the vicinity of 25 or 30 pounds. Upon further investigation 
and discussion with Fish Commission biologist Jack Miller, 
it appears the fish died from being egg-bound. Looks like 
the Commission’s muskellunge program is doing very well. 

-District Warden PAUL ANTOLOSKY (Centre) 

A deputy game protector told me of two fishermen 
camping in a trailer at Chapman Dam. One morning at 
5 a.m. they were awakened by wild turkeys trotting all 
around their trailer. They thought this was a wonderful 
sight to behold on a camping trip. Things took on a 
less roisier hue when they went to get their bait out of 
a box kept under the trailer. The turkeys had upset the 
box and gobbled down every one of their worms. 

-District Warden KENNETH G. COREY (Warren) 

District Warden CLIFTON E. IMAN (Butler and Beaver) said Paul 
Lutz of Zelienople, Pa., had his hands full for an hour 
when he hooked and landed a 40-pound carp while fishing 
the Connoquenessing Creek. The fish was 36 inches long. 

Paul Finken, Easton, Pa., had some odd-ball fishing 
on the Bushkill Creek near Easton recently. While late 
evening fly fishing, on a backcast, he felt a bit of drag on 
the line but proceeded to lay the line out on the water. 
Just as the fly hit the water he felt a real tug on the line, 
set the hook and picked up a BAT! The creature must 
have followed the fly on the backcast . . . missed it, 
followed through and grabbed it as it hit the water. It’s 
fishing of a sort if you like it. 

— District Warden MILES D. WITT (Northampton & Bucks) 

GRANDCHILDREN of District Warden Claude 
Baughman, Blair County, love to help him 
stock those big trout. 

Bow fishing for carp is becoming more popular with an 
unusual experience happening to Ken Brown of Hunting- 
don, Pa. On a recent fishing trip to the Raystown Dam, 
Brown spotted a nice carp. When he shot he found he 
had scored a bullseye not only on the one aimed at but the 
arrow had passed through this fish and hit a second carp. 
He had some difficulty landing them! 

— Southcentral Regional Warden Supervisor HAROLD CORBIN 

LUNKER CATFISH, 30 inches long, was 
caught by Raymond Gruel, Lancaster 
while fishing from a boat a half mile 
below Safe Harbor Dam. The little girl 
is Miss Darlene Young, Mr. Gruel's grand- 
daughter. — Photo Vernon L. Browne, Lan- 
caster New Era. 

* # * « 

Maybe hard work wont kill a person, but then, I never 
heard of anyone who RESTED to death either. 



Young Anglers Wet Lines in Lackawanna Derby 

Somewhere around 500 youngsters, boys and girls 
from 5 to 16, wet lines in competition at the first annual 
Children’s Fishing Derby at Rainey’s Pond, on the grounds 
of Lackawanna County Tuberculosis Hospital on May 25 
last. Scores of prizes were offered by regional merchants. 
Many mothers and fathers of the contestants were there to 
root home the hard fishing, line dunking young people. 

Sponsoring organizations included: Lackawanna County 
Federation of Sportmen’s Clubs, Gas Hollow Hunt Club, 
Scranton National Rifle and Pistol Club, Holy Name 
Society of St. David’s Church, Laurel Hill Reagel Club, 
M. H. Sportsmen, Hyde Park Rod & Gun Club and the 
Rod and Gun Club of Scranton Council 280, Knights of 
Columbus. The Pennsylvania Fish Commission and the 
Pennsylvania Game Commission cooperated in the initial 
event. Gene Coleman was general chairman assisted by 
Robert Edmondson and John Boylan, co-chairmen. 

OFFICIALS on the spot included, (left to right) H. Clair Fleeger, 
Regional Fish Warden Supervisor; Walter Lazusky, District Warden 
for Lackawanna County; Jim Varner, Outdoor Writer; Gerard J. 
Adams, member Pennsylvania Fish Commission; Warren W. Singer, 
Assistant to the Executive Director, Pennsylvania Fish Commission; 
Gene Coleman, general chairman of the event and Roy Trexler, 
Northeast Division Supervisor, Pennsylvania Game Commission. 

New Officers for Wissahickon Watershed 

Thomas Dolan, IV, was elected president of the Wissa- 
hickon Valley Watershed Association at the Third Annual 
Dinner Meeting of the group at the Philadelphia Cricket 
Club recently. Other officers elected were: Robert McLean, 
vice-president; Philip H. Ward, III, secretary and James 
M. Stewart, treasurer. 

* # # O 

The first recorded insect death was written in hieroglyphics 
on the tomb of an Egyptian king. It tells how the pliaroali 
sailed to Britain, was stung by a “ hornet ” as he stepped ashore 
and died almost instantly. That was 4,700 years ago. 

SHOULDER-TO-SHOULDER competition for the prizes was fierce at 
the Rainey Pond piscatorial derby, rods and lines intermingled like 

STANDING ROOM ONLY at this section of the pond and you can 
see how dads and moms backed up their choices with cheers and 
advice. Everyone had a swell time at this first annual angling-fest. 

ft o. o 

As any conservationist can tell you . . . buying a load of 
good topsoil can be an educational experience . . . that while 
some things may be dirt cheap, dirt isn't one of them. 

* O O 

There is probably no better way to loaf . . ■ without attract- 
ing unfavorable attention and criticism . . . than to go fishing. 

AUGUST— 1963 




Dr. Roger Latham, popular outdoor editor of the Pitts- 
burgh Press, was elected president of the Outdoor Writers 
Association of America at its convention at Erie. Seth 
Meyers, outdoor editor of the Sharon Herald, was re- 
elected secretary. 

Latham has been with the Press since 1957. Prior to 
that he was Chief of the Division of Research for the Penn- 
sylvania Game Commission. In addition to his many im- 
portant writings in the general outdoor field, Latham has 
become well known for his outstanding work, “The Com- 
plete Book of the Wild Turkey.” This book was the result 
of Latham’s extensive work in Pennsylvania to revive the 
virtually extinct wild turkey as a major game bird of Penn- 
sylvania and is fast gaining in population and popularity in 
neighboring states. 

Dr. Latham is also active as president of the Pennsyl- 
vania Outdoor Writers Association. 

Shark! Shark! 

As the story goes, Joseph Hyson of Philadelphia, Pa., 
was walking along a canal which flows into the Delaware 
River in South Philadelphia when he spied a very large 
fish in the canal. Hyson hurried home, brought his .22 
caliber rifle with him and shot the fish. It took several 
shots to put the monster out of business then he took a 
large net to recover it. The fish, on close-up examination, 
had large shark-like teeth, was 51 inches long and weighed 
about 14 pounds. District Fish Warden Walter Burkhart 
went to Hyson’s home asking to see the fish which turned 
out to be a Sand Shark. Hyson’s father stated there was 
another shark in the canal about the same size. According 
to outdoor writer Joe Pancoast this is the first report of sand 
sharks seen there even though the area is in tidewater of 
the Delaware River. 

Dear Editor: 

I subscribe to the Pennsylvania Angler, and am very much 
interested in the column “You Asked About It” by W. W. 
Britton. I would like to submit a question which I think is of 
great interest to a number of people in Wayne County. 

My property line runs across quite a large private lake (in 
Wayne County, Pennsylvania), thus the lake is owned partly 
by myself and partly by a second party. A number of lake- 
front lots had been sold out of my property by the original 
owner giving the lot owners the same lake privileges as I have, 
but no lake ownership. The question now arises, having access 
to my portion of the lake, can the lot owners and myself also 
cross over the property line onto the other portion of the lake 
( owned by the second party ) for boating and fishing— provided 
we do not touch the lake bed belonging to the other lake 
owner? It has been said that if you have access to get onto 
the lake, there are no boundary restrictions as long as you do 
not anchor the boat or fish off the bottom of the lake bed. 

Yours very truly, 

lohn V. Colligan, 

Richmond Hill, N. Y. 

ANSWER (From W. W. Britton, Chief Enforcement Officer): 

If the owner of that portion of the lake you would like to fish 
does not permit fishing, boating or trespassing you cannot legally 
do so. If the land beneath the water is privately owned, the owner 
has full jurisdiction and may regulate boating, fishing, and swimming 
as he may desire. 

Dear Sir: 

I have not received my latest July issue of the Pennsylvania 
Angler so I am enclosing 20 cents to send me another copy. 
I enjoy reading the magazine very much especially since I’m 
stationed outside my home state. I’m proud of the money 
spent and effort put forward by the Pennsylvania Fish Com- 
mission to improve Pennsylvania’s fishing and I am always 
willing to tell people I meet about the wonderful state of 
Pennsylvania. A3c William Fiedler, Jr., 

Stead Air Force Base, Nevada. 

Dear Mr. Fiedler: 

Enclosed is a copy of the July ANGLER along with your 20 cents 
returned. We certainly appreciate your feelings concerning Pennsyl- 
vania and the PENNSYLVANIA ANGLER, and we regret very much 
that the July issue was late in reaching you. The delay in the 
delivery of the ANGLER was due to the fact our printing contract 
was changed as of the July issue from Gettysburg to Philadelphia. 
Details encountered in this transfer, both in printing and in mailing, 
resulted in the delay. However, we hope future issues will now be 
on schedule. Russell S. Orr— Chief, 

Conservation-Education Division. 


Man . . . this really sounds fishy but it isn’t. Someone 
recently hijacked a batch of 28,000 Swedish-made “Toni” 
lures enroute from Chicago to Dowagiac, Michigan. The 
lure manufacturer reported the theft to the FBI and the 
FBI is naturally asking . . . “Who Has the Toni?” If some 
shady character slides up and offers to sell you a “hot” 
lure at cut rate prices . . . don’t bite— you may get hooked 
by the G-Men. 




Big Turtle Bagged by Bowman Pulls Him Into 


Larry Schoenenberger, Spring Valley, Pa., bagged a 
45-pound snapping turtle with bow and arrow but needed 
help to land the reptile that jerked him into the Lehigh 
River Canal. Schoenenberger shot the turtle while hunt- 
ing along the canal and when the turtle tried to escape in 
the water his buddies grabbed both him and the turtle . . . 
landing both! 

Tasty Treat— Turtle Meat 

This is what the mock turtle sang in Lewis Carroll’s 
Alice in Wonderland. But sizzling turtle meat served 
fresh off the fire isn’t a figment of the imagination such 
as Alice’s dream about mock turtle soup. And just to prove 
it, here are some ways to fix the armored, ancient reptile. 

Although most turtles go into soup, they can also be 
roasted, broiled or stewed. They can be made into soups 
(snapper or soft-shelled), soup a la creole, chowder, stew, 
creamed curry of turtle, steaks, sauce poivrade, sauteed, 
simmered and many other methods. 

A snapper or soft-shell dresses from one- to two-thirds 
its weight. There are six portions of good, edible meat— 
the four legs and surrounding muscles and the tail and 
neck. Also, there are two tenderloins under the back 
between the ribs and shell that are especially appealing 
to the taste buds. 

For turtle soup, try this method: Cook just long enough 

so the meat leaves the bones. Overcooking results in 
stringy flesh. A favorite is snapper soup made like old- 
fashioned beef soup with an assortment of vegetables and 
turtle meat cut into small pieces. 

Or, for soft-shelled turtles, make soup stock without 
vegetables and add an egg. Treat the meat the same as 
for snappers and add a slice of bacon and onion or add 
noodles to this type of soup. 

Cross a bumble bee with a doorbell and you have a 

Worry pulls tomorrow’s cloud over today’s sunshine. 

Enthusiasm is energy that boils over and runs down the side 
of the pot. 

Three pounds of turtle meat, cut small and parboil 10 
minutes. Water can be used as stock. Fry the meat in 
four tablespoons fat— ham or bacon drippings are best. 

2 onions minced 

4 quarts stock and water, add to the flour mixture 
2 bay leaves 
2 sprigs parsley 
6 cloves 

2 blades mace (or Vi teaspoon mace) 

4 tablespoons flour, browned in fat, add 1 cup canned 
tomatoes, 1 tablespoon salt and clove, garlic minced 

1 lump of sugar 

2 tablespoons lemon juice 

Bring to a boil and add turtle meat. Cook three hours, 
strain if desired. Garnish with sliced hard-cooked eggs 
and slices of lemon, cut thin and minced. Sherry jelly 
may be added for flavor. 

Fried turtle is also favored by many. In this case, clean 
the meat, dip it in egg and bread crumbs and fry like you 
would chicken. You could also dip the meat in flour, 
brown under a hot fire and cover. Reduce heat and add 
Vi cup of water, cook slowly until tender. 

Curry of turtle is a delicacy you’ll long remember. With 
about a pound of meat, brown in fat with a large onion. 
Put into a kettle with a medium-sized potato, one carrot, 
the onion, a small piece of parsley, M teaspoon of pepper, 
one teaspoon of salt and Vi teaspoon of curry powder. Add 
the browned turtle meat and let it simmer until tender. 
Serve in molds of hollowed out cups of boiled rice. 

Here is a turtle stew recipe which appeared in Ashbrook 
and Saters book “Cooking Wild Game.” 

2 pounds of turtle meat 
1 onion 

1 tablespoon butter or shortening 
1 tablespoon flour 
1 bay leaf 
1 clove of garlic 
1 sprig of thyme 
1 cup of water 

1 wineglass sherry or madeira wine 
Cut the meat about an inch in size. Chop an onion and 
put all into a saucepan with a tablespoon of shortening to 
brown. As it begins to brown, add one tablespoon of 
flour, 1 bay leaf, 1 clove of garlic and a sprig of thyme, 
then add a wineglass of sherry or madeira wine and a cup 
of water; cook for one-half hour, —carol buckmann. 

AUGUST— 1963 



fyaic /4&6ed rf&aut *)t 


Chief Enforcement Officer, Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

The following questions were asked through our mail bag cor- 
respondence. If you have a specific question or problem relating 
to fish laws and regulations, send them by card or letter to 
Editor, Pennsylvania Angler, Pennsylvania Fish Commission, 
Harrisburg, Pa. 


If I trade my one cylinder outboard motor in on a new one 
which has two cylinders, how much time do I have to get my 
license transferred? 


'fPew'i&fylv&uici /iafylen, 


Finest Fishing Magazine 

Check maps you wish from the following list 

Allegheny Lehigh-Northampton 

Armstrong Lycoming 

Blair-Cambria McKean 

Butler Montour-Northumberland 

Cameron-Elk Pike 

Carbon-Monroe Schuylkill 

Clinton Somerset 

Crawford Union-Snyder 

Erie Warren-Forest 

Fayette Washington-Greene 

Franklin-Fulton Wayne 

Indiana Westmoreland 

Lancaster York 

Lawrence-B eaver 

Enclosed is $ for my (New) (Renewal) 

1 year (12 issues) $2.00 

includes One (1) Free Map County of Your 
Choice From Check List above 

3 years (36 issues) $5.00 

Includes Free Fishing Maps 
From Check List above 

Please send to: 




Make check or money order payable to the Pennsylvania 
Fish Commission 



Cash sent at your own risk. STAMPS NOT ACCEPTABLE. 


You cannot transfer license plates from a one cylinder motor to a 
two cylinder motor. You should send the old license plates im- 
mediately to the Department of Revenue, Bureau of Miscellaneous 
Licenses, Harrisburg, Pa. Notify them you have secured another 
motor of a higher classification. Specify the motor number, name 
of motor, number of cylinders and an additional fee of $1.00. You 
will then receive a new set of plates and new registration card. If 
you had purchased another motor of the same classification you 
would have ten days to make the transfer and you could then use 
the original license tags. 


Does a fish warden have to have a fishing license to fish? 


Yes, if he is fishing for fish for his own consumption. If he is 
fishing for the Fish Commission he would not be required to have 
a fishing license. There are times when Fish Commission employees 
catch fish with hook and line in over-populated ponds and lakes for 
stocking other areas. In such cases, agents of the Commission would 
not need fishing licenses. 


Is a fish warden required by law to show his badge or other 
identification if he is not in uniform when approaching a 


There is nothing in the law requiring this, but all fish wardens have 
been instructed to identify themselves with their badge or card when 
approaching an individual with whom they are not personally ac- 
quainted. It is not only a matter of courtesy, but good enforcement 
procedure. The public however is protected under the Statute Laws 
from imposters. Anyone who impersonates an officer is liable to a 
fine of up to $500.00 or a year in jail or both. 


Recently I was arrested for operating a motorboat without a ; 
1963 motorboat license. I acknowledged my guilt and wanted 
to settle the fine with the fish warden, the same as a friend of 
mine had done for catching too many trout in one day. The 
warden told me he couldn’t settle motorboat cases on a field 
receipt. Was he telling me the truth? 


Yes. He was telling the truth. There are no provisions in the Motor- 
boat Laws permitting a fish warden to settle motorboat cases in this 
manner. The Motorboat Laws are not a part of the Pennsylvania 
Fish Laws. 



Pennsylvania Fish Commission 




;4 Monthly peatune pox 'Ifouay rftyC&u 


When it comes to live bait it’s hard to beat grasshoppers. 
Nearly all fish like them— bluegills, sunfish, perch, crappies, 
trout, bass, rock bass, and others. 

To catch the hoppers first locate a weedy place where 
they are plentiful. Return early in the morning. You will 
find that the hoppers, still groggy from the previous night’s 
sleep, can be picked right off the weeds as easily as you’d 
pick a huckleberry from a bush. Or you can do the same 
after dark with the aid of a flashlight. 

There are several ways to keep them from escaping. 
One is to put them in a pop bottle as you catch them. 
Close the bottle with a wooden stopper that has a slice 
cut from each side to allow air to enter. The hoppers are 
easily “poured” from the bottle one at a time as needed. 
I know one fellow who places a discarded ladies’ nylon 
stocking on the bottom of his bait can or box. The spurs 
on the grasshoppers’ legs become entangled in the mesh 
and prevent the lively insects from leaping out. Then too, 
tackle stores sell little bait cages from which the hoppers 
can be removed one at a time. 

Grasshoppers can be fished on the surface of the water 
or submerged, whichever you prefer. To float the smaller 
ones use light wire hooks, the kind used in tying trout flies. 

Most anglers merely hook these insects through the 
middle of the body. Those who insist upon healthy, lively 
bait make their own hopper hooks by fastening two thin, 
soft wires to the hook shank with liquid solder. Wire 
stripped from a window screen is good. Set Mr. Hopper 
on the hook, wrap the wires around his body, and twist 
the ends together. 

To fish grasshoppers under water it will be necessary 
to pinch a split shot or wrap-around sinker on the leader 
a foot or so from the hook. 

Hoppers can be fished with any tackle from cane pole 
to bait casting rig. A fly rod will handle them nicely, as 
will a spinning outfit with a plastic bubble or a lead 
sinker. A clincher sinker makes them easier to cast with 
a bait casting rod and reel. 

Hoppers are great bait for farm pond fishing— both bass 
and bluegills will take them eagerly. Fishing the creeks 
with these insects is equally enjoyable. You never know 
what will hit next. Big fish or little fish, they all like the 
taste of grasshoppers. 

"C'mon, Dad, let's 90 fishin'! The grass can wait.' 



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Albert M. Day 
Executive Director 

(pMnMjfoanm (foiql&h 

Published Monthly by the 

William W. Scranton, Governor 

Robert J. Bielo 
Assistant Executive Director 

Warren W. Singer 
Assistant to Executive Director 

Paul F. O’Brien 
Administrative Officer 



Aquatic Biology 

Gordon Trembley — Chief 

Fish Culture 

Howard L. Fox Superintendent 

Real Estate and Engineering 

Cyril G. Regan Chief 

Edward Miller — Asst. Chief 

Law Enforcement 

William W. Britton — Chief 

Conservation Education-Public Relations 

Russell S. Orr Chief 



S. Carlyle Sheldon Warden Supervisor 

1212 E. Main St., Conneautville, Pa., 

Phone: 3033 


Minter C. Jones Warden Supervisor 

R. D. 2, Somerset, Pa Phone: 6913 


H. Clair Fleeger Warden Supervisor 

351 Terrace St., Honesdale, Pa., 

Phone: 253-3724 


John S. Ogden Warden Supervisor 

1130 Ruxton Rd., York, Pa Phone: 2-3474 


John I. Buck Warden Supervisor 

P. O. Box 5, Lock Haven, Pa., 

Phone: 748-7162 


Harold Corbin Warden Supervisor 

521 13th St., Huntingdon, Pa., 

Phone: Mitchell 3-0355 



Wallace C. Dean, President Meadville 

Joseph M. Critchfield, Vice President Confluence 

Gerard J. Adams Hawley Robert M. Rankin Galeton 

Maynard Bogart Danville R. Stanley Smith - Waynesburg 

John W. Grenoble — Carlisle Raymond M. Williams East Bangor 


VOL. 32, NO. 9 



1 Editorial— A GOOD CREEL— Albert M. Day, Executive Director, Penn- 
sylvania Fish Commission 

GRAM— Walter A. Lyon, Director, Division of Sanitary Engineering, 
Pennsylvania Department of Health 

6 FISHING GOES TO COLLEGE-Marion Rubinstein 


10 FINDIN’ MUSKIES— Erwin A. Bauer 

12 CANYON CRUISE— Paul Power-Tom Eggler Photos 

14 BOATING-Robert G. Miller 




19 THE LITTLE PICKERELS-Keen Buss, Fishery Biologist, Pennsylvania 
Fish Commission 


25 SCHOOL’S OUT-Ned Smith 

Cover art by Daniel F. Ankudovich 

POSTMASTER: All 3579 forms to be returned to Dunlap Printing Co., Inc., 
Cherry and Juniper Sts., Philadelphia 7, Pa. 

The PENNSYLVANIA ANGLER is published monthly by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, 
South Office Building, Harrisburg, Pa. Subscription: One year-$2.00; three years-$5.00; 25 cents 
per single copy. Send check or money order payable to Pennsylvania Fish Commission. DO NUi 
SEND STAMPS. Individuals sending cash do so at their own risk. Change of address should reach 
us promptly. Furnish both old and new addresses. Second Class Postage paid at Harrisburg, ra., 
and at additional mailing offices. 

Neither Publisher nor Editor will assume responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts or illustrations 
while in their possession or in transit. Permission to reprint will be given provided we receive 
marked copies and credit is given material or illustrations. Communications pertaining to manuscripts, 
material or illustrations should be addressed to the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, Harrisburg, ra. 

NOTICE: Subscriptions received and processed after the 10th of each month will begin with the 

second month following. 


The 1963 session of the Pennsylvania General Assembly chalked up some real 
achievements insofar as Conservation measures were concerned. Among other actions 

It approved and sent to the people for final determination PROJECT 70. 

It passed a strip mine bill that is the toughest in the nation. 

It provided an increase in fishing and hunting license fees to adjust the income of 
the Fish and Game Commissions to their cost of operation. 

It resolved the long standing controversy surrounding the administration of boating 
in the Commonwealth. 

We of the Fish Commission are happy with the outcome. Substantial and at times 
overwhelming support among the legislators for the measures we sponsored seems to 
indicate that our program is based upon a solid foundation. 

Now we can begin to build back the services that we have had to discontinue 
during the last three years. We can even expand some programs when new revenues 
become available next year. 

We plan to: 

Modernize our physical plant and increase production at our hatcheries. 

Resume stream improvement projects on good natural producing waters. 

Construct new fishing lakes on clean waters of the state. 

Fill vacancies on the warden force so that we may do a better job in 
the enforcement of the fishing, boating and clean stream laws. 

Replace technical people we have had to release so that we may do a 
better job in managing the fisheries on all public waters of the state. 

Appoint as Assistant Director for Boating the most outstanding and best 
qualified man we can find. His job will be to work closely with the 
increasing numbers of pleasure boaters on safety, education, enforce- 
ment and improved facility matters. 

The new boating law provides for an Advisory Committee of five qualified boatmen 
to give the Fish Commission their best judgment on matters pertaining to boating. 

All in all, this has been a good legislative session for the sportsmen of the Com- 

We of the Fish Commission appreciate the generous support of the Legislature, the 
Administration and the sportsmen of the Commonwealth and look forward to doing 
our full share in assuming the new responsibilities placed upon us. 

Our sincere thanks for your confidence! 

ALBERT M. DAY —Executive Director 

Progress and Problems 

of the 


By WALTER A. LYON, Director 

Division of Sanitary Engineering 
Pennsylvania Department of Health 

Fishermen have always had a deep interest in the 
Clean Streams program. Much of the progress in the 
program has come about through the cooperation, under- 
standing, and support of interested individuals such as 
fishennen, sportsmen and conservationists and their organi- 

The use of our streams for fishing and other forms of 
recreation is one of the important uses of our streams which 
the Clean Streams program is established to protect. For 
that reason, we feel that fishermen will be interested in 
knowing what has been accomplished under the Clean 
Streams program during 1962. What follows is a summary 
of activities under this program during the past year. 

The Control of Mine Drainage Pollution 

The Sanitary Water Board chose to observe the 25th 
anniversary of the Clean Streams Law not by merely 
reviewing past progress under this pioneering law but 
by convening a National Symposium in Pittsburgh in June 
to discuss all aspects of acid mine drainage and to formu- 
late specific solutions to the problem. 

It is expected that the Symposium will have long-lasting 
and far-reaching effects. It proved that conservationists, 
sportsmen, and industry representatives could sit down 
across the table from each other and discuss objectively 
ways to minimize acid mine drainage pollution. Imple- 
mentation of the Symposium proposals will call for con- 
certed effort on the part of all who are concerned with 
the problem. 

The continued pollution of the North Branch of the 
Susquehanna River from mine drainage, responsible for 
the killing of a record number of fish in late 1961, was 
attacked last year on several fronts. 

The Glen Alden Corporation was ordered to submit 
plans for controlling its mine pumping discharges to pre- 
vent pollution of the North Branch, to conduct pilot plant 
studies and to regulate its discharges— all steps aimed at 

avoiding any possibility of a repetition of the 1961 incident 
as well as assuring permanent improvement in the condi- 
tion of the river. 

The Sanitary Water Board approved the appointment 
of an advisory committee representing industrial and 
sportsmen’s groups and others interested in solving the 
North Branch pollution problem to review the Depart- 
ment’s now completed comprehensive report on the mine 
drainage problem on the North Branch. 

Plans were initiated for a continuation of a study of 
Toms Run, in and adjoining Cook Forest State Park, to 
determine the sources of pollution and methods of abate- 

The powers of the Sanitary Water Board in the field of 
mine drainage control have recently been clarified in one 
important particular. The Commonwealth Court, in a 
decision in the case of Sunbeam Coal Corporation, indi- 
cated that the Board is within its rights in including 
recreational uses of streams among the public uses to be 

Fish Kills 

The Sanitary Water Board and the Department welcome 
the help of sportsmen in reporting instances of new pollu- 
tion. Within the past year, we have started a program 
for aiding sportsmen in reporting fish kills to fish wardens 
and Regional Sanitary Engineers so that prompt investiga- 
tion can be made, the pollution traced to its source, the 
cause eliminated and the responsible parties brought to 

A pamphlet for sportsmen showing how to report fish 
kills has been prepared, and a sound-slide film on the sub- 
ject is available from fish wardens and Regional Offices of 
the Department of Health to any sportsmen’s group wish- 
ing to have a program on the subject. We are distributing 
these pamphlets at locations where fishing licenses are sold. 

A total of 95 fish kills were investigated by staff mem- 



THE LOCATION of every mining operation in the State is entered on 
topographic maps like the one being studied by these three staff 
members in the State Health Department headquarters. Complete 
information is filed on each such operation as to type of mine, receiv- 
ing streams, and pollution control measures required for each. 

bers and reported upon. The causes of 84 of these kills 
were found. In many of these cases voluntary contribu- 
tions were made to the Fish Fund. Wherever a fish kill 
indicated the need for corrective action or enforcement, 
such action was instituted. 

A severe drought extending from May until October 
produced record low flow conditions in many of the State’s 
streams and was the underlying cause of a number of fish 
kills. Major fish kills occurred on the Delaware and Ohio 
Rivers caused by oxygen depletion and on the Susque- 
hanna basin caused by mine drainage discharges. 

The Control of Sewage Pollution 

Hearings for more than 60 municipalities which have 
not yet complied with Sanitary Water Board orders to 
construct sewage treatment plants were held by the Board. 
Adjudications have already been issued in the majority of 
these cases. These are the final orders of the Board and 
are enforceable in court. 

The Accelerated Public Works Act passed Congress 
during the year, making about $3,800,000 in additional 
grants available to Pennsylvania municipalities to build 
sewage treatment plants. Altogether, more than $7,300,000 
in federal grants and more than $4,000,000 in state grants 
for sewage treatment plants for Pennsylvania municipali- 
ties were made available during 1962. These incentive 
grants have been credited with greatly aiding the con- 
struction of badly needed sewage treatment facilities dur- 
ing the year. 

The Sanitary Water Board won an important legal 
victory when the Commonwealth Court dismissed an 
appeal by the City of Wilkes-Barre against a Board order 
requiring it to construct sewage treatment works. 

By December, more than a dozen neighboring munici- 
palities in the Wyoming Valley had Joined Wilkes-Barre 
in forming an authority to proceed to build a sewage treat- 
ment plant. This authority’s system would serve about 
180,000 persons. 

Approximately 120,000 persons can be served by the 
new Johnstown Municipal Authority sewage treatment 

plant, dedicated in September, 1962, which treats sewage 
from 19 municipalities. 

Two new sewage treatment plants in Allegheny County 
have been completed in 1962. These plants will serve 
90,000 persons. 

The dollar expenditures for sewage treatment plants 
and intercepting sewers were impressive: 82 1 million 

for construction or modification of 26 municipal treatment 
works; $1.4 million for construction of 27 non-municipal 
works; $24 million dollars worth of contracts were awarded 
for sewage treatment plants and interceptors. 

The Control of Pollution from Industrial Wastes 

Lake Erie fishermen and boaters will be interested to 
learn that, on orders from the Board, the Hammermill 
Paper Company in 1962 submitted a satisfactory schedule 
for meeting Board orders for complete treatment of paper- 
mill wastes discharged to the lake. Research is to be 
completed this year and the treatment works are to be in 
operation before the end of 1965. 

Rules and regulations of the Sanitary Water Board on 
heated wastes discharges were implemented during the 
year. The first heated discharge studies in the State prior 
to issuance of a specific permit were initiated at the 
Brunner Island (Susquehanna River) power station, now 
under construction, south of Harrisburg. 

The Bethlehem Steel Company installed equipment to 
prevent most of its cyanide wastes from polluting streams 
following several serious fish kills in the Lehigh and Dela- 
ware Rivers. 

Major new treatment works were placed in operation 
to serve the West Virginia Pulp and Paper Company at 
Tyrone (a joint plant treating municipal sewage as well), 
the Atlantic Refining Company south yard plant at Phila- 
delphia, the Albro Packing Company at Springboro, and 
the Downingtown Paper Company. 

A WATER SAMPLE is collected from midstream by a State Health 
Department field investigator for analysis in one of the Department's 



OPERATION of the treatment processes at one of the many hundred 
sewage treatment plants in Pennsylvania is checked by the plant 
operator (left) and a sanitary engineer from one of the seven State 
Health Department regional offices. 

ALL ACTIVE MINING OPERATIONS in the State (like this strip mine) 
are regularly reinspected by State Heath Department field investi- 
gators to make certain that acid mine drainage does not pollute 
nearby streams. Jeeps are invaluable in reaching some out-of-the- 
way operations. 

WEIRING A DISCHARGE from a strip pit to measure rate of flow, WATER SAMPLES from State streams may be given as many as a 

and using a colorimeter to help determine the quality of the discharge, score of tests in the State Health Department's chemical laboratories 

these State Health Department field investigators keep tabs on wastes in the never-ending task of determining water quality and in tracking 

that, unchecked, might pollute a stream. down sources of pollution. 




One of the responsibilities of our work is enforcement. 
During the past several years, this aspect of our program 
has been functioning in high gear. Our Division of Law 
successfully processed 124 cases during 1962. 

Our Clean Streams Law gives us the power to bring a 
criminal action against a violator, but it is usually much 
more important to us to have a violation corrected, and 
corrected quickly, than to have a violator fined. For this 
reason, we attempt to get a violator to take immediate 
corrective measures. Nevertheless, legal action is some- 
times warranted. Our record in the courts of Pennsylvania 
during the past several years has been a successful one. 
Not one case involving the Clean Streams program has 
been lost. This court record has been especially helpful 
because the decisions have aided clarification of our au- 
thority under the law. 

Field and Laboratory Studies 

Staff members, serving as investigatory and enforcement 
agents for the Sanitary Water Board, made 13,207 field 
inspections of sewage and industrial waste plants and 
mining operations during the year. This was an increase 
of 12 percent over 1961. 

There was a 20 percent increase during 1962, as com- 
pared to 1961, in the number of analyses performed by 
the Health Department’s chemical laboratories in Harris- 
burg. More than 115,000 such analyses were made 
during 1962. Work on a U. S. Public Health Service 
grant for the study of organics in water and fish continued 
during the year. Numerous tests, using live fish, were 
made on samples from streams, wells and industrial dis- 
charges. Special tests were made on detergents and 
pesticides to determine their toxicity and to develop 
better methods of analysis. 

To help determine problems and progress in the Clean 
Streams program, a 175-station statewide water quality 
network sampling program was initiated during 1962. 
All major streams in the State are sampled under this 
program every three months. The samples are analyzed 
and changes noted in stream conditions. The results give 
the staff information as to where additional work may be 
needed in correcting pollution problems. 

Planning was commenced for water quality studies of 
the Codorus, Neshaminy Creek and Conestoga Creek 
basins. These studies will be made by Department of 
Health sanitary engineers. The Codorus and Neshaminy 
Creek studies will be in conjunction with the studies of 
these streams by the Pennsylvania Department of Forests 
and Waters. 

The Department is cooperating with the U. S. Public 
Health Service and other federal and state agencies on 
comprehensive water quality studies of the Great Lakes 
basin, the Susquehanna basin, the Ohio basin, and the 
Delaware tidal estuary. The purpose of these studies, 

| which will continue over several years and in which 
neighboring states in the basins are cooperating, is to assist 
in the development of comprehensive water resources plans 
for these basins. 


Much work remains to be done before all our streams 
are as clean as they should be and as clean as we would 
like to see them. With continued emphasis on recreational 
assets of our Commonwealth through Project 70 and other 
efforts designed to make Pennsylvania a better place to 
work, live and play, the Sanitary Water Board and the 
Department of Health are very conscious of the contribu- 
tions that the Clean Streams program can make toward 
these efforts. 




to CJL 



— Pennsylvania State University Photograph 

FISHING CLASS IN SESSION at Pennsylvania State University under 
the instruction of George Harvey who introduced angling classes 
about 16 years ago, the first offered for college credit. 


ISHING as a combination of recreation, health activity 
and a builder of better citizenship, is becoming recognized 
more and more by the faculties of American colleges. Even 
some high schools now include fishing as a recommended 
physical education course. 

That interest in fishing is interesting more and more 
school officials and students alike is natural, according to 
Dr. Julian W. Smith, director of Outdoor Education 
Projects for American Association of Health, Physical 
Education and Recreation. 

“We regard fishing and related outdoor activities as a 
contributing factor to the general objectives of education 
and consider them essential if people are to be trained for 
the wholesome use of their increasing leisure time,” he 


Dr. Smith, who also is associate professor of Outdoor 
Education at Michigan State University, continues: “The 
general goals of education, such as self-reliance, human 
relationships and civic responsibility are readily discernible 
in fishing and other outdoor education with specific impli- 
cations for a command of the fundamental processes— 
health, citizenship, worthy use of leisure time, vocations 
and ethical character.” 

Recently an outdoor workshop for educators, the first in 
the West, was held at the University of California. Nor- 
man P. Miller, associate professor in the Department of 
Physical Education, reports that fishing was so popular a 

subject that he had to provide five outstanding casting 
experts to be available as instructors in casting and fishing 
techniques, to the attending educators. 

Fifteen years ago, when George Harvey introduced his 
fishing classes at the Pennsylvania State University, they 
were believed to be the first offered for college credit. 

“Public reaction was mixed at the outset,” reports 
Harvey. “Since then, it has been favorable. There must 
be twenty colleges and universities now offering com- 
parable instruction, not all for credit, but some for credit 
and others as part of their recreational programs.” 

At the University of Connecticut, fly tying instruction 
for both beginner and advanced students is conducted dur- 
ing February, March and April, reports Walter E. Burr, 
assistant professor there. 

“About the first two weeks in May, fly casting instruc- 
tion is given on one of the ponds on the campus,” explained 
Burr. “In addition to the instruction, I also try to give the 
latest information on the local hot fishing spots where my 
students can apply the lessons learned.” 

Fly tying, with some work in bait casting and fly cast- 
ing, is in the fishing course given at the Oregon State Col- 
lege, according to Ralph Coleman, director of service 


“We conduct our class during the winter term only. It 
is a two-hour class. We have four classes and have an 
average class attendance of 20. The Department of Physi- 
cal Education feels that it is a very worthwhile course and 
makes a contribution to the leisure time of the individual.” 
More extensive is the fishing course at the University of 
Florida which was pioneered by Assistant Professor Frank 
Philpott, a nationally recognized angler. It was started in 
order to provide a recreational activity for physically 
handicapped students. Soon, however, other students 
wanted in and now fishing is one of the most popular 
courses with instructional classes, tournaments, field trips 
and principles of conservation. 

“Although fishing is a noncredit course in the Depart- 
ment of Required Physical Education, over one thousand 
students have enrolled in these classes in the past eight 
years,” reports Philpott. “Perhaps the students’ attitude 
toward an opportunity like this is best expressed by one 
who wrote: ‘I found the course particularly interesting 
because it teaches something of a practical and lasting 

“Since it’s practically impossible to fish and worry at 
the same time, fishing is excellent therapy for persons of 
all ages in these times of tension.” 

Fishing soon will become the national sport in America, 
believes Thomas F. Krizan, instructor and Coordinator of 
Casting and Angling at the University of Illinois. 

Casting at the University of Illinois was first taught in 
1937. It was discontinued during World War II and reac- 
tivated in 1948. Now it operates as a bait, fly and spin 
casting course for a half-hour credit. 




“The game of skish is played primarily and the student’s 
grade is based mostly on the skill acquired in hitting tar- 
gets and the form used in acquiring this skill,” said Krizan. 

“For added interest we brush over trick casting, fishing 
theories, lures, species of fish, fish habits, live bait fishing, 
and literature available. We make field trips to local lakes 
and ponds in this vicinity. Our major interest at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois is the carry-over. If we teach someone 
a sport, we like to see him participate in it or at it.” 

Dr. Florence Cole is instructor in fishing at Florida State 
University. Her course is popular with both men and 
women. “It has proved most satisfactory for casters to 
join together to engage in practice casting and from this 
evolved the casting club,” explains Dr. Cole. 

At the University of Michigan, all freshmen entering 
the University from the secondary schools are required to 
take one year or two semesters of physical education, says 
Dennis Rigan, associate supervisor there. No credit is 
given. , v /U 

“Our fly, bait casting and spinning classes usually meet 
in the second half of the spring semester for twelve pe- 
riods,” he explains. “This course is set up to give the 
students an opportunity to learn the skills of casting the 
fly, bait and spinning outfits. They also discuss the pur- 
chase and care of equipment, types of lures, when and how 
to use them as well as the nature, species and habitat of 
fish. Included are certain items of conservation of natural 
resources, as well as safety practices around the water.” 
The basic elements of casting are taught at the Uni- 
versity of Maryland, according to Burris F. Husman, direc- 
tor of Required Physical Education. “The various methods 
of casting, spinning, fly and surf, are taught. Also we tell 
our students about the habits of various species of fish 
and the identification of these species, both fresh and salt 

After this basic instruction, students make weekly fish- 
ing trips under the guidance of Jack S. Lowder, instructor, 
off campus to the neighboring ponds, lakes, rivers and 
Chesapeake Bay. 

Fishing, Lowder added, is a serious subject at the Uni- 
versity of Maryland and grades of the students are deter- 
mined by a number of factors. “The skill test comes first,” 
he says. “Each student is evaluated on his or her skill in 
using all the equipment and the manner in which it is 
maintained. There are two knowledge tests during the 
semester covering all phases of the course, including con- 
servation. A student must pass this test. And then there is 
class performance. All students are evaluated on their 
day-to-day performance in class.” 

Just as many girls as boys take the bait, fly casting and 
fly tying courses given at the University of Wyoming, 
reports R. D. Watkins, chairman. To augment the course, 
there is a five-weeks session at a fishing camp established 
in the Snowry Range of the Rockies. 

“Our students are required to live at the camp the en- 
tire five weeks,” explains Watkins. “The instructors live 
at the camp and teach the classes. Our course is very 
popular. One reason for the popularity is the fact that 
after the students are given instruction in bait, fly and spin 
casting, they go with their instructors to the field for prac- 
tical experience.” 

One of the pioneers in establishing a fishing course in a 
college is State College of Washington. The students may 

( elect it as one of the required physical education classes, 
says Glenn E. Galligan, chairman. Department of Physical 
Education for Men. 


“Our objectives are two-fold,” he explains. “One is to 
give instructions in and practice skill techniques in the 
different types of casting. The second is to develop an ap- 
preciation for fishing through acquisition of skill, tech- 
niques and a knowledge of the things that make a good 

In this fishing course, the students study about the sea- 
sons and fishing laws, safety, where to fish, equipment and 
care, clothing, motors, lines, knots and hitches; castings 
insects and fishing lures, do’s and don’ts of fishing, fishing 
as a recreation, fishing resources, expenditures on licenses 
and equipment, fish ponds and soil conservation. 

Perhaps the most far reaching fishing program is one 
carried on by the New Hampshire State Planning and De- 
velopment Commission and starts in high school. 

Classes are held after school hours in the Penacook 
High School, usually at night, with Philip Delehanty as 

“Nearly fifty showed up for fly Wing the first year,” 
Delehanty reports, “in spite of the fact that the class is 
entirely optional.” 

The students elect officers each year. Second-year stu- 
dents become teachers and are assigned a new student 
whom they instruct. Part of the classes, however, are 
usually devoted to giving the “teachers” advanced instruc- 
tion in fly tying. 

The first year the class was started two local sportsmen 
spent the first half of the winter with a special group of 
a dozen youngsters. Then these youngsters became the 
teachers for a larger group. Delehanty has found that 
this method gets the best results when it comes to making 
flies for bass, salmon, trout, pickerel, etc. 

The emphasis in the Penacook class is on good sports- 
manship without special “deals” and stocked waters, 
Delehanty says. “The pupils prefer it that way,” he 

Many parents have become interested in fishing through 
their youngsters, Delehanty adds. Generally these fishing 
classes have toned up sportsmanship in the village of 
Penacook. “A number of adults have figured that if the 
pupils could make and use artificial flies, so can they,” 
Delehanty says. 

This is generally true throughout the United States, adds 
Dr. Julian Smith. To encourage such interest in fishing, 
Dr. Smith invites any school desirous of initiating fly and 
bait casting classes to make application to him. On re- 
ceipt of the application, Dr. Smith will then make arrange- 
ments with a member club to provide an instructor at the 
time and place mutually convenient to the instructor and 

“If no member club is in the area, an attempt will be 
made to provide a competent instructor from other 
sources,” says Dr. Smith. 

Professionally taught courses in fishing are a boon to 
both the student and to conservationists. The students, 
besides learning correct fishing techniques and how to 
make lures, also acquire a knowledge of fishlife and the 
outdoors which will make their fishing more enjoyable. 
The conservationists’ lot is made easier because the stu- 
dents become sportsmen and thus become more apprecia- 
tive of the stream and woodland and their wildlife. A 
better fisherman is bound to become a better sportsman, 
and it’s a good bet that a good sportsman is equally as 
good a citizen. So let’s have more college educated 



For Explosive Action After Labor Day 

CHAIN PICKEREL (Esox niger), is dark green on the back grading 
into a yellow chain-like pattern on the sides. The fish are found in 
abundance in the northeastern counties of Pennsylvania. Pickerel 
slam from ambush at both artificial and natural baits equally well. 
Maximum length is about 30 inches. 

'Pic&e'ieC <Ut 


TyPICAL pickerel water is Lake Jean, a 275-acre lake 
suspended at an altitude of 2000 feet above sea level 
located on the fringe of the Allegheny Mountains strad- 
dling the Luzerne-Sullivan County line. The lake appears to 
mingle with the heavens, shining like a sapphire jewel in 
the morning sun. Only a thick ribbon of trees along the 
perimeter prevents the water from spilling into the over- 
head bowl of blue. 

It is here that many anglers come for pickerel action 
and a chance to match wits with the muskellunge. The 
place is Ricketts Glen State Park. The time is late sum- 
mer when a chill in the air and an occasional flaming leaf 
speaks of an inevitable change of season. During the 
height of this vacation period, many fishermen visit this 
picturesque spot. Come Labor Day, the lake is all but 
deserted. And it is then pickerel really put on the show! 
Fishing for pickerel backed by the gorgeous autumn foliage 
sets up one of the most exciting outings of the year. 

Lake Jean was not always the productive pickerel and 
muskellunge spot it is today. The water has been miracu- 
lously changed from an almost sterile body of water con- 
taining only stunted perch, finger size bullheads and skinny 
grass pickerel, to a bright pickerel, muskellunge, walleye 
and bass spot by Pennsylvania Fish Commission biologists. 
The antiquated lake reclaimed, its 275 acres of water now 
offer some of the best pickerel action in Pennsylvania. 

But like other State waters, fishing is tops along about 
autumn when most anglers hang up their rods for the year. 

LAKE JEAN, 254 acres reclaimed by Pennsylvania Fish Commission 
biologists, as it was on opening day, June 15, 1961. 

MINIMUM SIZE of pickerel caught in Pennsylvania is 15 inches with 
a creel limit of six. The season in inland waters opened May 11, 
1963 and closes midnight, March 14, 1964. 


EVERYONE'S FISH, the chain pickerel doesn't give a 
hoot who's on the other end of the rod. These 
young fellows banged into a couple of willing 

MIXED BAG is often a reward for pickerel fishermen 
including bass, yellow perch plus other species in 
Commission managed lakes and ponds. 

MANY LAKE AREAS offer excellent pickerel fishing when the air has 
a bit of nip to it in September and October. 

VARIETY OF LURES are used to tempt pickerel including spoons, wobblers and spinners in the weedless 
designs, for pickerel like weeds and grass. 

Findin Muskies 


OHOW me a creek that’s good for baptizin’ and I’ll show 
you a creek that has muskies.” Steve Sites’ background as 
a former traveling parson was showing. 

“Take the lower Shenango bottoms for instance,” he 
continued. “There’s muskies in those meadows. Find a 
pool that’s still and deep enough around the edges to dunk 
a dozen or so converts and you’re in good water to catch 
one of them devils.” 

And old Steve wasn’t too far wrong. Find a slowly 
meandering stream in northwestern Pennsylvania with mud 
bottom pools, some vegetation, and no visible current and 
you’ve found a place where muskies— perhaps some of the 
jumbo-size editions— dwell. 

“But finding muskies is like savin’ lost souls. It’s far 
from a guarantee of fillets in the pan. Chances are you’ll 
put in plenty of time before you’re showing a bragging fish 
around town,” the aging angler always added. 

Nowhere in their entire range are muskies easy to catch 
nowadays. Of course you will hear of the panfishing 
housewife who hangs a whopper on a hot August after- 
noon. And every locality boasts of the rank beginner who 
landed a trophy musky on his first fishing trip. But these 
are rare incidents indeed. Musky fishing is a rugged, 
monotonous business. But— it has numerous rewards. 

Muskies are taken more or less accidentally by the bass 
and walleye fishermen. There is no denying that. But a 
general knowledge of musky ways, habits, and environ- 
ment is all these fishermen need to become hopeless musky 

Many muskies are taken on light tackle. But that’s like 
hunting partridge with a slingshot. You can do it, but 
you would be better off with a casting rod of considerable 
backbone. For this one type of angling alone I still keep 
a 5K ' stiff casting rod. No other weapon can consistently 
set the hooks deep enough into the bony jaw of a musky. 
Your reaction to the strike is the critical moment in musky 
fishing. If that is done successfully, you can almost bank 
on a successful ending. Remember, if you can in the 
excitement of the moment, to strike hard several times. 

But let’s go back a little. Let’s assume that you are not 
satisfied awaiting a musky strike while you fish for bass; 
you want to go right out after the big boys. Well, you’re 
in for many monotonous hours of casting. But if you do it 
right your big moment will come suddenly enough to turn 
your hair gray. 

Your best bet is to locate a musky, or several of them, 
if possible. It isn’t as hard as it sounds because you can 
do it while you are fishing. Constantly keep an alert eye i 
for musky movements. These will be in the form of heavy 
swirls just under the surface. Rarely will they break 
the surface. 

Before approaching a deadfall or log jam along the 
bank, observe for a few minutes to see if you can detect 
any movement down among the snags. Be especially watch- 
ful as you approach the obstacle for the movement of a 
long thin shadow. On one or two occasions when water 
and light conditions were exactly right I was able to 
approach near enough to see a musky hiding motionless 



under a fallen sycamore. More often, though, the only 
clue will be a shadow fading away into deep water as 
you draw near. Mark that place well! 

Once you have discovered a musky lair you can go to 
work. Perhaps not the same day you spooked the fish— 
at least I have never had any luck that way— but starting 
on the very next trip. Select a position a good cast away 
and go to work. 

If repeated casting to the same general area bores you, 
better stick to trout or the other lightweights. Remember, 
I said this was monotonous business, and that was an 
understatement. You’ll have to change lures occasionally, 
and you’ll have to vary your retrieves, but you will not 
have to change your position too much. 

Plugs are good; most all of the popular bass models. 
And you don’t have to retrieve them at high speeds as you 
may have read before. Frequently I try fast retrieves but 
these meadow muskies, unlike their cousins in the north 
country, seem more interested in slower moving hardware. 

Try this occasionally. Break up a very slow, deliberate 
retrieve with sudden fast darts. Day in and day out, I 
think it is the most deadly. 

After you have cast until your patience is exhausted, 
and that may vary from several hours to several trips, you 
will lost interest. You will toss your bait listlessly. Your 
mind will wander to a cold glass of brew or to the days 
when you could always catch a mess of trout without much 
effect. You’ve doggone near forgotten where you are 
when— socko— you have a strike that has you talking to 
yourself. They never come when you expect them. That 
brings us up to date. If you remember to strike back hard 
and sharp— you’ll have a fish. If not, you have good cause 
to go after that cold brew. 

Besides the usual run of proven plugs, and you should 
stick to sinking plugs almost exclusively, many of the 
spoon-hook and spinner-bucktail combinations are effec- 
tive. Generally you should use the spinners in deeper 
waters. Move them a little faster than the plugs. Most 
of the time I use a medium retrieve, moving the rod tip 
slowly up and down as I wind. My line, incidentally, is 
18 or 24 pound test. 

Perhaps it’s habit more than anything else, but I prefer 
a black bucktail behind my spinner. Almost to a man, 
however, the fraternity of musky fans who work the streams 
in southern Ohio (similar physically to Shenango and the 
Allegheny) use either yellow or white buck-tails. To tell 
the truth, though, most of them use live bait at least part 
of the time— and they catch big fish. 

Here’s the way they do it. Large chubs are preferred. 
To most effectively use bait, you should have a stiff casting 
rod, a reliable reel, and a bobber— nothing else. You can 
either hook the bait fish through the tail or you can use 
one of the many harnesses found on most tackle shelves. 
Few occasions call for sinkers of any type. The bobber 
serves only to locate your bait and to some extent in keep- 
ing it from becoming entangled in underwater snags and 

Cast the bait into all likely areas, and especially into 
those places where you have seen muskies. Better still 
allow the bait to swim at will around these spots. Always 
keep it moving. Not in the sense of casting and retrieving, 
but give it occasional jerks. Try to keep your bait alive. 

The strike of a musky on a live chub is nothing like that 
on plug just beneath the surface. It is slow, deliberate— 

almost leisurely. Here again it’s a case of virtually losing 
interest when slowly the bobber moves down and away. 

Generally the fish will not carry the bait too far. A 
long initial run usually means a small fish. But there are 
exceptions and in any case you should be prepared to feed 
line easily and without drag. At this point you had better 
be a patient angler, for after the first run stops, you prob- 
ably have a long wait. 

Just what takes place down there in the water is uncer- 
tain. Some say the musky turns the bait around to swallow 
it head first. Some say he scales it for better digestion. 
Whatever it is, he’s in no hurry about it. Nine times in 
ten, to strike before a second slow run starts is to lose your 
fish. Wait him out and then hit him hard. Real hard. 

For all the labor and drudgery involved, musky fishing 
in the meadows can be as restful and contemplative during 
the dull moments as it is hair-raising when the action 
begins. It takes you afield in early summer when delicate 
flowers carpet the stream banks. If luck is with you, you 
will have fleeting glimpes of wood ducks with a brand new 
brood of ducklings. 

To play this musky game for all it’s worth, you’ll be on 
the stream in autumn when the atmosphere is like wine 
and the color is fantastic. Your chances of a trophy will 
be the very best, too, when you have to wear long under- 
wear and an extra woolen shirt. 

Neither time nor time of day means anything to muskies. 
Perhaps they are active at night. I’ve never fished for 
them then, and have never known of anyone who did. But 
generally, dawn is no better than dusk and a strike may 
come at noon just as often as either of those. One fact is 
worthy of mention, though, and that is a preference for 
dingy weather. 

In thumbing back through my fishing diaries, I notice 
many references to the dull days with overcast skies and 
a persistent drizzle. Muskies seemed most active on these 
occasions. Here’s a sample. “Nov. 4— Shade R.— missed 
(my) only strike at about 9 a.m.— light rain all morning— 
Herman Davies hooked musky (while) standing on dead- 
fall, dropped (his) gaff in water, slipped off and lost fish.” 

That incident reminds of something besides the weather. 
If you plan to get into this musky fishing seriously, carry' 
a large landing net or a small gaff. The fish are hard to 
handle, especially if you are casting from a steep bank. 
Except for boat fishing, a landing net is too awkward to 
be practical. 

These meadow muskies have one more bad habit. 
We’ve saved this until last so that you would read the 
whole article. Maybe you’ve heard how muskies will 
follow a lure time and again. Perhaps it has actually 
happened to you. 

You cast over and over. You change lures. You change 
retrieves. Every time, the musky follows your bait almost 
to the boat or bank. He seems to glare malevolently at 
you for a moment and then slowly sinks out of sight. But 
he will not strike. Nothing in all the outdoors is so 
exasperating. Nothing is so frustrating. 

But I have a solution. Collect a can of catalpa worms, 
crickets, or grasshoppers. Find a nice creek or lake some- 
where— and settle for a mess of panfish. 














“Paul "Po-cvei 

On A recent weekend I had the opportunity 
to float Tioga County’s fabulous Pine Creek 
Gorge with a well-organized group of Ex- 
plorer Scouts from McKeesport, who were 
so impressed with their adventure that they 
have already made arrangements to repeat 
the trip next year. 

The group was outfitted and guided by 
Ed McCarthy, who is better known to many 
outdoorsmen as ‘The King of the Canyon.” 
Ed has taken approximately 7,000 persons 
through Pennsylvania’s Grand Canyon 
Country by rubber raft without a single 
mishap of any kind. Considering the dan- 
gerous Owassee Rapids and the many fast 
water shoots, this must represent some kind 
of safety record for outdoor adventures. 

The Canyon Cruise is a two-day float trip 
covering 27 miles of Pennsylvania’s most 
scenic wilderness, most of which can be seen 
only by raft because of its inaccessibility. 
Fishing, taking spectacular pictures, swim- 
ming, relaxing, and camping out along the 
way are only a part of this great adventure. 

The float season on Pine Creek is only 
four months long— from March first (after 
the ice goes out) til July first, when the 
water gets too low for easy floating. For 
this reason reservations a year ahead are 
not unusual, with many Scout troops and 
sportsmen’s clubs returning year after year. 

From Canyon Lodge, the halfway mark 
where the groups stay over night, two of 
Pennsylvania’s most scenic parks are visible 
—Leonard Harrison Park on the rim to the 
east, 1,000 feet straight up; and Colton Point 
State Park on the west rim, both of which 
can be explored after a one-hour hike. 

Entering the Canyon at this point is 
Teddy Roosevelt’s favorite trout stream, 
Four Mile Run. This stream, with it’s many 
rushing waters, falls, and pools, which 
abound with native brook trout, is as close 
to Nature as it is possible to get in Pennsyl- 

Highlighting the cruise was a barbecued 
chicken dinner, served with baked potato, 
fruit salad, and other goodies by the well- 
trained guides at Canyon Lodge. The good 
food, clean sweet water, and invigorating 
fresh air made one feel this was life at its 
very best. 

A non-sectarian religious service on Sun- 
day morning among the beech and hemlocks 
(a natural setting provided by Nature) 
would have been an inspiration to even the 
most unholy. 

The second day’s float ended at Blackwell, 
Pa., where the rafts were deflated, loaded 
into cars along with all the gear, and the 
group returned to the Antler’s at Rexford, 
Pa. There, the boys cleaned up, had a 
delicious turkey dinner, and climbed into 
the cars for the long journey home. 

Exit wonderful weekend. 

EMBARKATION POINT. Rafts are lined on the bank ready t< 
loaded with sleeping bags and extra clothing. The large round r 
at left is used by Outfitter Ed McCarthy, as the "flagship." 

PADDLE PICKIN'. Rule of the thumb 
is that it should be as high as your 
nose. If a scout falls overboard, he 
is required to hang on to his paddle. 

vival suits are a must to tf 
from getting soaked durinchi 

'P&ata& *7 am ^c^c^le^t 

LAST MINUTE CHECK. Three Explorer Scouts check air pressur" 
the r rubber raft before embarking on the cruise. 



ON OUR WAY. The golden fleet of rafts shove off on the start of 
a 27-mile, two-day adventure. Each year hundreds of outdoor-minded 
people view Pine Creek Gorge by floating in this manner. 

FLAGSHIP. These young adventurers rig a mast to fly the colo 
distinguishing them from every other raft. Fun, excitement a 
spectacular scenery on a Canyon Cruise. 

ON THE ROCKS! At Owassee Rapids. Four Explorer Scouts find thrilling outdoor adventure as they 
float the fastest stretch of water in Pennsylvania's Grand Canyon. 

"THROW ME A LINE!" Assistance is offered in landing a raft. The turbulent white water of Pine Creek 
offers plenty of challenge to the floating Scouts from McKeesport, Pa. 


Robert G. Miller 

mander of the U. S. Coast Guard Auxiliary, Flotilla 104, 
makes good use of it before other organizations to show 
just what can be accomplished even with just a handful 
of members. 

In addition the group has a pictorial history of its 
progress, in both 35 mm slides and 16 mm movie film, 
which is used to illustrate talks on the various programs. 

Toggart explained that after the area was cleared suffi- 
ciently they started work on the docks, all of steel con- 
struction with wood planking, and then constructed a pile 
driver to drive the standards into three feet of bedrock. 
To these were welded finger piers each capable of han- 
dling two boats. There are now 25 such piers and a 
60-foot straight docking area parallel to the river for the 
larger craft. As a rule, he said, most of the members op- 
erate outboard powered craft, 14 to 16 feet in length, with 
an average horsepower of 30. 


OAFETY first, recreation second.” 

Such is the policy of the Bethlehem Boating Club Inc., 
an organization now in its fifth year of operation serving 
boating interests from Allentown, Bethlehem, Easton and 
even the Phillipsburg, N. J., area. 

This is far from being a social group. Instead, as 
James E. Toggart, immediate past commodore, mentioned 
“the club is dedicated first to safe boating and then to 
wholesome family boating with emphasis on family recrea- 
tion seeing to it that mom, dad and the youngsters have 
a good time.” 

A lot of hard work, really back breaking labor, was 
required before the club reached its present status since 
it was formed as a non-profit organization with an ex- 
tremely small nucleus of interested boaters. 

In fact, Jim noted, although they had only nine mem- 
bers they were, as he described them, “God’s chosen 
people” who knew what they wanted, knew how to get 
it and were willing to work for it. 

Their first step was the acquisition of a portion of 
Oberly Island, located in the Lehigh River about midway 
between Bethlehem and Easton, in Bethel Twp. The 
island, cut off from the mainland by the old Lehigh Canal, 
is about six miles east of Bethlehem. 

About one third of the island was leased from the Le- 
high Coal and Navigation Co. and work was begun build- 
ing a causeway to bridge the old canal. Then this small 
group of members cut about 1,800 trees to clear at least 
a portion of the area, hauled over 2,000 tons of rock to 
fill a swampy area, and then graded the area for parking 
and launching. 

Fortunately most of them had access to equipment re- 
quired for the initial operations, as well as others that 
followed, all of which build up to amazing proportions 
when you consider what the club now has to offer was 
created in a relatively short span of time. 

Toggart, who is no slouch when it comes to praising 
the organization, has most of this information at his finger 
tips and occasionally, sometimes in his capacity as com- 

Realizing that sanitary facilities are a must, the club 
built a concrete block structure complete with flush toilets; 
dug a 327-foot well last year for the water system, put 
together about 25 picnic tables, and even provided a 
recreation area for the children complete with swings, a 
sandbox, teeter boards, etc. Someone, somehow, man- 
aged to beg the latter from a local day nursery when it 
went out of business. 

Finally (but I doubt it) they imposed upon the Penn- 
sylvania Power & Light Co. to string a line to the island, 
installed a telephone for emergency use, improved the 
ramp by widening it to 62 feet, by HO feet long, with a 
slag rock base covered with black top; and then cleared 
off more land for parking about 300 cars. 

Last year, after it was determined the river wasn’t 
safe for the youngsters, it was decided to build a pool 
especially for them. Consequently a 42 by 60 foot pool, 
ranging in depth from 6 to 31 inches, was constructed on 
the island. It is completely fenced in as a safety measure, 
and is equipped with one of the finest filtering systems 



The club’s other interests include entertaining under- 
privileged children, conducting safe boating classes for 
local Boy and Girl Scouts, conservation practices and 
operating a nightly patrol to assist in any emergency. 

The latter project, carried out over the summer months 
and well into the duck hunting season, was started some 
time ago when Toggart found a fisherman slumped over 
in his boat, apparently the victim of a heart attack. Tog- 
gart brought the man ashore and as a result that fellow 
is alive, and perhaps still fishing, today. 

Twice a year the underprivileged children of the Le- 
high Valley area, through the cooperation of local wel- 
fare agencies, are brought to the island for a day’s outing 
and then returned home that evening. 

Conservation is also practiced by the club. Trees are 
never cut unless it’s absolutely necessary, and then two or 
three are planted in its place to provide natural surround- 
ings for wild life which include deer and even a few wild 
turkey. Two professional bird watchers are also given the 
run of the area making it possible for them to set up 
blinds, equipped with automatic cameras, and thus main- 
tain a constant check on the bird life. 

The club, because of its stress on safe boating, is proud 
of the fact that its members have never had a serious 
accident. Local boating conduct, compared to elsewhere, 
is reported as excellent and the members are always will- 
ing to lend a hand, or a tow, when needed. 

Drawing from a radius of 21 miles, the club currently 
has an active membership of about 65 persons. The club 
charges $10 a year dues plus an assessment of $15 which 
is earmarked for the capital improvement program. Also 
the officers solved the problem of having only a handful 
of workers by requiring 25 hours manual labor from each 

The entire program is on a share and share alike basis. 
There is no rank pulling. Members can tie up to any 
finger pier and they can use any picnic table, with no 
one to tell them that this or that is reserved. 

General membership meetings take place once or twice 
a year at the home of a member but it’s the Board of 
Directors that makes the decisions and gets things done. 

The present commodore of the organization is Ken 
Remaly of Bethlehem. Other officers and directors, in 
addition to Remaly and Toggart are: Arthur Metzger, 
Joseph Kirchmor, Robert Getz, Dr. Raymond Myers, 
Walter Beck, Herman Herkorm and Joseph Posch. 

T WO LYCOMING County men, one from Williamsport 
and the other from Montoursville, completed a canoe trip 
down the Susquehanna River to Columbia, Lancaster 
County, on Saturday, July 6, and while they described it 
as a “barrel of fun” they were faced with problems all 
the way. 

The trip was made in three days by Cleon Berry, 
Williamsport YMCA, and Paul Hummer, 1217 Mulberry 
St., Montoursville, neither of whom had ever had too much 
previous experience handling a canoe. Traveling as light 
as possible they left Williamsport on Wednesday morning, 
July 3, and reached Columbia, a distance of about 150 
miles, about noon Saturday, July 6. 

Both men advised carrying only the bare essentials. 
Their equipment included sleeping bags, an extra pair of 
shoes, one change of clothing, first aid kit, water and one 
meal. Other meals were obtained along the way. Even 
shaving equipment was left behind and both were a bit 
bewhiskered at the end of the trip. 

The sun was one of their major headaches. Both men 
wore sun glasses but the constant glare off the water 
burned their skin and provided swollen hands at least for 
Hummer. Olive oil was used to lessen the pain. 

Another problem was the lack of available information 
about stream conditions ahead. Folks would tell them to 
take this, or that channel only to find it was the wrong 
one. Then they had to waste time finding the right 
channel through the various rock ledges they encountered. 

Once both men were dunked in the water, the bottom 
of the canoe had to be patched more than once during 
the journey, and there was no time for sightseeing while 
racing through white water (yes, there is such a thing 
along some sections of the Susquehanna River) with rocks 
on either side. 

However, despite these hardships, both Berry and 
Hummer are ready to shove off again, but not the same 
stretch of the Susquehanna. They would rather try one 
of Pennsylvania’s other waterways. 

Outboard Should Not Be Run Out of Water 

SOME outboard boatmen make it a practice to start 
their motors after they have been removed from the water. 
The idea is to expel any water that may be left in the 
cooling system. Although the theory is sound, this prac- 
tice should be avoided. In most cases, the water will 
drain out by itself and, except in freezing weather, the 
small amount that may be left will not hurt anything. 

Running an outboard motor out of water for even a 
short time can cause overheating and will invite water 
pump damage. If you want to make sure all of the water 
is out before putting the motor away for an extended 
period, disconnect the spark plugs and give the starter rope 
a few easy pulls. 

Don't Forget Drain Plug 

EVEN the most experienced boatmen may occasionally 
forget to replace the drain plug in his boat. A good way to 
avoid this is to make it a practice to check the drain 
plug at the same time you hitch up your trailer before 
leaving home. 



New Commission President 

New Commission Vice President 


The Pennsylvania Fish Commission at its July 29, 1963 
meeting at Harrisburg, elected Wallace C. Dean of Mead- 
ville, Crawford County, to serve as its president. Mr. Dean 
was first appointed to the Commission in May, 1953, was 
reappointed in April, 1961 to serve until January 1969. 
A life-long fisherman, he has been constantly active in 
statewide sportsmen’s affairs and organizations. 

Joseph M. Critchfield of Confluence, Somerset County, 
was elected vice president of the Commission. He was first 
appointed to the Commission in 1940, again appointed to 
serve until January 1958, was then reappointed to serve 
until January 1966. Mr. Critchfield has been a pioneer 
in the activities of the Southwest Division of the Pennsyl- 
vania Federation of Sportsmen’s Clubs and other organiza- 
tions of the area. 

Sewickley Club Builds " Fishing Hole" For Kids 

f OUNGSTERS from Edgeworth, Sewickley and surround- 
ing communities are going to have a good fishing spot, 
thanks to the joint efforts of the Sewickley Shooting and 
Fishing Club, business firms of the Ohio valley, and indi- 
viduals who are interested in the welfare of the younger 
generation. During the past several months men and 
machinery have been working to rehabilitate four miles 
of Little Sewickley Creek in and near Walkers Park, 
creating a fishing stream for youngster's. 

The project is sponsored by the Sewickley Shooting 
and Fishing ( .'lub and is under the direction of Walter 

At the present time work is nearing completion within 
Walker Park. Work will continue upstream until the 
entire four miles have been turned into a fish paradise. 
Over 3,000 trees have been planted along the stream. 

some of which were donated by the Sewickley Garden 
Club; others were purchased from funds donated to the 
Sewickley Shooting and Fishing Club. 

Sixteen tons of logs used in the construction of the 
deflectors and single log dams, ranging in length from 
10 to 32h feet, were hauled from Sharon, Pa.— a contribu- 
tion from C. E. Kinsing, president of the Pittsburgh Custom 
Builders. H. H. Robertson Co., American Bridge Com- 
pany, Bell Telephone Co., and Duquesne Light Co. are 
several of the firms who have given support to the project. 

The Child Health Association of Sewickley is the most 
recent organization to contribute financially to the project. 

A few of the men who have made outstanding con- 
tributions of time and effort to this stream improvement 
project are: E. H. Need, John Schwartz, Carl McCreary, 
Don McCreary, Joe Hatton, Fran Start, Walter Zimmer- 
man, Gasper J. Breck, Jr., and R. S. Garrison. 





Robert M. Rankin, of Galeton, Potter County, has been 
appointed by Governor William W. Scranton, as a member 
of the Pennsylvania Fish Commission. Confirmed by the 
Senate, Mr. Rankin will serve until the second Tuesday of 
January 1971, replacing Albert R. Hinkle, Jr., of Clearfield, 
whose term expired. 

Mr. Rankin was born on December 2, 1915 in Ruffalo, 
New York. He graduated from the St. Petersburg-Richland 
Township Consolidated High School, Clarion County, 
Pennsylvania in 1933. 

“Bob,” as he is better known, has been a partner in the 
firm of Bosek and Rankin Motor Sales engaged in the sales 
and service of Ford Products in Galeton, Pennsylvania 
for over 25 years. 

During World War II he served as an instructor in the 
Armored Corps at Fort Knox, Kentucky. 

Active in local civic affairs, “Bob” has been President of 
the Galeton Boro Council and a Councilman. He is a 
member of the American Legion, Octagon Post ^ 291 
and Rotary International, Galeton Chapter. 

Since the origination of the Potter County Anglers’ Club 
in 1958, “Bob” has been president of the organization 
which has successfully reared to date 100,000 trout from 
the fingerling stage to legal size. (Several articles depicting 
the success of the club’s nursery project have appeared in 
past issues of the Pennsylvania Angler.) 

The 48 year old Anglers’ Club president has long been 
an ardent sportsman and active in several sportsmen’s 
groups in the area. Through his association with the 
Anglers’ Club, he gained considerable knowledge of trout 
propagation and distribution. 

“Bob” resides in Galeton, Pennsylvania. He is married 
to the former Ruth Bosek; they have one daughter. 



Fish Commission Pays Tribute 
To J. Allen Barrett 

ThE Fish Commission at its July 29, 1963 meeting 
passed a resolution paying tribute to J. Allen Barrett, 
retired former conservation-education chief of the 
Commission, who died July 27, 1963. 

Mr. Barrett, a native of Lvkens, served the Fish 
Commission for more than 20 years. He joined the 
commission on October 1, 1940 and was assigned 
duties as a lecturer. In addition, he edited the 
Pennsylvania Angler for many years. He was one 
of the five organizers of the Pennsylvania Outdoor 
Writers Association of which he was a charter 

In November 1947, he was named Director of 
Public Relations, later became chief of the Conserva- 
tion-Public Relations Division of the commission. 
He held that position until 1956 and again from 
January 18, 1960 until December 30, 1960 when 
he retired. 

The Pennsylvania Angler, the magazine he 
edited for many years, joins the members of the Penn- 
sylvania Fish Commission in paying this final tribute 
to a fine public servant and a gentleman. 

Indian Summer is a magic interlude between fall and winter. 
Days are softened by a mystic haze, which according to legend, 
is the smoke of Indian campfires around which the si>irits of 
departed braves gather to relive their harvest time. Henry 
Wadsworth Longfellow described this lull of nature thus: 

“ It is the Indian Summer. The rising sun blazes through the 
misty air like a conflagration. A yellowish, smoky haze fills 
the atmosphere, and a filmy mist lies like a silver lining on the 
sky. The wind is soft and low. It wafts to us the odor of forest 
leaves, that hang wilted on the dripping branches, or drop into 
the stream. Their gorgeous tints arc gone, a* if the autumnal 
rains had washed them out. Orange, yellow and scarlet, all 
are changed to one melancholy russet hue. The birds, too, have 
taken wing, and have left their roofless dwellings. Xot the 
whistle of a robin, not the twitter of an eavesdropping swallow, 
not the carol of one sweet, familiar voice. All gone. Only the 
dismal cawing of a crow, as he sits and curses that the harvest 
is over; or the chit-chat of an idle squirrel, the noisy denizen 
of a hollow tree, the mendicant friar of a large parish, the 
absolute monarch of a dozen acorns.” 




T HERE is still endless confusion in the minds of fly 
fishermen about this matter of fly line size. 

The men who have been at this business of fly fishing 
for some time are not at all sure about the new numbers. 
The old HCH is now a DT-6-F, whatever that means. 

The younger anglers who want to take up fly fishing 
read that you must balance the weight of action of your 
rod with a line of proper weight and taper. If this 
information isn’t written on the rod or the tag which 
comes with it, they’re really confused. Not only that, a 
lot of the clerks in sporting goods stores are just as con- 
fused, since many of them never fly fish or never have 
had much experience with this specialized equipment. 

The tyro can get straightened out in several ways. He 
can send the full description of his rod (length, exact 
weight, model number, etc.) to the manufacturer and ask 
what line is recommended. He can hunt up one or more 
of his fishing acquaintances and try their different size 
lines long enough to make a few casts to see what one 
seems to work best. Trouble with this idea is that too few 
of the real greenhorns in the games are qualified to know 
which works best. 

So, a better bet is to go to the top fly fishermen in the 
areas, and there are always a few in any community. He 
should have at least three or four fly rods and fly reels 
and maybe a half-dozen outfits if he’s a real fly nut. Since 
most of these men are devoted to the sport, very few will 
hesitate to work with the novice to get him started on the 
right foot. With a few casts, he will be able to tell you 
what size line to purchase and what taper will be best 
suited to your needs. 

While you’re there, he might even show you how to cast! 

All Depends on the Weight 

Now to get back to the befuddled oldtimer, let’s see if 
we can straighten out his confusion with the new fly 
line sizes. 

The old letter system, A to I, referred to line diameters. 
Thus A, the largest, was .06 inches in diameter and I, the 
smallest, was .02 inches in size. This was fine when all 
fly lines were made of silk. But when the new nylon and 
dacron lines were introduced, problems developed. Nylon 
was lighter than sik and dacron was heavier. So, an HCH 
in one material was by no means the same as an HCH in 
another. Consequently, the rod manufacturers couldn’t 
simply recommend a certain fine size for their own 

Since weight, not diameter, is the critical factor in 
balancing a rod wit]; a fly line, the old letter designation 
for diameter was dropped and a new number designation 
for weight was adopted. Using the “grain” as a weight 

unit (437h grains in one ounce), the Nos. 1 to 12 were 
assigned to line sizes ranging from 60 grains to 380 grains. 

This system was based on the weight of the first 30 feet 
of the “working” portion of the line, exclusive of any tip 
on a taper, as measured from the very beginning of the 

It's Simple But You Still Need Advice 

A table was set up as follows: 1—60 grains; 2—80; 

3-100; 4-120; 5-140; 6-160; 7-185; 8-210; 9-240; 
10-280; 11-330; 12-380. 

The letters which accompany the weight number refer 
to the taper and whether the line is floating (F), sinking 
(S) or intermediate (I) in nature. If we look at the 
new DF-6-F, which is the same as the old HCH, we find 
the DT stands for double taper and the F for floating. 

L denotes a level line; WF a weight forward line and ST 
a single taper line. 

The whole system’s quite simple after you study it a 
little while but choosing the right line for the rod is still 
just as complicated as ever unless the manufacturer has 
done the job for you. But even then he can’t guess what 
you’re going to fish for and what you’re going to use on 
the end of your leader. If you throw size 18 dry flies, 
you wouldn’t necessarily want the same taper as the man 
who was going to throw bass bugs, little poppers or even 
wet flies. 


If you were going to make long casts for salmon or 
bonefish, you would want a weight forward line. But if 
you were going to use your rod exclusively for fly fishing 
small Pennsylvania trout streams, a double or single taper 
might be a better choice. 

With the price of a good tapered line running in the 
$8 to $12 bracket, it doesn’t pay to make too many mis- 
takes in choosing one for your rod. This would be par- 
ticularly true if you were to get one of the new “lifetime 
lines” at $35 and discovered you had the wrong size. 

With some good advice and a little experimentation, 
however, you should be able to purchase with confidence. 
And you should come up with an outfit which will bring 
you many, many hours of real pleasure on that mountain 
trout stream, that smallmouth bass river or that bonefish 
flat in the islands. -roger latham in Pittsburgh press 



Fish Ketchup 

Temperature— 350 deg. Fahr. 
1/4 cups pickerel, boiled and 

1 cup rice, cooked in salt 

4 cups milk 

Time— 35-45 minutes 
2 tablespoons butter 
1 egg, well beaten 
/2 cup bread crumbs 
/2 teaspoon salt 
teaspoon pepper 


Mix all of the ingredients excepting the bread crumbs. Cook 10 
minutes in a double boiler to blend. Pour into a buttered baking 
dish and cover with buttered bread crumbs. Bake until set I 
and the crumbs are brown. Serve with— 

Fish Ketchup 

(Century-Olcl Pennsylvania Recipe) 

Take more than a pint of vinegar, three pints of red Port, two 
tablespoons of pepper pounded very fine, plenty of shallots and 
horseradish, the peel of half a lemon, two or three bay leaves, 
and a pound of anchovies; let the whole boil together until the 
anchovies are dissolved, then strain, and when cold put into 
bottles. -J. ALMUS RUSSELL 






Fishery Biologist 

Benner Spring Fish Research Station 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission 

SELDOM RECOGNIZED and rarely caught grass pickerel of western 

THE glamour members of the pike family, the musky, 
northern pike and chain pickerel, have had thousands of 
hours devoted to their capture, but whoever spent even 
one hour angling for redfin or grass pickerel? To go a 
little further, how many fishermen even know that hiding 
in the weeds of some springs, lakes or streams are these 
diminutive members of the pike family— the unheralded 
“little pickerels.” Every bit as pugnacious as their bigger 
relatives, they are unfortunately doomed to obscurity be- 
cause they rarely reach 12 inches in length. But all is 
not lost for this species, for they too had their moments 
of glory. They had the great American treatment of being 
pampered and cared for as they were transferred from 
their native habitat into new local waters and across the 
Great Plains to new homes in Colorado and the State of 
Washington. But alas, this was just a case of mistaken 
identity. Those who pampered and cared for them thought 
they were the offspring of Mr. Esox himself, the muskel- 
lunge. Instead, it was just plain Esox americanus vermicu- 
latus, the little grass pickerel from west of the Alleghenies. 

The second little pickerel— the redfin— which abides east 
of the Alleghenies also had its own singular honor, for it 
had the distinction of being one of the first New World 
species to be recognized. In 1788, Gmelin first described 
this species from a specimen taken on Long Island, N. Y. 
He called it Esox americanus americanus, the “American 
Pike.” Not scattered all over the world as is the northern 
pike, at the time, this was truly the All-American fish. 

The pioneer of the family, the “Go West, young pike, 
go West” type, is found beyond the Alleghenies. It was 
on the banks of the song-stressed Wabash that LeSeur 

stood in 1818 when he collected the first specimen of the 
grass pickerel to which he gave the species names of 
vermiculatus, referring to the not too poetic worm-like 
markings on its sides. 

The redfin pickerel was originally called the “trout pick- 
erel” and justifiably so when note is made of its habitat. 
When one thinks of springs and mountain streams it is 
almost synonymous with trout, but one could also relate 
this synonomy with pickerel— the redfin. For example, at 
the source of two large limestone springs near Allentown, 
the redfin is as abundant and adapted as the trout with 
which it shares the clear flowing water. In the Pocono 
Mountains, in the tributaries of the Lackawaxen, the 
Pocono Creek and other famous trout streams, this little 
pickerel lives in perfect harmony in its environment. In 
the western portion of the Commonwealth, the grass pick- 
erel does not necessarily have steep gradient mountain 
streams that it can call home. Instead it has adapted itself 
to the local topography and is found in abundance in areas 
with silted bottoms in swampy streams and the weedy 
portions of large and small lakes. Its affinity for areas of 
soft bottoms has resulted in its local monicker— “mud 

The love life of the little pickerels is very similar to 
its larger relatives. For instance, the grass pickerel, in 
lakes such as Canadohta and Conneaut, has the urge and 
the courage to run to the spawning area with the northern 
pike. Moving with the pike in late March and early April, 
it runs to a quiet vegetated area and there the procreation 
of the species begins. As in all animals, it takes two to 
make love and the little pickerel are no exception. Not 
to be caught late at the nuptials, the male is already wait- 
ing over the vegetated area when the spawn-swollen female 
arrives. Slowly escorting her as she meanders above 
the weeds, he gently nudges her along and at each emission 
consideration is not a lasting thing nor could this aquatic 
pair be called devoted parents. As the female completes 
her spawning, the two are separated probably never to see 
one another again, or at least not until the next spawning 
season. The eggs and fry are deserted. If the eggs are not 
destroyed by some environmental disaster or eaten by an 
egg predator, the fry must face the cruel world with only 
their innate cunning and ferocious reputation. This, of 
course, isn’t enough. The little orphans take an enormous 
loss from the original 1,000 to 10,000 eggs laid by one 

Living on minute insects and crustaceans when small, 
and tadpoles, large aquatic insects and fish as they grow 
larger, the little pickerel may grow from 3 to 5 inches 
the first summer. Unfortunately, the depletion of the 
ranks is constant and considerable and only about 20 per 
cent of the yearlings survive. The occasional one that 
lives for three years may be only 11 inches and still must 
face the giants of his selected abode. 

Life has been hard for these little predators, so if you 
ever catch a small pike, look it over. If it has both the 
cheeks and gill cover scaled, if the snout is short and 
broad, and if it has light vertical bars rather than a chain- 
like pattern on its sides, return it to the water with a little 
pride. You haven’t caught a runt, but one of the diminu- 
tive and rarely captured members of the voracious and 
glamorous pike family. These very close relatives of the 
mighty musky must not only keep up the family reputa- 
tion, but also must do it the hard way— by proving a good 
small fish is equal to a good big fish. 




Bass fishermen along the Allegheny had quite a few handi- 
caps this season. Earlier the Allegheny River was murky, 
then the moss or algae started running and then the low and 
clear water had the bass boys trying to adapt to the changing 
conditions. Pressure has been light. 

-District Warden CLARENCE W. SHEARER (Venango). 

Heavy moss in the Allegheny River in my area disgusted 
quite a few bass fishermen but most are awaiting cooler weather. 
Dave Guthrie, Marienville, Pa., came up with a 47-inch, 31- 
pound muskellunge from Tionesta Dam, a good spot for muskies 
all season. 

—District Warden NORMAN L. BLUM (Forest and Clarion). 

An angler at Pymatuning showed me a double snelled hook 
with a few split shot on it and a short length of monofilament 
line. He had a channel catfish about 15 inches on his stringer. 
He said his hook had caught in the double snell of the other 
hook he exhibited and this hook was still in the fish’s mouth, 
lost by another fisherman. 

-District Warden RAYMOND HOOVER (Crawford). 

A Centre County angler invested a little more than he had 
expected in a recent fishing excursion. While fishing for trout 
he started a cast and his wristwatch came loose and sailed into 
a deep hole. The watch, valued around $70 could not be 
retrieved after several vain diving attempts in cold, cold water. 
If the remaining fish in that hole learn to tell time, it’s going 
to be really tough to catch them. 

-District Warden PAUL ANTOLOSKY (Centre). 

Young Bob Smith had gone to a nearby streams for minnows. 
He saw three very young anglers about seven or eight years 
old, trying to use one piece of equipment at the same time. 
All were positive they knew the answers as to how to catch fish, 
each trying to get his point across at the same instant. They 
finally worked it out for each to take a turn with the pole with 
much sideline coaching from the others. One youngster evi- 
dently knew how to catch fish for his method was to throw in 
the line, count to 60 and then yank! Evidently this wasn’t 
the method because the next fella taking his turn counted to 
way past 60 and still caught nothing. When Smith saw them 
working under such handicap he rigged a line for each so they 
did not have to take turns. 

—District Warden MILES D. WITT (Northampton & Bucks). 

During the shad run in the Delaware River I received reports 
of two different shad that when caught had lamprey eels 
attached to their sides. I had never seen this but read of it 
in the Great Lakes. I fished for shad one evening and caught 
a buck shad with a lamprey attached. The eel was only nine 
inches in length but it had a neat hole in the side of the fish 
and didn’t want to let go of his meal ticket. I placed the fish 
and his parasite in the bottom of the boat and it was about an 
hour and a half before it let go. 

-District Warden JOSEPH E. BARTLEY (Pike). 

•tcli -s of bass have been reported from Canadohta Lake 
by Special Fish Warden Alex Aversa. The lake 
was drawn down last fall and a dam built at the outlet. Because 
of this the weeds failed to grow along the shore this year due 
to root systems being exposed during cold winter, freezing 
them out. The fishermen now have a better chance of showing 
their hardware to the fish. 

-District Warden NORMAN E. ELY (Erie). 

LAKE JEAN muskellunge caught by Airman First Class Norman L. 
Merrill on a No. 1 mepps spinner with red bucktail. It was 35 inches 
long and weighed 9% pounds. 

An added side note of interest comes from an eyewitness 
account of the landing of the fish by William Utt of Blooms- 
burg, Pa. Utt claims he and his son heard cries for help, 
looked out across the lake and saw the airman with his rod 
doubled under the boat. They went out taking a net to assist 
in the landing. The landing net was useless when they saw 
the size of the fish, but Utt grabbed the exhausted musky by 
the gills and hauled him aboard. Utt, who fishes the St. 
Lawrence River frequently declared if he hadn’t seen the fish 
landed at Lake Jean he would never believe a fish of that size 
existed in the lake. 

Merrill was soon joined by other boats with airmen who 
assisted in towing him back to shore all the while busy holding 
the subdued musky in the bottom of the boat. The lake is 
readily available to personnel of the Benton Air Force Station 
located within a mile of Lake Jean and fishing is probably a part 
of the recreation program there. 

Buddies of Merrill insist this was only his second fishing trip, 
that he had only ONE LURE in his kit and this was the first 
legal fish of any species he had ever caught. 

—District Warden JAMES F. YODER ( Luzerne and E. Sullivan). 

Streams were abnormally low this year and fishermen who 
took trout under these conditions had to use every trick in the 
book. Even white “T” shirts and shadows spooked them and 
most of the large trout were taken at night. 

—District Warden KENNETH G. COREY (Warren). 

Recently there was an unusual bit of activity on the upper 
Delaware River, south of the Delaware Water Gap. All over 
the surface of the river, wakes were seen, traveling downstream. 
No turning or playing, just one straight bee-line down river 
as far as the eye could follow. Investigation revealed the 
waves were caused by adult shad evidently on their way back 
to the sea. I noticed the fish were moving at about the same 
rate of speed and after leaving the vicinity I clocked them with 
my car. I found they were making headway at about 15 miles 
per hour. There appeared to be an endless run of them in 
both directions as far as you could see, running about 10 to 15 
yards apart in an endless chain. 

—District Warden MILES D. WITT (Northampton and Bucks). 



Meadville Kids at Annual Fishiny Derby 

Over 400 persons attended the third consecutive Mead- 
ville Fishing Derby held at Keystone Ordnance Works 
pond recently. The event was sponsored by Meadville 
Area Recreation Commission with aid from the Pennsyl- 
vania Fish Commission and the permission of the Federal 
General Services Administration. 

The girls were out there angling as earnestly as the boys 
although some of them squealed at putting bait on the 
hooks and removing the wriggling catches but the boys 
gallantly came to the rescue. 

Bob Hughes of radio station WMGW handled the public 
address system, information was recorded by Ken P. 
Williams, Meadville Tribune managing editor and Chuck 
Anderson, Tribune sports writer. S. Carlyle Sheldon, 
northwest regional fish warden supervisor and Raymond L. 
Hoover, district fish warden, Pennsylvania Fish Commis- 
sion helped with the judging. 


Roswell Smith 

Roswell Smith, employed by the Pennsylvania Fish Com- 
! mission on May 10, 1929, retired as Fish Culturist on 
I May 31, 1963. Mr. Smith was born on June 4, 1898 at 
Ryot in Bedford Country and he has four children and 
eight grandchildren. He likes to fish, hunt and travel, 
I owns and operates a small garage at Ryot, Pa., and expects 
[ to keep busy operating the garage. 

Nothing in nature is accidental or unimportant. 

© © © 

Autumn has the girlish figure of summer, the gentle grace of 
I maturity, the rich beauty of mellow sunlight and the voice of 
I soft winds singing in the sky. 

© © © 

Education that includes some thought of our environment, 
I for the cherishing of our wild places, should be the number one 
[project of the human race.— Dr. Olaus J. Murie, ‘What the 
j Wilderness Means to Me.” 

a a e 

Typical vacation: Two weeks on the sands followed by 50 

i weeks on the rocks. 

WRIGGLY WORM is a problem to Susie Irwin, 5, derby contestant, but 
she grits her teeth and grimly applies worm to hook. 

—Meadville Tribune Photo 

DERBY TOPPERS — George N. Ott Memorial Fund prizes — rods and reels 
and flashlights — go to first and second placers in six classifications 
at annual fishing derby recently. George Ott, seated, and William 
N. Ott, behind him, award prizes annually in memory of their 
father. Front row, left to right: Albert Shartle, second place in 

13-15 year class for boys; Anthony Feleppa, first in 9-12 year class 
and catcher of largest fish; Lynn Munno, second in same division; 
Ron Riordan, first in 6-8 year boys' class; Roseanne Munno, first for 
girls, 6-8; George Ott; Jim Singleton, second in 6-8 year class for 
boys; Mike Petruolo, tied for second in boys' 9-12 year class; and 
Sherry Irwin, second in girls' 6-8 year class. Back row: Harry Scott, 
second in class for boys from 13-15; William N. Ott; Carolyn Wagner, 
first for girls' 13-15 year class; and Connie Caputo, second in girls' 
9-12. Deedee Tregley, second in girls' 13-15 group, had left by time 
winners were announced. 

—Meadville Tribune Photo 

o © o 

Courtesy is a key that unlocks many doors whose locks yield 
to it alone. For courtesy is welcome everywhere . . . along the 
stream, in the office, on the highways and in the home. 

© © O 

In fishing as in everything else luck is always against the man 
who depends on it. 



Angler Finds Lost Wallet in Grand Canyon 
$2,000 Returned To Owner 

Alex Kerr (right) returns wallet to Warren Keck. 

W HEN Warren Keck of Wellsboro lost his wallet con- 
taining almost $2,000 during a raft cruise down Grand 
Canyon recently he figured he would never see it again. 
The wallet, its contents intact, was returned to him by 
Alex Kerr, of Lansdowne, who found it while fishing 
Pine Creek. 

Keck was on his way to deposit the money in the bank 
before participating in a raft cruise down Pine Creek with 
a troop of girl scouts and their leader, his wife, Alberta. 
After several business interruptions, Keck found himself 
late for the start of the cruise and decided the money 
would be safe in his pocket until the next day. Early 
Wednesday morning, on the last leg of the cruise, the 
wallet was missed. There was only one answer, it was 
in the bottom of Pine Creek, somewhere between Ansonia 
and Tiadaghton. 

Edward McCarthy, sponsor of the Pine Creek cruises, 
organized a large searching party but without results. 
Shortly thereafter, Kerr found the wallet lodged between 
two stones, close to the bank and about midway down 
the canyon. 

Kerr said he first thought the object to be a leather 
holder for trout flies, thrown away by some discouraged 
fisherman. When he opened the case he spotted several 
$100 bills. Papers inside the wallet led the way to Keck 
and the wallet’s return. 

To prevent shot from slipping on your fishing line, place a 
rubber band inside the cut and close the split shot over the band 
and line. Trim excess rubber. 

* * * 

Ordinary auto body polish or wax on the contact edge of 
spinning reels makes for longer, smoother casts. 

# * 

When casting is impossible, place your bait in a paper cup, 
attach to line, and float out. A light pull drops bait in water 
at desired spot. 

tr tt S 

Spent M2 flashbulbs make fine clear bobbers. They have 
good tie-in grooves and each bulb can support three split shot. 

Beaver, Pennsylvania 

Mr. Gordon Trembley 
Chief Aquatic Biologist 
Benner Spring Fish Research Station 
Box 200-C 

Bellefonte, Pennsylvania 
Dear Gordon: 

The Fishing Derby at Brady’s Run Lake, which was sponsored 
jointly by The Beaver County Conservation League and The 
Beaver County Recreation Department, was held last Saturday 
and to all concerned was highly successful. 

Approximately two hundred “ardent” fishermen, thirteen years 
of age and under, were registered for the event. Over sixty 
fish were caught ranging in size from a 1 5/2-inch sucker down 
to a 2/2-inch bluegill and a prize was awarded to each one of 
these. As an added attraction we drew two (2) numbers 
every hour and awarded a silver dollar to each participant 
whose registration number corresponded with those drawn from 
the box. We also had a Scuba Diving exhibition by Rescue 
Squadron #1 here in Beaver County. The only untoward 
incident that happened was when one of the canoes being 
used by an Explorer Scout Troop, which was used to patrol the 
lake as a safety factor, upset as they put out from shore. Nobody 
got hurt but they did have red faces and wet trunks. 

All in all, Gordon, it turned out to be a very fine event and we 
are hoping to have a bigger and better event next year. 

All of this, of course, would not have been possible had we not 
had excellent co-operation from you and your office in supply- 
ing us a truckload of bluegills and catfish. We of course had 
the usual fine co-operation of Warden Cliff Iman who served 
as one of the judges and helped immensely all day long. 

At this time I would like to extend the thanks of all those in 
our Conservation League to both you and Cliff for your work 
in this our initial try, and hope we may be able to work together 
as well next year. 


Joseph H. Craig, President 

DOUBLE-MOUTHED CATFISH? . . . No, not quite . . . this catty prob- 
ably suffered a severe wound in his chinny-chopper and then it 
healed, leaving the hole that looks like a second mouth. Owen 
Peterson of Harrisburg, Pa., caught the oddy in the Susquehanna River. 

United Way planning helps the United Way dollar provide 
better service for more people. Give the United Way. 



Trout , Unlimited 
to Convene at 

Trout Unlimited’s national board of review will com- 
prise a panel on trout management at TU’s national con- 
vention Sept. 6-8 at Allenberry resort near Bolling 
Springs, Pa. 

It will be a highlight of a program that will be packed 
with discussions on trout, water problems, fishing and fly 

Members of TU’s board of review are Dr. Karl F. Lagler, 
chairman of the department of fisheries in the School of 
Natural Resources at the University of Michigan; Dr. 
Albert S. Hazzard, former assistant director of the Penn- 
sylvania Fish Commission; Dr. Dwight A. Webster, profes- 
sor of fishery biology at Cornell University; Dr. Paul R. 
Needham, professor of zoology at the University of Cali- 
fornia, and Prof. Carl E. Bond, an associate professor of 
fish and game management at Oregon State College. 

The panel will be moderated by Chester S. Davis, 
chairman of the trout committee of the North Carolina 
Wildlife Resources Commission. 

A second panel, on trout and tourism, will be mod- 
erated by Charles K. Fox, author of “This Wonderful 
World of Trout,” and president of the Harrisburg, Pa., 
Chapter of TU. 

Members of the panel will include Roger Latham, out- 
door editor of the Pittsburgh Press; Sam Slaymaker, a 
well known outdoor writer, and Dr. Alvin R. Grove, Jr., 
vice-president of the Pennsylvania Federation of Sports- 
men’s Clubs. 

Registration for the meeting will be held in the after- 
noon of the first day, a Friday. That evening there will 
be a clambake on the banks of the Yellow Breeches. After- 
ward, Martin Bovey, nationally known conservationist and 
president of the Massachusetts Chapter of TU, will show 
some of his famous movies. 

Highlights of the first full day, Saturday, will be the 
panels on trout and tourism and on trout management, a 
discussion of fishing for fun by O. L. Wallis, a National 
Park Service authority on the subject; the national mem- 
bership meeting; a fly-casting clinic conducted by the 
famous and ambidextrous caster, Lefty Kreh. 

I The events Saturday will be capped by the annual 
banquet, at which a famous personality will be the speaker. 

Of interest Sunday morning will be a discussion by 
Vincent C. Marinaro, author of “A Modern Dry Fly Code,” 
on the history and tradition of angling and a talk by Ernest 
G. Schwiebert, Jr., author of “Matching the Hatch,” on 
water problems. 

In the afternoon there will be a fly-tying clinic con- 
ducted by Ed Shenk, Ed Koch, Norman Lightner and 
Ross Trimmer. 





Finest Fishing Magazine 

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TROUT JACKPOT hit by Jimmy Dallas 
(left) and Joe Radecki while fishing 20- 
Mile Creek near Erie. Among the six 
rainbows, the largest one scaled six 
pounds and measured 24 inches.— Erie 
Times photo. 

A FISHERMAN'S DREAM came true when 10-year-old James Charters, 
Wilkes-Barre, landed this 35-inch, 16-pound lake trout on a silver 
spoon while trolling Harvey's Lake. It took Jimmy 35 minutes to 
land the fish without assistance. 

Shields after hooking into 
these two big carp while 
fishing from the dock at 
Erie for bullheads. The fish 
were identical in size, both 
weighed 50 pounds.— Erie 
Times photo. 

THIS MUSKIE weighing 16 
pounds, 42 inches in length 
was caught by Bill Ott of 
Meadville, Pa., on May 21, 1963, 
at Conneaut Lake. 

NIGHT-TIME BASS caught after dark on a 
jitterbug by Harold Conklin, Thompson, Pa., 
at Pages Pond, five miles out of New Milford, 
Pa. The largemouth was 21 inches long and 
weighed six pounds, two ounces. 

WOTTA FISH! ... a 38-inch, 15-pound 
musky caught by Danny Lewis and his 
proud Dad, Samuel Lewis, while fishing 
between the ore boats and entrance to 
Marina at Erie. They bagged it on a 
"rapala" plug made in Sweden. — Photo 
courtesy of the Erie Times. 

NICE WALLEYE CATCH taken in the "Nar- 
rows", a stretch of the Juniata River south 
of Lewistown, by Dick Hagan (left) and 
Robert Carolus. The largest walleye meas- 
ured 25 inches and weighed five pounds, 
four ounces. The second largest was 23 
inches, weighed four pounds, eight ounces. 
The other five fish averaged 19-20 inches. 
All were taken on a tiny river runt lure. 



Pennsylvania Fish Commission 



?4 Monthly peatune pvt 'ty<yuK$ rfiyleru 

P canty pcatyt 

After an autumn shower you’ll sometimes see many 
strange growths that seem to have popped out of the 
ground overnight or have appeared on stumps and logs 
almost as quickly. Some of them look like umbrellas, some 
like coral, some like funnels, others like shelves— there’s 
no limit to their shapes and colors. These are fungi, or 
wild mushrooms, although not all of them resemble mush- 
rooms we buy in the store. 

While some mushrooms are good to eat others are deadly 
poisonous if eaten. Only an expert can tell the good ones 
from the harmful ones, so you should never be tempted to 
taste any of them. However, it is fun to learn to identify 
some of them and learn some of the interesting things 
about them. 

One orange-yellow mushroom that grows on old stumps 
is called the jack-o’-lantern. You will learn why if you 
turn a few upside down in a completely dark room. When 
your eyes become accustomed to the darkness you will see 
that the gills (those fin-like parts beneath the cap) are 
glowing with a faint, ghostly light. 

Another interesting mushroom is the puffball. Some 
puffballs are round and large as basketballs, others are 
smaller and shaped like inverted pears. Some are smooth, 
others are covered with tiny points. If you kick a ripe 
puffball a yellowish-brown cloud of dust will shoot out 
of the top. This “smoke” is composed of billions of spores, 
the seeds of the puffball. 

Boletes are mushrooms with no gills beneath the cap. 

Instead, the under surface of the cap is a mass of tiny, 
almost invisible holes. Several kinds have yellow or cream 
colored flesh, but you have to look quickly to see it. As 
soon as the cap is broken or cut the exposed surface 
immediately turns bright blue! 

Making spore prints is fun. Cut the stems off a number 
of mushrooms of different kinds. Then place the caps, 
right side up, on squares of colored paper. Invert a bowl 
or cup over each cap to keep off any stray breezes. In a 
few hours the spores falling from the gills or pores will 
have formed a very pretty design on the paper. 

s4 ptayyaty TOUl p* 

HaVE you ever eaten frog legs? Well, I suppose most of 
our girl readers have no interest in either killing or eating 
a frog, but for the benefit of you older fellows with more 
adventuresome appetites I’ll tell you how to go about it. 

First you must catch some frogs. Shooting them with 
a .22 rifle is the easy way, if you are old enough and 
properly supervised. The hard way is to sneak along a 
stream bank or pond shore and catch them by hand. 

“Fishing” for frogs is the fun way. Attach a few feet 
of monofilament line to the end of an eight-foot pole. Old 
timers used a fish hook baited with nothing more than a 
little piece of red flannel, but a colorful trout fly will do 
just as well. Approach the frog quietly from behind and 
dangle the fly in front of his nose. Before you can say 
“Jug-o-rum” he’ll leap up and inhale the fly. 

Kill him with a whack over the head. When you have 
enough for a meal cut off their hind legs and skin them. 
Talk your mother into parboiling them, then dipping them 
into seasoned flour and frying to a golden crispness. I 
guarantee after the first taste you’ll feel less badly about 
killing those poor frogs. 

P3£. 3/ 

Lc c.) 

TOBER 1963 

© n ^ Sq «-i ® 58 *9 



Albert M. Day 
Executive Director 

Robert J. Bielo 
Assistant Executive Director 

Warren W. Singer 
Assistant to Executive Director 

Paul F. O’Brien 
Administrative Officer 



Aquatic Biology 

Gordon Trembley Chief 

Fish Culture 

Howard L. Fox Superintendent 

Real Estate and Engineering 

Cyril G. Regan Chief 

Edward Miller Asst. Chief 

Law Enforcement 

William W. Britton Chief 

Conservation Education-Public Relations 

Russell S. Orr - Chief 



S. Carlyle Sheldon Warden Supervisor 

1212 E. Main St., Conneautville, Pa., 

Phone: 3033 


Minter C. Jones Warden Supervisor 

R. D. 2, Somerset, Pa. Phone: 6913 


H. Clair Fleeger Warden Supervisor 

351 Terrace St., Honesdale, Pa., 

Phone: 253-3724 

(psutnAifhania Cbxqhh 

Published Monthly by the 

William W. Scranton, Governor 



Wallace C. Dean, President Meadville 

Joseph M. Critchfield, Vice President Confluence 

Gerard J. Adams Hawley 

Maynard Bogart Danville 

John W. Grenoble Carlisle 

Robert M. Rankin Galeton 

R. Stanley Smith Waynesburg 

Raymond M. Williams East Bangor 

OCTOBER, 1963 

VOL. 32, NO. 10 



14 BOATING-With Robert G. Miller 


18 TACKLE TIPS-Don Shiner 



24 TYING FLIES— Bill Cochran 

25 SCHOOL’S OUT-Ned Smith 


John S, Ogden Warden Supervisor 

1130 Buxton Rd., York, Pa Phone: 2-3474 


John i. .... Warden Supervisor 

P. O. Bi 3, Lock Haven, Pa., 

Phone: 748-7162 


Harold Corbin Warden Supervisor 

521 13th St., Huntingdon, Pa,, 

Phone: Mitchell 3-0355 

Cover photograph— Grant Heilman 

POSTMASTER: All 3579 forms to be returned to Dunlap Printing Co., Inc., 
Cherry and Juniper Sts., Philadelphia 7, Pa. 

The PENNSYLVANIA ANGLER is published monthly by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, 
South Office Building, Harrisburg, Pa. Subscription: One year— $2.00; three years— $5.00; 25 cents 
per single copy. Send check or money order payable to Pennsylvania Fish Commission. DO NOT 
SEND STAMPS. Individuals sending cash do so at their own risk. Change of address should reach 
us promptly. Furnish both old and new addresses. Second Class Postage paid at Harrisburg, Pa., 
and at additional mailing offices. 

Neither Publisher nor Editor will assume responsibility for unsolicited manuscripts or illustrations 
while in their possession or in transit. Permission to reprint will be given provided we receive 
marked copies and credit is given material or illustrations. Communications pertaining to manuscripts, 
material or illustrations should be addressed to the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, Harrisburg, Pa. 

NOTICE: Subscriptions received and processed after the 10th of each month will begin with the 

second month following. 

Project 70 Goes Before Voters November 5 

Approval by people of Pennsylvania will provide 
$70,000,000 to meet public demand for recreation, 
more open space in State's urban areas. 

Fish Commission's allocated fund of $5,000,000 would promote long range 
program to preserve public use fishing and boating areas. 

BEAUTIFUL WATER formed by Letterkenny Reservoir Dam, Franklin County. In foreground is a 
boating access area built by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission. More access areas are needed elsewhere 
along our lakes and streams throughout Pennsylvania. 

PrOJECT 70, Pennsylvania’s plan for developing and 
conserving the State’s outdoor resources through the ac- 
quisition of open space and park lands, will be placed 
before Commonwealth voters on November 5. They will 
have the opportunity to vote in favor of the referendum, 
which will provide $70,000,000 to meet the ever increasing 
demands for recreation and the need to provide attractive 
and scenic open space in the State’s urban areas. 

$5,000,000 of this fund will be allocated for Fish Com- 
mission participation in the project. 

“This will be a vital step in establishing a long range 
program to preserve for public use fishing and boating 
areas now threatened with obliteration by increasing pri- 
vate development. 

“It is imperative that Pennsylvania’s citizens be ac- 
quainted with the need for their vote in favor of this 
important program which will provide funds for the ac- 
quisition of vital lands and waters needed to develop and 
improve fishing and boating facilities for the future,’’ said 
Albert M. Day, executive director of the Fish Commission. 

Day has been named by Governor William W. Scranton 
to serve on the Citizen’s Committee for PROJECT 70. 

PROJECT 70 requires an amendment to the Pennsyl- 
vania Constitution. It must by law be approved by two 
separately elected sessions of the General Assembly and 
then placed on the ballot for the approval of the State’s 
voters. The 1962 and 1963 Legislatures approved PROJ- 
ECT 70 by overwhelming votes. It is now up to the voters 
to make their decision. 

FAIRVIEW ACCESS area on the Susquehanna River 
near Harrisburg, is a recent addition to the many 
similar areas installed by the Fish Commission. Boat- 
men and Fishermen say they are a "must"! 

LAKES AND PONDS, similar to this water of 
Duman's Dam, Cambria County, a project of the 
Fish Commission, give people living in congested 
populated areas a better opportunity to enjoy the 
peaceful sport of angling and the outdoors. 

PROJECT 70 contains the following proposals: 

1. To ring our major cities with regional parks 
through the acquisition of park land in our urban 
counties thus giving them the recreational and scenic 
advantages which can spell prosperity in the mid- 
twentieth century. 

2. Recommends the establishment of three large 
Federal recreation areas in Pennsylvania— one on the 
Delaware River at Tocks Island above Stroudsburg, 
one on the Raystown Branch of the Juniata River 
below Huntingdon, and one on the upper Allegheny 
River at the site of the Allegheny Reservoir now 
under construction. 

3. Vital fish and wildlife areas now threatened with 
obliteration by increasing private development would 
be preserved for public use. 

4. Diversification of recreational opportunities in the 
State’s non urban counties which will lay the founda- 
tion for a new year-round recreation industry in our 
mountain counties, making them a potential new 
American vacation land easily accessible by the Inter- 
state Highway network. 

Of the $70,000,000, the Fish and Game Commissions 
each will receive $5,000,000 for the acquisition of vital 
wildlife, fishing and boating areas. Fish Commission funds 
can be used in any part of the state. 

$40,000,000 would be used by the Department of 
Forests and Waters to acquire park lands and open space 
for future use. The expenditure of this money would be 
for land in Pennsylvania’s 43 urban counties. 

An additional $20,000,000 would be used by the State 
as matching funds to local governmental bodies for the 
acquisition of park lands. This matching money would 
be available to any county, municipality, or township in 
Pennsylvania that raises funds for land acquisition. 

The sprawl of our suburbs into the countryside is 
swallowing up thousands of acres of land annually. It is 
also forcing the price of land higher with each passing 
year. Clearly, those areas which will be needed for public 
use in future years grow increasingly expensive. The cost 
of acquiring such areas is lower now than it will ever be 
again. To purchase them now makes sound fiscal sense. 

The availability of sites suitable for the creation of new 
recreational waters, and access by the public to existing 
waters poses a serious problem, especially near centers of 
heavy population. 

The Fish Commission’s program will guarantee access 
to many publicly-owned waters throughout the state. It 

will reserve areas which lend themselves to the creation of 
lakes. It will preserve natural springs for future develop- 
ment of fish hatcheries and fishing streams. It will include 
the acquisition of sites for headwater impoundments to 
insure a source of water to augment streams during low 
flow periods; and, it will make possible the purchase of 
existing lakes that are in danger of going into private 
ownership and being forever lost to the public. 

Following are the general classifications of projects 
which will be implemented by the Fish Commission in 
its participation in “PROJECT 70.” The locations of these 
projects will not be restricted geographically. The locations 
of sites for acquisition and future development will be 
determined on the basis of both present and anticipated 
future needs for such improvements. 

Cooperative Projects 

The Fish Commission’s plans will include an active part 
in the acquisition of lands for the construction of multi- 
purpose dams in cooperation with the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture through its Soil Conservation 
Service under Federal P. L. 566. 

In this program, it is the responsibility of the state 
agency or participating local groups to acquire title for 
all the lands needed. The Federal government assumes 
the major cost of actual construction of the structures. 

Dam Sites 

It is extremely important that all possible steps be 
taken to speed the acquisition of suitable sites for future 
dam construction. These areas must be reserved now for 



future public recreational use. These sites will produce 
many acres of recreational waters in areas where such 
facilities are nonexistent. 

River Access Areas 

The greatest water surface potential for recreational 
facilities existing in the Commonwealth is presented by 
the thirteen major rivers which wind through forty-eight 
counties. Although most of these waters belong to the 
Commonwealth, public access to them is sometimes non- 
existent for many miles. The acquisition and development 
of access sites would make available to the public many 
thousands of acres of excellent fishing and boating waters. 

Lake Access Areas 

Scattered throughout the Commonwealth there are a 
great many privately-owned lakes. Some of these, es- 
pecially in the Northeast, are natural and some were 
created and are owned by individuals; others are parts 
of utility or municipal facilities. Many of these lakes lend 
themselves well to such multiple uses as fishing and boat- 
ing. Far too many are not available to the public because 
they are surrounded by cottages and other private prop- 
erty. It often is extremely difficult to purchase such access 
with the agreement that the general public shall have full 
and free use of the lake for recreational purposes. 

HEADWATER IMPOUNDMENTS have many benefits to provide flood 
control, prevent erosion and improve fishing. 

Existing Lakes 

The acquisition of existing lakes is of prime importance 
for several reasons. They generally can be purchased at 
less cost than a similar lake acreage can be created, and 
at the same time, they are immediately available for public 

There are many lakes that can be acquired if the money 
is available to accomplish the purchase. 

Headwater Impoundments 

Headwater impoundments, although designed primarily 
for low flow augmentation of the stream, will have many 
other benefits. Reduction of the surge of water which 
normally tumbles downstream during floods will provide 
protection to the banks and help prevent soil erosion. 
Many other kinds of stream improvement devices, which 
will help to improve fishing conditions can best be in- 
stalled on streams with headwater impoundments. The 
ponds will also be stocked with fingerling trout in early 
spring and the fish, grown without cost on natural food, 
will drain down with the water to supplement the wild 
stock below. 

The streams immediately below the impounding struc- 
ture should be available for public use for a minimum of 
two miles, whether it be on land now owned by the 
Commonwealth or land that can be acquired by easement 
or fee purchase. In any event, the stream use by the 
public is as important as the creation of the dam. The 
primary purpose in the program is to provide public usage 
of a stream developed to its optimum. 

Acquisition of Natural Springs 

Occasionally an opportunity arises to acquire a natural 
spring, but it generally comes at a time when funds are 
not available to consummate settlement. This has been 
the case in the past. Provision should now be made to 
acquire these natural resources for future public utilization 
and enjoyment. 

In acquiring these areas, due consideration must be 
given to purchase of sufficient land around them for future 
development, whether it be for a hatchery or for general 
recreational purposes. Similarly, several miles of the stream 
below the spring should be purchased to guarantee full 
use of the waters for fishing research or other legitimate 
public use. 

BRADY'S LAKE, Monroe County, is typical of "drive-in" access to 
lakes, ponds and streams of Pennsylvania. Convenient parking, easy 
boat launching plus better fishing is the aim of the Fish Commission 
in building these areas. 


OCTOBER— 1963 

A Look At The 


A relatively new device planned for installation in the Susquehanna 
River near Sunbury and designed to provide a greater fishing and 
water recreational area in central Pennsylvania. 

By Ted Fenstermacher 

H NINE-FOOT-HIGH, 1,900-foot-long inflatable dam, 
planned for the Susquehanna River, at Sunbury, promises 
to become the greatest development in providing a fishing 
area that Pennsylvania has ever known. Someday similar 
dams, with flood-proof features and costing an estimated 
one-tenth of the conventional dams, may form fishing 
pools of all sizes on creeks and rivers throughout the 

The dam planned for Sunbury, with preliminary designs 
now complete, was approved by Governor Scranton. The 
estimated cost of the structure is $920,000. It will be 
financed out of receipts from oil and gas leases to private 
industry on state-owned land. Governor Scranton said 
receipts probably will be sufficient next year to support i 
the project. Meantime, the Department of Forests and 
Waters is to proceed with final plans for the structure. 

Members of the River Dam Committee, of the Central 
Susquehanna Valley Chamber of Commerce, raised $15,000 
for the preliminary plans and have secured necessary land 
clearances. All preliminary plans have been completed by 
Fabridam engineers of Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. 

Sunbury ’s dam is slated for a point three miles below 
the confluence of the North Branch and West Branch of 
the Susquehanna. It will form a pool reaching 10 miles 
up the West Branch, to a point near Lewisburg, and six 
miles up the North Branch, to a point half-way to Danville. 

Fishermen of a wide area are showing a tremendous 
interest in the dam that promises a “Y” shaped “lake” 
of such proportions. It is encouraging to note that those 
who have planned the dam have provided for fish ladders. 

The first inflatable dam has been in use, in California, 
since 1957. Eight such dams are now in use and many 



MILLIONS OF GALLONS of water on the upper side of a fabric dam are observed as a Los Angeles 
employe walks across the top of the dam. A much larger dam of this type, almost 2,000 feet long 
and nine feet high, is planned for the Susquehanna River, at Sunbury. It will provide a fishing and 
water recreational area reaching almost to Lewisburg on the West Branch and half way to Danville 
on the North Branch. 

Side View 
of Fabric Dam 

reservoir of water 
held back by dam. 

collapsible dam 
inflated with N 
water. ^ 

OCTOBER— 1963 

FABRIC DAMS can be adapted to all types of streams, large or 
small. Anglers of Pennsylvania are watching the dam project 
progress with great interest. 

GEN. NORMAN M. LACK, executive vice president of the Water 
Research Foundation for the Delaware River Basin, center, shows a 
water color he made of the proposed Sunbury dam to Basse Beck, 
left, and Homer K. Smith. 

more are being built. One now underway is at Hong 
Kong where the Tai Po Tau River will have its waters 
conserved. One is also being considered for on the Juniata 
River at Millerstown. That proposed dam would be nine 
foot high and 422 foot long. It also would be for recrea- 
tional purposes. 

One of those now being used is a six foot high, 100 foot 
long one, installed in 1960 on Turtle Creek, Pittsburgh, 
to raise water head for the plant cooling water intake at 
the Westinghouse Electric Corp. plant, and to provide 
flood protection. 

The inflatable-deflatable dam, at first mention, ad- 
mittedly sounds impractical to many. Its remarkable ad- 
vantages and practicality have, however, been conclusively 
proved. The tremendous strength of laminated neoprene 
and nylon, coupled with the ingenious although simple 
“teardrop” design will, when investigated, convince even 
the most skeptical. 

Fabridams can give absolute, foolproof and even auto- 
matic control over rivers. 

They can be used at places where ordinary dams cannot 
be permitted, due to flood danger. Sunbury is one of 
these. District Army Engineers, at Baltimore, told the 
local committee a conventional dam could not be erected 
at Sunbury due to flood danger. There would be no way 
of allowing enough of the flood water to pass, in emer- 

Fabridams, by contrast, can be quickly deflated. They 
are inflated principally with water, along with air at the 
top. It is only necesary to allow this water and air to 
flow out and the dam collapses. It can be “re-erected” 
by pumping water and air back into the sections. Auto- 
matic devices are available, if desired, that start siphons 

when flood waters come and the dam collapses automati- 

A further advantage is that ice can also be controlled. 
If ice begins to be dangerously thick, such a dam can be 
partially deflated. The ice then breaks up and floats away, 
preventing possible later ice jams. 

Common questions by those first hearing of fabric dams 
are, “What if a house or tree, floating in a flood, hit the 
dam?” The answer is that the dam would, at flood times, 
be partially deflated but, even if it were not, the laminated 
material is so amazingly strong that any damage would be 
almost impossible. 

Some ask, “What if a thoughtless hunter should shoot 
into the dam?” Pressure in such dams, 1.9 lb., is so low 
that bullet holes would have practically no affect. F urther- 
more, it is extremely simple to repair such a dam. 

Others ask, “How about the corrosive action of sand or 
mud in the river?” Engineers explain that the material 
used in the fabric are standard protective items for internal 
parts of sand blasting and grit blasting equipment. 
Strength of the fabric is shown in the fact that a one-inch 
wide strip will support 3,200 lbs. 

Three railroad carloads of the laminated material will 
be needed for the Sunbury dam. The dam will be made 
up of sections of laminated material, 200 and 300 feet in 
length. They will be separated by concrete abutments, 
anchored to bedrock. A strip of concrete, also anchored 
with steel to the bedrock, will extend entirely across the 
bottom of the river. It will be from 18 to 30 inches thick 
and from 15 to 20 feet wide. 

The laminated sections, of teardrop shape when viewed 
from the end, will be bolted to the steel, one-inch bolts, 
18 inches apart and anchored in the concrete and bedrock. 
Long strips of special steel will hold the fabric to the 



MINIATURE EDITION of the type dam planned for the Susquehanna 
at Sunbury in Turtle Creek beside the Westinghouse Electric plant 
at Pittsburgh. Back-up water, to a depth of about six feet existed 
due to high water on the Monongahela River into which the creek 
flows when this photo was taken. 

SIX FOOT HIGH FABRIC DAM, 190 feet in width in Hawaii, installed 
atop an old conventional dam, it has made it possible to provide 
another six feet of depth for the Waialua Agricultural Co. reservoir. 
This is another way in which such dams can be utilized. 

concrete base. Such steel and fabric are not affected by 

In the Sunbury dam the teardrop sections will be filled 
to more than seven feet with water, with the remainder 
filled with air. Water in the sections, the steel and con- 
crete and the tremendous downward pressure of the 
river on the upper side of the teardrop will all help hold 
the dam securely in place. 

When a group of civic leaders, headed by Homer Smith 
as chairman, first took action to get a dam for the Sunbury 
section they conferred with Secretary Maurice K. Goddard, 
of the Department of Forests and Waters. Chairman 
Smith says Secretary Goddard spoke of the immense cost 
of a conventional dam and of the flood problem, but 
said a fabric dam, which might overcome both problems, 
had been developed. He suggested the committee contact 
Gen. Norman M. Lack, executive vice-president of the 
Water Research Foundation for the Delaware River Basin, 
who was familiar with the fabric dams. 

Secretary Goddard has been extremely helpful in regard 
to the dam, according to Smith and to Basse Beck, another 
Sunbury civic leader. The Secretary told the committee 
Sunbury would be an ideal spot for a pilot dam and 
suggested the $15,000 needed for the plans be raised by 
the group. He also suggested they get land clearances. 
Both have been done by the group. 

It is not surprising that a Chamber of Commerce should 
be carrying the ball for a dam that would provide a great 
expanse for fishing. It would be of great economic aid. 
It is also not surprising that most of those on the active 
C of C committee are avid fishermen. 

Along with Chairman Smith, head of WKOK and 
WKOK-FM, are Basse Beck, general manager of the Sun- 
bury Daily Item, Mayor Lester P. Shissler, Edward Gill, 

Al Wolfe, Robert Scullin, Fred Hoffman, Dr. Guy Smith, 
Edward Freck, Robert Bell, Paul Miller, Sidney Apfel- 
baum, Rep. Adam T. Bower, Charles Duffy, Pierce Cory- 
ell, all of the Sunbury, Northumberland and Selinsgrove 
area, and Robert Brouse, Lewisburg. 

The new type dam, estimated by engineers to cost 
about one-tenth of the cost of conventional dams, will, 
they say, last for at least 20 years in regard to the fabric. 
If fabric sections should then need to be replaced it could 
be done without difficulty. The concrete base and abut- 
ments would already be in place. 

The unique dams came about because Norman M. 
Imbertson, chief engineer of the Water Plant Operation 
Division of the City of Los Angeles, had a serious problem. 
He was faced with a desperate need for conserving water 
at times of heavy rains. Temporary wooden dams were 
placed on the Los Angeles River to divert the water into 
giant, underground storage areas. Unfortunately, the 
wooden dams were often swept away by floods and sub- 
sequent rains were lost before the dams could be replaced. 

Imbertson came up with the idea of a dam that would 
temporarily collapse, at flood time, but which could be 
quickly reinflated to catch subsequent rains. Five such 
fabric dams are now used in Water Department operations 
in California. All are highly successful. 

An all-important feature of these dams, for anglers, 
is that they can be placed in small, medium or large 
streams. Their use, in providing bodies of water for fishing 
and for other recreational purposes, is practically un- 
limited. The possible flood damage problems that make 
dams impractical at so many places can be overcome with 
fabric dams. 

Anglers are watching— with interest and anticipation- 
developments at Sunbury. 

OCTOBER— 1963 



Accounts from ttjp newspapers October 2fi, 1903. 

BELLEFONTE, PA., October 26, 1903 -Philadelphia 
North American — Pennsylvania will soon be stocking its 
waters with young trout, bass and bullfrogs from the new 
Belief onte State Fish Hatchery, which was formally opened 
for business this evening. 

In the presence of a number of State officials and sports- 
men the first consignment of fish eggs from the Allentown 
hatchery was deposited in the tanks of the new establish- 
ment. Brief speeches were made by Economic Zoologist 
H. A. Surface, Fish Commissioner W. E. Meehan, Judge 
John G. Love, Colonel Wilbur F. Reeder, Superintendent 
N. R. Buller, who built the plant, and local sportsmen. 

The Bellefonte hatchery, it is expected, will eventually 
be the best plant in the state, though it will take a couple 
of years to fully complete it as now planned out. The 
main building for the hatching of trout fry is 100 x 30 feet 
and capable of holding 105 sets of hatching troughs. Sur- 
rounding it will be twenty-five concrete pools for raising 
the fry till they are large enough for shipment. 

The springs from which the water supply is obtained 
give forth a flow of 8000 gallons per minute, the water 
having a mean temperature of 50 degrees. 

The hatchery grounds now embrace about twenty acres, 
situated around the railroad at Pleasant Gap, on the L. 
and T. Railroad. Half of the plot will be utilized for the 
hatching of trout, with a capacity of from 12,000,000 to 
15,000,000 fry a year. The remainder of the ground will 
be used for the hatching of bass, gold fish and frogs. 

Ponds for the habitation of the trout breeders and for 
bass hatching will be constructed all over the plot, which 
will be laid out with walks and drives and planted with 
shade trees. 

The trout building was constructed under the super- 
vision of N. R. Buller, who came here from Corry to 
take charge. 

It is expected that by the first of the year the entire 
stock of the Allentown hatchery will have been transferred 
here. The Allentown plant will be dismantled. 

BELLEFONTE, PA., October 26, 1903 — Philadelphia 
Inquirer— The Bellefonte fish hatchery, located at one of 
the most picturesque points in Centre County, four miles 
southwest of this place, was formally opened today with 
appropriate exercises. Hundreds were in attendance. The 
State College Cadet Band was present and rendered 
elegant music for the occasion. Addresses were made by 
Judge John G. Love, Colonel W. F. Reeder and Professor 
H. A. Surface, State Zoologist, all of whom spoke of the 
great benefits that will be derived by having the fishery 
located here. 

W. E. Meehan, State Commissioner of Fisheries, ex- 
plained the aim of the Department of Fisheries at this 
station. He said this hatchery, when completed, will be 
the largest and the finest in this country. After the ad- 
dresses the station was thrown open for inspection. 

The hatching house and the several large ponds are 
supplied from a number of large springs in the vicinity, 
the flow of water being 8000 gallons a minute. By the 
first of January the entire hatchery at Allentown will be 
removed here, and from here all the streams of the State 
will be supplied. 

Last Saturday Fish Commissioner Meehan purchased 
from Sidney Hoy fifteen additional acres of land, together 
with his farm house and other buildings, for $2600, all 
of which will be utilized in erecting additional buildings 
and creating ponds for the raising of bass, frogs and 
goldfish, the latter to be one of the specialties of the 
hatchery. The goldfish will be sent to the public schools 
of the State. 

The whole enterprise is now under the management 
of Nathan R. Buller, of Lancaster county, an expert in the 
hatchery business, but the station, when completed, will 
be under the direction of John P. Creverling, a specialist 
in trout hatching. About twelve million trout will be 
distributed from this station annually to streams of the 



Completed Beilefonte Hatchery as it appeared in 1904. 


- 1904 - 

HOWARD M. BULLER, Superintendent 

To the Hon. W. E. Meehan, Commissioner of Fisheries: 
Dear Sir: I beg herewith to submit my first report as 

Superintendent of the Beilefonte Hatchery from the first 
of June to the first of December, 1904. On the first named 
date I received my appointment from you as Superintend- 
ent, having previously served your Department and the 
Fish Commission as an assistant, first at Allentown and 
then at Beilefonte, for a period of two years and a half. 

When I took charge of the hatchery the trout fry for 
1904 had all been shipped and the troughs empty. In 
the nursery ponds attached to the house there were about 
21,000 fry which had been reserved for breeding purposes, 
both for this hatchery and the Wayne county hatchery. 
In addition to the eleven nursery ponds just spoken of, 
there was one large pond between the hatching house and 
the spring, 150 feet long and 40 feet wide, and a par- 
tially completed pond a little below the hatching house 
and a little to the left, 154 feet long and 40 feet wide. 

I immediately began the completion of this pond and 

then believing it too large, divided it into four ponds, 
each 77 feet long and 22 feet wide. From time to time 
I built other breeder and fry ponds, until at the close of 
i the year there was a total of 18 ponds, five of which may 

I only be called temporary, although they can be used for an 

indefinite period of time. In addition to the eighteen 
mentioned, there are the nursery ponds which are large 
enough at a pinch to carry breeder fish in small numbers 
until the summer, making a grand total of ponds at the 
Beilefonte Hatchery twenty-nine. 

The nursery ponds are fitted out with automatic feeders, 
so that when fry are placed therein, it is not necessary 
for the men to feed them, as the food is being supplied 
constantly by the automatic jars. The general ponds are 
constructed of concrete and the walls of ten have concrete 

sides and ends and one has two ends and the others have 
earthen sides with either concrete or board ends. 

In these ponds there were at the close of the year 8,620 
breeder fish, 7,620 of which are brook trout and 1,000 
California trout. In addition there are over 12,000 finger- 
lings held for breeding purposes. With those already in 
the ponds they should yield a good crop of eggs next fall. 

Besides the brook trout, there are 65 plain and fantail 
gold fish, which should breed next summer. Had it not 
been for the fact that I had no established pond until 
autumn they would have bred last August. Among the 
fish at the hatchery when I took charge there were 1,000 
Atlantic salmon fry, but these, together with 3,000 finger- 
ling trout, were shipped on your order in September to 
the Wayne County Hatchery to assist in stocking the ponds 
in that place with breeding fish. 

When I took charge the only completed pond and the 
hatching house were supplied from the hatchery and 
Sugard springs, and the four ponds which I completed 
below the hatching house as well as the five temporary 
ponds are to be supplied from that source, also the eleven 
nursery ponds. A small spring near the house I utilized 
for the gold fish pond. 

I opened and developed a large spring in a swampy 
piece of ground above the hatching spring and built 
around it an octagonal cement wall. The waters from 
this spring I used to supply three ponds. The remaining 
ponds receive their supply from the raceway leased from 
S. H. Hoy, running from Logan Branch Run. 

While on the question of water supply for the hatchery, 
I would respectfully urge you to take the earliest oppor- 
tunity of increasing it from the Logan Branch Run through 
the raceway, and if possible from one of the springs above 
the head of the raceway. Although there is usually an 

OCTOBER— 1963 


Series of hatching troughs in the Bellefonte Hatchery of 1904. 

abundant supply of water from the hatchery spring and 
the Sugard spring, there are times when both are in- 
sufficient. This was the case last fall. Everywhere springs 
fell off. At one time the water supply became so low from 
the hatchery spring that I was forced to remove the large 
trout from the pond between the hatching house and 
spring and utilize all the water in the hatchery. In fact, 
even at the present time, there should be more water flow- 
ing through the troughs than is available. 

The twelve thousand fingerlings now in the ponds will 
next fall need additional quarters. Owing to the shortage 
of the water supply, I lost at least one million trout eggs 
this fall, the most of which would undoubtedly have 
hatched had it not been for the reason I have given. 
Since then I have experienced a shortage of water with a 
resultant loss of at least three hundred thousand trout 
fry, nearly all during the sac stage. There is water enough 
in Logan Branch Run and in the springs above to run 
half a dozen hatcheries of the capacity of Bellefonte, and 
with the raceway, which you with great foresight leased 
from Mr. Hoy, in full operation, there will be abundant 
water for all our needs. 

Most of the time during the summer months was 
naturally devoted to the building of ponds, but whenever 
I had a little spare time I devoted it to beautify the place. 
In around the group of ponds between the hatching 
house and the railroad I seeded with grass and planted 
with trees presented to the hatchery by Mr. John Fisher, 
of Bellefonte, or taken from other parts of the property. 
I also planted along the front and side of the dwelling 
house and sodded it. I built a new fence around the barn- 
yard. Also raised the stable a foot and equipped it with 
stalls for horses and cemented the walls. I concreted 
the cellar of the house and concreted the floor. I also 
built a shed for the storage of wagons and shipping cans. 
I also ran a water pipe from the house to the spring and 
made a number of other minor improvements. 

I regret to say that seven shipping cans were not re- 
turned by the people who received them with fish and all 
efforts to get them back have failed. I also completed 

the car barn. The car was returned to the barn from 
Corry in December, it having been employed during the 
summer in conveying fish from the Corry Hatchery to the 
World’s Fair in St. Louis, and in taking fish from the 
Erie and Corry Hatcheries to the Hatchery in Wayne 
county. It was returned to the bam in good condition. 
There were several tanks missing from the car, but my 
brother William Buffer, Superintendent of the Corry Sta- 
tion, told me that with your permission he had retained 
them at his hatchery for the purpose of using them for 
holding ripe trout, or the eggs which were ready to be 

The Hatchery at Bellefonte has proved to be a source 
of great attraction to the people living in the neighbor- 
hood. The railroad station on the hatchery grounds and 
the fine highway leading to Bellefonte have afforded fine 
opportunities for scores of people to satisfy their curiosity 
to visit the hatchery. From the first day of May until the 
close of the season, 2,792 people registered, and that is 
probably less than one-half the number who have actually 
been to the hatchery within the period named, for many 
came to the grounds without signing the visitors book. 
While by far the greater number of visitors were Penn- 
sylvanians, there were many from other states. There was 
one from Tokyo, Japan, two from Russia, one from Dawson 
City, Klondike, and one from London, England. Some 
from other states named as residences of the visitors were 
Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, New York, California, Texas, New 
Jersey and Tennessee. It is safe to say that at least 5,000 
people have visited the Bellefonte Hatchery during the 
last six months. It is noteworthy that as the hatchery has 
developed by the increase of the number of ponds and 
breeding fish and as it becomes better known the number 
of visitors have increased. 

On the 19 th of November, Governor Samuel W. Penny- 
packer with Mrs. Pennypacker, paid an official visit to the 
hatchery with yourself and Fishery Commissioner Charles ir 
L. Miller, of Altoona. The Governor inspected the hatch- 
ery minutely and was shown the process of taking and 
fertilizing trout eggs, filling the trays and placing the 



eggs in the troughs. In fact the whole process of the 
early stages of the hatching, including the cleaning of the 
eggs was shown him. The Governor expressed himself as 
well pleased with the condition of the hatchery and dined 
in the hatchery dwelling. 

I have been bothered a great deal by kingfishers and 
house rats, these two enemies of the fish hatcheries fairly 
swarming around the place. It seems to me that all the 
kingfishers for miles around gathered about the hatchery. 
I have killed as many as four and five kingfishers in one 
day. I know of few birds in this neighborhood that are 
as destructive to the small trout as the kingfisher. A good 
healthy kingfisher will certainly get away with at least 100 
trout in a day. Taking his size into consideration he can 
do more damage in a hatchery pond than a crane. He is 
only matched in my experience at other hatcheries by the 
night heron. The bittern, herons and cranes are scarce 
here as I have scarcely seen one-half dozen of these birds 
since I have had charge of the hatchery. The house rat 
has caused me a great deal of trouble. They seek the 
ponds and have caught a great many fish. Few people 
realize what expert fishermen the house rats are. They 
have sought the hatchery grounds in such numbers that 
in one day we caught twenty in traps. Altogether we have 
caught in the neighborhood of one hundred. Fortunately 
I have been able to keep the pests from the trout eggs, 
of which they are passionately fond. Mr. Creveling in- 
formed me that while he was superintendent at the 
hatchery at Allentown he lost large numbers of brown 
trout, some California trout and a few brook trout through 
the lightning. I am sorry to say that I have lost quite a 
number of brook trout from the hatchery from the same 
cause. During one storm I lost 37, and during another 
an even two dozen. On each occasion it was the largest 
trout which were killed, and most of these were females, 
and in none of the storms did the lightning strike the water. 

On one occasion the lightning, which killed the fish, 
struck a tree on a hill about about four hundred yards from 
the hatchery. I do not know where the lightning struck 
on the other occasion, but it was I believe still further 
away. The fish that were killed were all fish that were 
resting on the bottom or near the bottom, and few of 
these were killed outright. They seemed to be stunned 
or paralyzed. Some died within an hour, and some lived 
nearly a week. Some of them would lie on their sides, 
swimming irregularly in that manner, while others would 
lie motionless or nearly so on the bottom. I believe you 
gave a good explanation of the causes of being killed by 
lightning in one of the annual reports of the Fish Com- 
mission, I think about 1898. If I remember rightly you 
said then that in the cases where the fish were struck, 
the fish were near a stone or touching a stone at the 
moment the lightning struck the ground near the pond 
and then completed the circuit and it was for that reason 
that the fish that were swimming free in the pond were 
unharmed. Under those circumstances it was not strange 
that the greater number of the fish that Air. Creveling 
lost in that manner were brown trout, because that fish 
has a habit of resting on the bottom of the pond, but 
brook trout when in full vigor never rest on the bottom, 
but swim free. As I have noted, nearly all those which 
were killed by lightning during the fall were old fish, and 
when brook trout reach a certain age, that is to say have 
passed the prime of fife, they become sluggish and follow 
the example of the brown trout and rest quietly on the 

OCTOBER— 1963 


7 ^ tyewi the kittle 

LITTLE LEHIGH as it normally appears near the Fish Hatchery, is one of the 
finest trout streams in this section of the state. 


Allentown Call-Chronicle Outdoor Editor 

Call-Chronicle Photographs 

The Upper Little Lehigh, rated as one of the finest trout streams in the 
east, is ... at the moment of writing . . . BONE DRY! There is no 
water in many sections which formerly provided top brownie fishing . . . 
almost unbelievable, but true. 

This sad and shameful scene could be a forerunner of things to come 
unless the problem is tackled with some serious thinking. Trout fishing, 
while important to anglers, is only secondary in this matter. The fact 
that the City of Allentown relies upon the Little Lehigh for 50 per cent 
of its water supply is of prime consideration at this point. 

As far as nature is concerned it is extremely obvious the Lehigh Valley 
area is in the throes of a serious drought. While many sections of the 
country, including the normally dry prairie states, are having unusual 
heavy rainfall we are below normal. 

The prolonged drought for the Lehigh Valley means that less water 
fell to penetrate the ground, consequently lowering the natural water- 
table established by nature herself. It is quite obvious that little can 
be done to alter this unusual natural condition at this time. Streams in 
other sections of the effected area are low, but few with the reputation 
of the Little Lehigh have suffered as badly. 


BOYS HUNTING salamanders un 
der the rocks of the dry stream bee 
where a little moisture still existed 


Vent 'Dry . • 10 miles of it! 

DRY LITTLE LEHIGH, over a 10-mile stretch above Swoyer's Mill downstream to 
where the Swabia Creek enters just west of Laudenslager's Mill about a half 
mile north of the Brookside Country Club. District Fish Warden Norman Sickles 
declared only sound conservation practices could get water back into the stream. 

W DR 1 

DEAD FINGERLINGS in the vicinity of Swoyer's Mill 
in a stream bed that shows only slight traces of mois- 
ture. With all aquatic life destroyed it may take 
many years before the Little Lehigh can come back. 

BONE DRY, the Little Lehigh is shown at Swoyer's Mill 
bridge. Most of the landowners along the stream 
now realize they must establish a sound watershed 
management program to prevent further debacles such 
as this. 

OCTOBER— 1963 


Robert G. Miller 


JERRIE WIKTOR, club secretary, discusses results with one of the 
judges in the officials' stand, a floating patio. Serving in an official 
capacity were Milt Nash, of the AWSA, as chief judge; Jim Sylvester, 
president of the Eastern Region, ASWA; Carol Kline, club treasurer; 
and Charley Johnson, senior judge. 

This past summer the Reading Water Skiers Inc. spon- 
sored its first annual Mid-Eastern Water Ski championships 
on the Schuylkill River and it turned out to be quite a 
successful and interesting weekend. 

There were plenty of entries, perhaps more than antici- 
pated for the first year, and the water and weather con- 
ditions were ideal. No one minded an occasional ducking 
although it did cost them points in the competition. 

Since Sunday is a regular working day, I drove over 
there on Saturday and found the shoreline lined with 
spectators and contestants— none of whom apparently had 
any trouble finding the area. I strayed off the beaten 
path, wound up much farther upstream, and spent at least 
half an hour touring the county. 

This year’s initial event, and all future meets, took place 
at the Department of Forests and Waters launching ramp 
located about a mile north of the airport, off Rt. 183. All 
you had to do was make a right turn off Rt. 183, follow 
the flags and you were there. 

Staging an event of this kind meant a lot of planning 
and hard work. In fact, members of the sponsoring or- 
ganization actually began laying the ground work for 
the American Water Ski Assn, sanctioned meet in Sep- 
tember, 1962. Consequently it was quite encouraging 
when the entry list went over the 100 mark on the opening 

Members started several days in advance hauling in 
bleacher seats from a Reading area stadium for the spec- 
tators, laid out the course in cooperation with the Pennsyl- 
vania Fish Commission to conform with AWSA require- 
ments, set up necessary safety measures for the skiers, 

CHECKING THE LINE-UP on a large blackboard are, left to right: 
Roger Teeter, Milwaukee, Wise.; Mary L. Clark, Scranton; and John 
Lee, Brookfield, N. H. 

which included a pick-up boat and first aid facilities in 
the event of an accident; and provided a walkie-talkie 
network for instant communications from one end of 
the course to the other including the pilot of the tow boat. 

Individual contestants of all ages, and team representa- 
tives, came from all over the eastern part of the country 
representing Ohio, the New England states, Washington, 
D. C., Maryland, Delaware, Florida and Virginia as well 
as Pennsylvania. 

The youngest contestant, Diane Ackerman, who was 
eleven years old on July 21, came all the way from 
Springfield, Va., to take a first place in the junior girls’ 
trick skiing classification on the opening day. 

Fifty-seven year old Rill Fisher, Woodbridge, Va., was 
the oldest contestant. Reported to be a capable teacher 
of the art of water skiing, Bill served as one of the judges 
and also participated in the senior men’s trick competition. 

To conform with normal tournament competition, the 
meet was divided into three events: slalom, jumping and 
trick riding. There were five classes: men’s, women’s, 
junior boys’, junior girls’ (under 17) and senior men’s or 
veteran’s class (over 35 years of age). 

Some 60 trophies were provided by the club and the 
top winners went on to compete in the Eastern Regionals 
in Maryland. 

Entrants and spectators were provided with programs, 
showing the events slated for each day, which also con- 
tained some valuable “safety first on the water” hints for 
tow boat operators. They included: 


Have an observer to watch water skier. 



WALKIE TALKIE OPERATOR Charles Johnston serving as a senior 
judge, on the tow boat receives instructions from Joe Wiktor at the 
judges' stand. 

straightedges and graphs used to meas- 
ure distances during the jumping events. 

TERRY MESSNER, 229 N. 13th St., Reading, 
displays the women's overall trophy given 
to the top point scorer in that division. 

DON McWILLIAMS, 2211 Highland Ave., 
Mt. Penn, looking as though he just 
won it, displays the men's overall trophy. 
Don served as one of the show officials. 

Return quickly to protect fallen skier— he is helpless in 
the water against oncoming boat traffic and is your primary 

Drive according to the skier’s ability— avoid sharp turns. 

Use common sense when driving for waterskiing. 


Ride the gunnel or the back of the seat while driving 
for skiing, or allow your passengers to ride on the gunnel 
or back of the seat. 

Increase speed when bringing in a skier for a landing. 

Tow skiers in congested areas— particularly swimming 

Heading the Reading Water Skiers Inc. is Jim Mandolos, 
president, who a few weeks later joined the exclusive 
Century Club when he made jumps of 101 and 107 feet 
to take the first place trophy in the Upper Chesapeake 
Bay Invitational Water Ski tournament at Elkton, Md. 

Dave Miller, Reading, is vice president, Jerrie Wiktor, 
secretary, and Carol Kline, treasurer. 

Read Owner's Manual After Buying Motor 

An outboard motor is a quality piece of equipment, 
engineered so that, with reasonable care, it will give the 
owner a maximum of boating pleasure. Purchasers of new 
outboard motors should take the time to spend a few 
minutes going over the instructions in the owner’s manual 
which accompanies each new motor. 

This manual gives complete specifications on the motor, 
information on installation and operation of the engine, 
plus a list of check points in case minor operating difficulties 
are encountered. There is also information on the “Rules 
of the Road,’’ buoyage systems and accessory equipment 
which will add to the owner’s boating pleasure. 

Don't Use Boat as Storage Bin 

While your boat is laid up for winter, do not use it as 
a storage bin for heavy equipment. This can cause the 
bottom to become distorted, say the Evinrude engineers. 
They also suggest that trailer tie-downs be released while 
the boat is in storage. 


OCTOBER— 1963 


Edward R. Tharp 

EdWARD R. THARP, of Shamokin, Northumberland 
County, has been appointed by the Pennsylvania Fish 
Commission as assistant executive director in charge of the 
watercraft safety division. 

Tharp is retiring as a commander in the United States 
Coast Guard, will assume his new duties about October 14. 

This position was authorized by the Legislature in 1959. 
It was not filled by the Commission pending the outcome 
of new legislation which has been under consideration for 
the past six years. 

The announcement of Tharp’s appointment was made 
immediately following the signing of House Bill 889 by 
Governor Scranton. This bill also has been approved as 
conforming to the Federal Boating Act of 1958 by Rear 
Admiral O. C. Rohnke, Chief, Office of Merchant Marine 
Safety, U. S. Coast Guard. 

“We have selected a man we believe to be eminently 
qualified for this position,” said Albert M. Day, executive 
director of the Commission. “He is a native of Penn- 
sylvania and has twenty years of experience in matters 
pertaining to boating. Since the passage of the Federal 
Bonner Act, he has been Coast Guard-State Boat Liaison 
Officer and in this capacity has worked with all of the 
states in the preparation of their respective boating laws,” 
Day said. 

The boating director will work closely with the in- 
creasing number of Pennsylvania boaters on matters per- 


Boating Director Will Work 
Closely With Pennsylvania 
Boatmen in Safety, Education 
Enforcement and Improved 
Boating Facilities 

taining to safety, education, enforcement and improved 
boating facilities. 

Following the announcement of Tharp’s appointment, 
the Board of Directors of the Pennsylvania Pleasure Boat 
Association and the Pennsylvania Federation of Sports- 
men’s Clubs passed resolutions commending and congratu- 
lating the Fish Commission on the wise selection of Com- 
mander Tharp as Assistant Executive Director in charge of 
the Water Safety Division of the Commission. 

While with the Coast Guard, Tharp was responsible for 
writing the “Recreational Boating Guide,” a book intended 
to acquaint recreational boatmen with the requirements 
of the various Federal boating laws and to provide them 
with some basic guide lines for safe and enjoyable opera- 
tion. He was also responsible for the revision of numerous 
marine casualty and subpoena forms. He lectured on 
marine casualty and boating accident investigation proce- 
dures at Coast Guard Marine Safety Indoctrination School. 
He was responsible for the review of boating accidents 
and the preparation of statistical tabulations of boating 
accidents and safety engineering studies for promoting 
boating safety, publishing “Recreational Boating in United 
States” and lecturing to boating groups. 

During World War II, Tharp was assigned to the attack 
transport Samuel Chase and served in various capacities 
during this period. He served in both the Atlantic and 
Pacific theatres and participated in three invasions— 
Salerno, Southern France and Normandy. He was awarded 
the Bronze Star as a result of heroic action in the invasion 
of Normandy. 

Tharp graduated from Shamokin High School in 1937. 
He attended North Carolina State College and graduated 
from the U. S. Coast Guard Academy with a B.S. Degree 
in June, 1943. He is also a graduate of the Coast Guard 
Merchant Marine Indoctrination School and the U. S. 
Navy School of Justice. He is married and the father of 
two children. 



Lake Winola Water Carnival Highlights Boating Season 

WATER CARNIVAL COMMITTEE: (l-r) First row-Ken Lloyd, Jr. ( Clint 
Campbell, Tom Richards, Jack Haddow; Standing— (l-r)— Bill Rumbold, 
Jack Beck, Don Stevens, Bob McGuire and Harry Schmaltz, Association 
president. — Photos by C. Everitt LaBarr. 

Q. What causes an outboard motor to cavitate? 

A. Cavitation occurs when the propeller turns in a pocket of air. 
In this situation, the engine will often "rev" up far beyond its recom- 
mended rpm range. Cavitation can be caused by an obstruction on 
the bottom of the boat such as a loose screw, splinter, speedometer 
pickup tube or automatic bailing device not properly installed. Im- 
proper positioning of the motor is another cause. If you have cavita- 
tion problems, first check the bottom of the boat. If you can't find 
anything wrong, have a qualified marine dealer inspect the rig. 

Q. Although my outboard motor was installed by a marine 
dealer, it doesn’t appear to be mounted exactly straight. He 
says it is supposed to be that way. Do you agree? 

A. Yes. Your motor was designed with a slight degree of offset. 
This is to overcome the torque created by the turning propeller. With- 
out this offset, the boat would tend to pull to one side, making 
steering difficult. 

Q. What should be included in a tool kit carried aboard a 
16-foot runabout powered by a 75 horsepower outboard motor? 

A. I would suggest three basic tools; screw driver, pliers and spark 
plug wrench. You should also have extra drive pins, cotter pins, 
spark plugs and a spare propeller aboard at all times. Keep them in 
a place where they will stay dry. 

Q. I understand that most outboard motor manufacturers offer 
a selection of propellers with their large models. What’s the 
best way to choose the right propeller? 

A. The best way and really the only way is to have your dealer 
check the motor at full throttle with a tachometer. The propeller that 
allows the motor to turn the number of rpm recommended by the 
manufacturer is the one to use. It's often necessary to have more 
than one propeller if you are going to use the boat for different 
activities such as cruising and water skiing. 

“ Three sheets to the wind” . . . this picturesque expression 
to describe a state of intoxication is nautical. A full-rigged ship 
would have three foresails set. In changing tack (coming about), 
the sheets or lines would naturally be loosened. As the ship 
came up to the wind it would lurch . . . not unlike a drunken 

A total of 26 floats and 209 displays highlighted the 
Annual Lake Winola Water Carnival. The variety of floats 
were colorful and showed much planning and imagination; 
judges had difficulty selecting the winners. Co-chairmen 
of the event were Jack Haddow and A1 Peters ably assisted 
by Dr. Alan Davis, Bob Hoffman, Butch Lloyd, Ned 
Wicks, Susie Hess, Clint Campbell, Buddy Clarke, John 
Hegedty, Bill Woolbert and Allen Williams. Judges were 
from Lake Sheridan, Messrs.— Heim, Armstrong, Yaggim 
Getz, Chvillo and McVay. 

BEST IN PARADE— Old River Boat by William 

BEST SHORE DISPLAY-"Old Northern Electric" by Jerry Myers. 

BEST BEAUTY float to Janet Williams. 

OCTOBER— 1963 




TWISTIN' MINNIE spoon closely resembles a minnow in the wafer. It is mad 
in stainless steel, brass and copper finished, in sizes Vs, %6, %, % and 2-03 


After the third smallmouth bass struck and finally came to 
my outstretched net, I paused to re-examine, with raised 
eyebrows, the small sparkling spinning size spoon. This was 
no ordinary forged spoon lure! The variety of contortions it 
underwent as it swam back for a recast across the Huntington 
stream was nothing short of amazing. Depending upon the 
rod work, the little spoon darted, twisted, fluttered in a crazy 
zig-zag motion, or rolled top side like a minnow rushing from 
the clutches of a big smallmouth, or swam with the gentleness 
and beauty of a Hawaiian dancer. Further, it could be made 
to run shallow or with moderate reeling speed, to dredge the 
depths of a deep pool. The “twistin’ minnie” spoon, manufac- 
tured by one of Pennsylvania’s newer industries, was without 
doubt one of the nicest and most tantalizing lures to cross my 
angling trails in quite some time. 

Bill Steffey of the Steffey Brothers of Irwin, Pa., dropped 
one of these new spoons and asked that the “minnie” be given 
a fair trial for lunker size browns. The little % oz. spoon had 
an immaculate finish, and to my surprise had my name en- 
graved across the convexed side of the lure! I learned later 
that this is standard practice of the Steffey Brothers to engrave 
the name of the angler on a selection of spoons which are 
made in stainless steel, brass and copper in %, %o, \ % and 
2 oz. sizes. The angler’s name engraved on the lure not only 
adds an extremely personal touch, but may provide the means 
of having the lure returned if accidentally lost— as mine had 
been lost— on a stream near the angler’s home. 

Geared to the May fly hatches, the spoon rested on my desk 
for the best part of two weeks as I whirled the feathered 
hooks. Then bass season unfolded. I added the “twistin’ 
minnie” to the hardware box, and drove to my camp along 
the lower reaches of the Huntington Creek in north central 
Pennsylvania. This is a smallmouth stream, with an occa- 
sional trout mixed in to delight the angler. 

Donning boots and threading the spin stick, I walked at a 
lively pace toward the stream. There I paused momentarily 
in the shade and glanced across the broad water in time to 
see a splash against the slate ledges. A smallmouth had ap- 
parently chased a minnow and doubtlessly nailed it squarely 
between powerful short jaws. This was a clue to opening the 
hardware box and picking a lure that could resemble a min- 
now darting playfully in the stream. The little “twistin’ min- 
nie was the top spoon in the box. Because of its accessibility 
and partly because I was curious concerning the action of this 
personalized spoon, the “minnie” was tied to the monofilament. 

Second cast out struck pay dirt! The bass, though only of 
moderate size, had more spirit than most smallmouths twice 
:ts size. In less than a dozen casts, three smallmouths were 
hopping about in my fern fined creel. Little wonder that the 
’Tin’ minnie” caused my eyebrows to rise in amazement. 

' '"n. it happened. Several casts later the little spoon sailed 
s unknown on the far side of the stream. The closed 

face spin reel had jammed, and the momentum of the lure 
parted tire fight fine. My charmed spoon was gone. 

I switched to an old spinner and fly standby. This lure 
creeled another smallish bass, and I missed another that tossed 
the fly in a flying water leap at finger tip length from my 
boots. This number of bass was sufficient for a fish fry. I 
retraced steps back to the camp shelter, thinking intermittently 
of my little personalized spoon lost somewhere on the far 
side of the Huntington. Perhaps some angler scaling the rock 
studded shoreline would stumble upon the lure. Made of 
stainless steel, the spoon would shine brightly for many years, 
even when exposed to the elements. 

In case some Pennsylvania angler finds this lure, I would be 
grateful for the return of this “twistin’ minnie” spoon. It has 
the name “Don Shiner” plainly engraved on one side, Steffey 
Bros, on the other side. However, before returning the lure, 
I have no objections to that fisherman tying the spoon to his 
monofilament and whirling it several times into the pool. It 
casts like a bullet and will net scrappy smallmouths as well! 
Don’t let it change your mind about returning this tanalizing 

Like a Leech? 

UON’T be surprised if you find fishermen using lampreys, 
salamanders, bread crust, canned corn or peas, raw potato, 
turnips, popcorn, chicken innards or even leeches. And 
that last one— leeches— is really a deadly bait for many 
kinds of game fish. 

The only reason leeches are not used more often is that 
thev are too hard to obtain. 

Years ago barbers kept leeches to “bleed” customers 
with boils, carbuncles and other miseries. But today you 
can find them in better bait shops, preserved and packaged 
to appear completely alive to any hungry fish. The back- 
breaking chore of collecting them from creeks has been 
eliminated. So has the need for carrying a bait bucket. 
Now a fisherman can easily carry a day’s supply of leeches 
in his shirt pocket. 

Just how do you fish a leech? Allow it to drift 
naturally downstream into the pools, pockets and eddies 
as you would any other bait. In lakes, keep it moving 
slowly along the bottom. The results might stop you for- 
ever from laughing at the guy who tries unusual baits. 



Big Turnout for Annual Fishing Contest 

More than 6000 persons viewed the Lehigh County 
Fish & Game’s 30th Annual Fishing Contest. Frank 
Voyden, Allentown took first prize with a 22-inch rainbow 
and 9-year-old Ruth Ann Ritter took the ladies’ crown 
with a 19/2-inch rainbow. 

West Chester Club Holds Rodeo 

The 13th Annual Fishing Rodeo of the West Chester 
Fish & Game Association, Inc., was held recently at Russell 
Jones’ pond. More than 150 youngsters ranging from two 
to under 16 years of age turned out for the event. 

In the bass class Steve Till, West Chester, won first 
prize for boys and Barbara Green, also West Chester, was 
winner in the girl’s division. First prize winner in the 
bluegill class for boys was Thomas Dowlin and Dawn 
McMonagle, both of West Chester, took top honors for 
the girls. A complete fishing outfit was awarded to each 
winner of the bass division and cameras went to the 
winners in the bluegill class. 

Charlie Andress was the Chairman of the Rodeo com- 

The club’s picnic, scheduled for September 8, was to be 
followed by the club’s Small Game Meeting on October 22. 

Stream Improvement Project By 
Lehigh Club 

The Lehigh County Fish & Game Protective Associa- 
tion’s Operation Stream Improvement project moved ahead 
this past summer under the leadership of Don Jacobs and 
Joe Samusevitch with District Fish Warden Norman 
Sickles assisting. The work was done on the Little Lehigh 
River between the Fish Hatchery and the Flat Bridge 
where a series of new log and stone dams and deflectors 
were installed. These improvements should improve next 
season’s fishing. Help came, aside from members, from 
the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts and the Macungie Conserva- 
tion Patrol. 


"BETTER FISHING " project 

"What can we do to improve fishing in our 
local area?" This question is frequently asked of 
the Pennsylvania Fish Commission and now we ask 
for your help. Perhaps your sportsmen’s club, civic 
group, Boy Scout, Explorer Troop has completed a 
stream improvement project, a trout rearing program 
or other activities designed to improve fishing in 
your area. We would like to have the know-how, 
the step-by-step details, snapshots or photographs 
of how the project was planned and completed. Your 
ideas may inspire other conservation-minded groups 
in Pennsylvania to the benefit of all of us. The 
Pennsylvania Angler will gladly serve as the 
clearing house of all “BETTER FISHING” project 
ideas. Send them to the Editor, Pennsylvania Fish 
Commission, South Office Building, Harrisburg, Pa. 


No . . . there was no murder in Tunkhannock despite 
the excitement generated in Towanda recently when a 
bus driver and his passengers saw what they thought 
was a body lying on the grass, the police there and every- 
body snapping pictures. Twern’t so! 

When the bus passed, Frank Horrocks, Tunkhannock 
was just passing up the main street (a skunked fisherman 
always takes the alleys) proudly displaying a 35-inch lake 
trout, weighing 15-17 pounds he caught at Crystal Lake, 
Wayne County. 

The Daily Review editor, scenting a real story with the 
cops and everything, got hold of the law. The police 
informed him it was only a fish, the squad car stopping 
to see it with the four-way blinker on. The editor sadly 
went on to bigger things. 

TROUT NURSERY WATERS— This nursery will be the home for about 25,000 small brown trout being 
raised by the Yellow Breeches Anglers and Conservation Association at hatchery waters near Boiling 
Springs, Pa. Members will hold the trout until they reach legal size for placing in open fishing waters. 
The Pennsylvcnia Fish Commission is cooperating in the project with Commission member John Grenoble 
offering valuable assistance.— CARLISLE SENTINEL photo. 




The Philadelphia Council of Scouts received an award from 
the U. S. Dept, of Agriculture on the 18th July. Reward was 
presented by the Under Secretary of Agriculture, Murphy, to 
the Scouts for their achievements in the field of Conservation. 
They own Treasure Island and Marshall Island in the middle 
of the Delaware River, near Lumberville, Bucks County. On 
these islands they have planted many acres of food plots with 
corn for game, they leave stand for that purpose. They have 
planted fence rows, made border cuttings, etc. They have also 
done remarkable work in the line of soil conservation of the 
banks of the island by cribbing bank gullies with timber taken 
from the island trees, then filled the cribbing with stones taken 
from the Pa. side of the island where the river has not caused 
an erosion problem. Plus the trees they have planted, etc. 
Scout leaders have the scouts play a game to accomplish the 
tremendous work projects they have accomplished. Troops sta- 
tioned there for a week’s camping will compete against other 
troops for the high score in a game that takes this form. The 
troops take a turn at gathering stones from the river bed. They 
are then issued points for a time trial on loading a trailer with 
these stones they must toss in from the creek bed to the wait- 
ing trailer. Best time for loading the trailer gets a watermellon 
for the troop at the end of the week. Leaders say the kids 
really work to get a low time and put all into the project. 
After the stones are loaded the leaders have a tractor take the 
stones to the Jersey shore of the island and dump them. Then 
they put a tomato can over a pole in the cribbing and the 
scouts try their skill at hitting the tomato can for more points; 
the stones get moved and the kids have a good time doing it. 
Last year these scouts moved 17 tons of stones from the river 
bed in this manner, threw that same amount of stones at a 
tin can or so and filled the gullies on the Jersey side where 
the erosion problem is the greatest. There were many con- 
servation people present at this award winning event, 50 years 
of scouting on Treasure Island. 

—District Warden MILES D. WILT (Bucks and Northampton) 

While on a routine patrol recently, I came upon a dead hen 
pheasant in the middle of a road. Three young chicks were 
huddled around the lifeless body of their mother and they ap- 
peared bewildered, walking around in circles. I stopped, 
walked toward them and they flushed a short distance; began 
calling. I removed the dead hen to the field to keep the young 
chicks off the road. I figured they would abandon the hen 
after all body heat was gone. This is only one instance in the 
fight for survival in nature and an example of trust and de- 
pendence wild young have for their mothers. 

—District Warden RAY BEDNARCHIK ( Chester-Delaware ) 

Last blustery spring, the Brockway Sports Club in the north- 
ern half of Jefferson County were ready and willing to assist 
getting the trout stocked in streams of the area. They have 
recently joined the Fish Commission as a Trout Cooperator. At 
their summer clubhouse they have constructed one 60 x 4 x 3 
foot raceway, with plans to expand this with another of the 
same size adjacent to the one already constructed. They are 
now raising 5,000 brook trout and will increase this number 
with the completion of the second raceway next spring. Jack 
Townes and Bill Petty were the masterminds behind the 
projects. The club is under the capable leadership of Bill 
Sabatose, ardent fly fisherman and outstanding sportsman. 

-District Warden BERNARD D. AMBROSE (Elk) 

holding microphone, explained the fish propagation program at the 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission's Union City Hatchery to more than 
100 persons who took the Erie County farm tour recently.— Erie 
Daily Times photo. 

At Koon and Gordon lakes the Fish Commission places litter 
baskets. Often I have noticed baskets upset and the litter 
scattered but the way it was scattered told me it could not be 
by people. A coon could upset the baskets but on the night of 
August 11, Mr. and Mrs. James Lowry, while at Koon Lake, 
noticed a large black bear digging litter from the top of a 
basket, finally upsetting the basket and scattering litter all over 
the spot. 

—District Warden WILLIAM E. MclLNAY (Bedford) 

Larry Morrelli, New Castle, Pa., reports that while fishing 
the public dock at Conneaut Lake Park he got a bite, set the 
hook and had a battle. The fish turned out to be an eel be- 
tween three and four feet long. He brought it in on one side 
of the dock and when he unhooked it, the eel took off on the 
other side of the dock into the water. Two or three fishermen 
observed this and said they didn’t know there were eels in 
the lake. This is the first time I have ever heard of an eel in 
Conneaut Lake and I wonder how it got there and if it has any 
relatives living there. 

— District Warden RAYMOND HOOVER (Crawford) 

While on a patrol of Lake Jean on the Sullivan-Potter county 
lines, Deputy Game Protector Roberts and I observed a boat 
depart from the shore only to make a wide circle and return. 
Occupants appeared to include a “Mom ’n Dad and two sons 
combination.” The boat landed, Mom disembarked holding a 
casting rod arched not unlike a hunter’s bow . . . she was hold- 
ing the grip near the reel wfule the tip was bent around out 
of sight. As she neared us she volunteered this explanation 
. . . “He was supposed to be after fish . . . but he got me!” As 
she walked away quite embarrassed, we saw she had been 
caught squarely in the seat of her slacks with a large bass plug! 
A little piece up the road she turned and quipped . . . “What 
a scene for Candid Camera!” 

—District Warden JAMES F. YODER (Luzerne) 




Blair Strayer, a former employe at the Reynoldsdale 
hatchery died at the Windber Hospital on August 5, 1963. 
He was born at Queen, Bedford County on November 9, 
1910 and is survived by his widow, the former Pauline 
Horne whom he married Feb. 4, 1936 and one son Paul, 
who is a teacher in the Bedford County school system. 
He was employed by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission 
on July 3, 1928, worked on construction of the Reynolds- 
dale hatchery as an equipment operator until completion 
of that project, then served many years as driver, messen- 
ger in stocking fish from the various hatcheries throughout 
the state. His classification was Fish Culturist I. He was a 
member of the New Paris Methodist Church, F. & A.M. 
Bedford Lodge #32, Altoona Consistory and the T.P.A. 
of America, Johnstown, Pa. 

Dear Editor: 

It is seldom that I write letters to publications, but under 
the circumstances I think this one is necessary. 

Some time ago I wrote to the Warden Supervisor of the 
Northwest Region, Mr. S. Carlyle Sheldon, asking if he could 
possibly give me some information concerning float trip fishing 
on the Allegheny River. Although I have never met this gentle- 
man to this day he promptly responded with considerable in- 
formation, together with the name of Herb Bush in Tidioute, 
Pennsylvania, and suggested I contact Mr. Bush concerning 
the actual arrangements. This I did and over the past two 
years have become very friendly with Mr. Bush and have fished 
the Allegheny several times and intend to continue to do so. 

I would like to commend, publicly, your Mr. Sheldon for 
his courtesy and helpfulness. 


Ronald H. McConnell, Attorney 

Cleveland, Ohio 

It was a pleasure to receive such a nice letter, Mr. McConnell. 

Walter J. Burkhart 
Fish Warden 
P. O. Box 2 
West Point 
Dear Mr. Burkhart: 

In case you do not remember me, I am the old man who wrote 
to you during May for some information on Montgomery County, 
Pennsylvania and the fishing there. 

The literature you sent me proved instructive and quite 

The vacation I spent at Spring Mountain House near 
Schwenksville, was most pleasant and I had a fine time. I want 
you to know that your kindness and the help you gave me 
played a large part, and was one of the main reasons why I had 
such a pleasant and enjoyable time. 

I expect to return again before too long. 

With best wishes to you and many thanks. 

Sincerely yours, 

Neil R. Hazard 
Branchville, Maryland 

O O O 

Knowledge doesn’t keep any better than fish. 

O O O 

The most indispensable item in any fishermans equipment 
is his hat. This ancient relic preserves not only the memory 
of every trout he ever caught, but also the smell. 

o o o 

The word “wilderness” comes from the Old Engflish “Wilde- 
orem—like wild beast.” Foresters generally define “areas which 
are untouched by the works of man, are inaccessible except by 
trail, are roadless and have no man-made facilities.” An 
apocryphal tale concerns a little old lady who alighted from 
a bus and asked the forest guide, “Where is the wilderness?” 
“Lady,” he replied, pointing toward a dense stand of trees , 
“ out past the last pop bottle!” 

25/000 Musky Fry in Bags Flown in for 
Perkiomen Creek Stocking 

PACKAGED MUSKELLUNGE that arrived by plane are held by (l-r) 
George Cunningham of the Boulder Valley Club, District Fish Warden 
Walter Burkhart and Robert Leister, Special Fish Warden. The fish 
were released in the Perkiomen Creek, from Green lane to the Schuyl- 
kill River.— Town & Country photo. 

The largest consignment of fish ever shipped here by 
air, sealed in plastic bags, arrived recently for distribution 
in the Perkiomen Creek from Green Lane to the Schuylkill 
River. District Fish Warden Walter Burkhart, West Point, 
picked up 25,000 musky fry, averaging one inch in length, 
at Reading Afi-port where they arrived by air from the 
Pennsylvania Fish Commission’s hatchery at Union City. 
Total trip time for the fish was four hours. 

Approximately 1,000 of the tiny fish were packed in 
each of the plastic bags, which were then filled with 
water and sealed for shipment with a tiny opening left 
for pumping in oxygen. It is estimated that fish so pack- 
aged can live for 12 hours. If the fry survive they may 
grow to 10 inches by fall. Assisting Warden Burkhart iir 
placing the fish in the Perkiomen were Robert Leister of 
Red Hill, deputy fish warden, and George Cunningham, 
Pennsburg, Pa., chairman of the fish committee of Boulder 
Valley Sportsmen’s Association, Sumneytown. 

o o o 

Everything meets at the shore. Animals come down to 
drink and bathe, and some get their meals from the shore 
and shallows. The human animal goes one step further 
and may grab the whole shore to recreate himself. 

Waterfowl nest along the shore and feed in the shallows. 
Shore birds pick up the invertebrates that live there and 
fish come in to spawn and shallows are the nursery grounds. 
Frogs and turtles have one foot in the water and one foot 

Now who should have the shore, man seeking recreation 
or the fish and wildlife he seeks as part of his recreational 
package? Obviously, it cannot be all one or the other 
and there is a middle ground. We feel that 25 per cent 
of the shore ought to be dedicated to wild things. 

OCTOBER— 1963 


Harrisburg, Pa. 

400 POUNDS OF CARP, 47 in number, gigged by 
Paul and Harry Chubb, Jr. in the Susquehanna 
River near Millersburg, Pa., recently, on one eve- 
ning. The following evening the pair gigged 48 
carp weighing almost 500 pounds. The fish were 
put to good use. Photo by F. Park Campbell, Edi- 
tor, Millersburg Sentinel. 


POINT BREEZE, PA.— A Point Breeze, Verona, man 
isn’t likely to forget the fishing trip from which he returned 
recently— in a long, long while. 

William F. Schultheis, 512 Fifth St., Verona, who was 
enjoying fishing at Tamagini, Canada, along with his three 
grandsons recently, got something stuck in his throat which 
doctors there thought to be a fish bone and which turned 
out to be a three-pronged (treble) fish hook. 

It happened this way, when the boys upset the tackle 
box in the boat, he gathered it all up and threw it back 
pell-mell into the box. When they returned to the cabin 
he dumped the box on the table in order to straighten 
out the ta